In the face of serious environmental problems and strict environmental regulations, more and more enterprises begin to implement green innovation strategy. