Because of improvements in living standards and the expansion of psychological needs, increasing numbers of consumers are no longer satisfied with mere material consumption or passive forms of entertainment. Instead, they want to participate in production, which leads to a more spiritual experience. Our project focuses on productive consumption through hobbies such as DIY, crafting, or fishing, during which a person uses any number of mass-produced products as raw materials or tools for the creation of a new self-consumed product. Using happiness theory, which originated from positive psychology (eudaimonia vs. hedonic enjoyment), and multiple other methods such as experiments, surveys and neomarketing, we seek to explain why consumers feel happy during such consumption despite the hard work it requires. We are also interested in how consumers’ perceived happiness during productive consumption can be exaggerated by improving product or service design, and how this perceived happiness influences their buying behavior. Our findings are expected to help companies better understand customers’ experiences during productive consumption, so that they can effectively develop and manage their experiential products.
The type of a scale could significantly influence its result in psychological measurement. Empirical studies have demonstrated that a word scale and a numerical scale may produce different ratings even for the same item or stimulus object. Some possible mechanisms (e.g. shifting standards effect, cognitive strategies) have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. However, there is still a lack of study focused on the difference between these two scales, and the underlying psychological mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Future studies can focus on the difference between word and numerical scales, explore the mechanisms, illustrate cross-cultural differences, and improve practical applications. Some methodological issues in scale development are also discussed at the end of this article.
Microexpression is closely related to deception. The application of microexpression is an important topic in the field of deception detection. In the current review, the authors elucidate the concepts of deception and deception detection. Meanwhile, the principles of application of microexpression acted as a cue to deception are discussed; and some questions that need to be answered in the future are identified. Microexpression has several advantages over other kinds of cues to deception (e.g., physiological cues, cognitive cues). Research has shown that using microexpression in deception detection is feasible and effective. Microexpression has already been employed in the field of national security and clinical practice. However, there are still some debates on the application of microexpression. For example, is microexpression bound to happen while lying? Can training of microexpression recognition enhance the ability of deception detection? There is also no consensus on the external validity of the laboratory research of microexpression and the effects of individual differences on the application of microexpression. The questions aforementioned should be investigated in the future and the authors suggest some possible solutions to these arguments.
Eye region plays a crucial part in the processing of facial expression recognition by conveying the emotional state and orientation information of the individual. Different gaze patterns between normal and abnormal individuals could testify to the unique advantage that eye region has in facial expression processing. In specific, subtle changes in the eye area, such as the eyebrows, pupil and sclera, have an impact on the recognition of expressions and would activate the brain areas such as amygdala, superior temporal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, cingulate gyrus and prefrontal cortex. Future studies should further explore the role of pure eye characteristics in facial expression processing and its significance. Also, more research needs to be done to reveal how such feature and social environment influence the general pattern of eye contact in social communication. In addition, the neural mechanisms behind abnormal people’s facial feature processing need to be studied and measures need to be developed to help improving their face processing ability.
Face configuration refers to spatial relations between facial features. Previous studies have shown that the ability of face recognition in older adults is influenced by their performance in face configural processing. This paper reviews the advances in studies of age-related changes in configural face processing over the past decade. We found that researchers were mainly interested in performance at different configural processing stages and processing characteristics of different types of configural information in older adults. The consistent findings indicated that in spite of a decrease in perceptual sensitivity to configural information of faces, and that the ability to process horizontal configural information is weakened, older adults have maintained an intact ability to store and retrieve these information. However, there are still some controversies about how older adults process configural information of faces at the coding stage and whether they hold intact ability to process first-order, second-order, and vertical configural information. Future studies should find out the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying configural processing of faces in old adults. Furthermore, it is also necessary to explore how configural processing of faces affecting older adults’ recognition of emotional and social information conveyed by faces and to develop interventions to improve their performance of configural processing in daily life.
Voice attractiveness plays an important role in interpersonal communication. Factors affecting voice attractiveness can be divided into two aspects: related to the speaker or the listener, respectively. Factors related to the speaker include the speaker’s hormone level (e.g., androgen and estrogen), manner of articulation, motivational state, and facial attractiveness. Factors derived from the listener include the listener’s physiological hormone level, physical health and physical characteristics, as well as the relationship of the listener to the speaker, and the content of the audio material. Future research could explore the effects of verbal emotional prosody and the listener’s motivational state on the voice attractiveness rating, and whether speakers can self-regulate their vocal physical characteristics to improve their vocal attractiveness.
By means of self-monitoring and experience sampling methods, ecological momentary assessment can obtain the real-time data from the daily-life of subjects efficiently and accurately, including factors of substance use, craving and context, as well as emotions. Combined with modern mobile technology, it can assess the subjects’ behavior of substance use in real-time comprehensively, which has unparalleled advantages over traditional standardized assessment, hence it becomes increasingly popular in the addiction field. Therefore, many researchers began to apply ecological momentary assessment to clinical intervention to provide real-time and more targeted instruction and training for patients.
Common factors theory and specific ingredients theory are two contradictory theories on the contributing factors of therapeutic change in psychotherapy. This article reviews the definition of common factors theory and its two developmental pathways; explores the concepts and research advances of the specific ingredients theory through examples of empirically supported treatment; and discusses respectively the issues and debates within each of the theories. We concluded that the concepts of "common factors" and "specific ingredients" represent a temporary categorization of the contributing facts of therapeutic change, mainly through the eyes of researchers. These two concepts are largely interdependent and interchangeable; however, even a combination of them may still not be able to accommodate all factors of therapeutic change. In the future, there is a need to further understand the process and mechanism of therapeutic change; to equip our next-generation clinical psychologists with skills for both "common factors" and "specific ingredients"; and to gradually integrate these two camps into one through the promotion of evidence-based psychotherapies.
Prevention and development oriented premarital counseling is a new field that is rapidly developing in the field of marital and family therapy. Premarital programs are widely used and have an empirical basis to their development. There are two broad approaches: skill training and cognitive evaluation. On the basis of analyzing the theories, current research and problems of two kinds of premarital programs, this article provides recommendations for future directions for research in the premarital education field: effectiveness, diversity and a systematic program of planned research.
Two breakthroughs have been achieved in research of wellbeing: in the vertical aspect, subjective well-being (SWB) has been developed deeper into psychological well-being (PWB) and then spiritual well-being (SpWB); in the horizontal aspect, SpWB derived from Christianity religion has been expanded into that derived from a detached well-being on the basis of self-awareness and comprehension. It shows that scholars has obtained a more overall understanding of wellbeing with the view of the relationship between Chinese & Western culture and SpWB. Measuring tools of SpWB are developed by western scholars, such as Spiritual Well-being Questionnaire developed by Ellison and Fisher. Meanwhile, the relationship between SpWB and its relevant variables (gender, age, personality and other factors) has been studied, the function and intervention measures of SpWB have been discussed in recent years. However, Chinese researchers hold the point that SpWB is not necessarily derived from religious beliefs, it can be achieved by continuous improvement in personal morality. Therefore, the focuses of future studies should be on comparing Chinese and Western SpWB, broading the study contents and methods of SpWB, and strengthening the research on Chinization of SpWB.
Positive psychology has tended to be defined in terms of a concern with positive mental states and qualities. However, excessive focus on positive psychology has contributed to “tyranny of the positive” and imbalance of psychology. Some researchers have begun to criticize and rebel against this phenomenon foundation about “the paradoxical effects of positive” and “the positive psychology of negative thinking”. The conflict between those two different orientations reflects the current predicament of positive psychology, but also provides the foundation for the conversion of horizon as it is constructive. First, a new taxonomy is needed for transforming the perspective of positive psychology. Second, dialectical thinking and contextual variable are also needed to be drawn into the study of positive psychology. Based on these innovations, the future development of positive psychology tends to be balanced, contextual, dialectical and cultural, which tries to understand the complexity of psychological and the wholeness of life.
Herding effect can be broadly defined as the alignment of thoughts or behaviours of individuals in a group (herd) through local interactions rather than centralized coordination. Herding effect in online shopping context can be divided into eight patterns, and it can also take two forms: from word of mouth effect to the following effect. The herding effect could be influenced by the electricity suppliers’ factors, consumer factors, product factors and marketing factors. Its mechanism includes psychological mechanism and neural mechanism. Finally, the paper pointed out the future research direction.
Citizenship pressure refers to a specific job demand in which an employee feels pressured to perform organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Citizenship pressure not only enriches the related studies of job demand, but also provides a new path for improving employees’ organizational citizenship behavior and work engagement. The previous study achievements involve citizenship pressure mainly focused on its definition, theoretical basis, structure and measurement, antecedents, and consequences. Based on this, we discussed several future research directions including clearly defining the concept of citizenship pressure, fully describing the inner structure based on its sources and types, enriching its forming and influencing mechanisms, and focusing on localization research.
Workplace incivility not only has adverse impact on employees, it may also lead to an escalation where one act of incivility can provoke more serious responses from the targets. Such situations could result in extreme forms of negative interpersonal interactions and the development of an organizational climate of general workplace disrespect. On the contrary, civility can enhance the harmony of interpersonal relationship and has positive impacts on employees. Based the findings of the escalating effect of workplace incivility from current literature, this paper describes multiple paths and causes of the workplace incivility escalation from the perspectives of targets and observers of incivility. Moreover, employing cognitive appraisal theory of emotion, we develop a model on how incivility becomes to escalate through appraisal and emotion, as well as the factors involving in this process. Furthermore, to promote the transformation of workplace incivility into civility, we review the previous studies of the CREW interventions of workplace civility and further analyze the positive influence of civility both on individual and organizational effectiveness and wellbeing.
By affective reactions and inferential processes, emotions have a pivotal effect on individual behaviors in interpersonal conflicts. Theinterpersonal effects of emotions are moderated by conflict schemas in two aspects. Firstly, conflict schemas affect inferential processes of emotions by adjusting the attention resources. Secondly, by moderating individual’s cognitive motivation and perceptions of contextual interdependence, conflict schemas play a role inthe relative predictive power of inferential processes and affective reactions. Further we need to explore various potential emotional effects and strengthen the investigations rooted in Chinese background.
Although the majority of previous research has focused on the negative impacts of envy, there is still limited research attention devoted to the potential positive influences of envy. After clarifying the definition of envy, this article summarizes potential antecedents of malicious and benign envy related to individual, leader, team and organizational variables, and the role of deservingness and perceived control as moderators involved in the relationship between those antecedents and malicious and benign envy. Furthermore, it proposes different mechanisms between these two types of envy and performance as well as destructive behaviors. Future research should develop measures of malicious and benign envy, and also examine the relationships between envy and pro-social behavior, feeling envied, the impact of core self-evaluations, cultural specific variables such as Mianzi and Zhongyong, and social network on the way in which envy is experienced and in the process how envy influences outcomes.
Risk perception of terror attacks refers to assessments of the likelihood, potential impacts, and subjective feelings of terror attacks. Unlike the study of other risks, the hazard of terrorism by its very nature is manmade, making it difficult to determine when, where, and what type of attack may occur. The purpose of the present paper is to review three main frameworks which have been proposed to study risk perception of terror attacks, namely, the psychometric paradigm, cultural theory, and the social amplification of risk. Then, key factors influencing humans’ risk perception of terror attacks were reviewed, including media, individual differences, and emotions. Based on this research, the paper concludes that further studies should try to develop standard tools to measure the risk perception of terror attacks, and investigate the mechanisms behind the risk perception of terror attacks. Just as crucial, research specific to the context of China is necessary.
The layperson’s perspective in social change research focuses on laypersons’ perception and understanding of society’s past, present, and future, the relationship among them, as well as their impact on individual’s practical actions. Related theories include historical representation theory and social change perception theory. Historical representation refers to a stock of ideas and beliefs about history among the members of a group that have the characteristics of sharing, diversity, and dynamics. Historical representation is influenced by conflict and identity positioning, while its mechanisms include anchoring and objectification, it can also affect an individual’s practical actions and attitudes. Social change perception refers to laypersons’ folk perception of societal development. This kind of perception can be affected by beliefs, social events, and economic factors and can affect an individual’s practical actions and attitudes. Future studies on layperson’s perspective of social change could pay more attention to the effects of collective memory on historical representation and the influence of cultural factors on social change perception. Furthermore, research needs to examine the social reality of China, to study the historical representation and future representation of Chinese people, to measure laypersons’ social change perception from diverse perspectives, and perhaps also to construct a general theory of the layperson’s perspective.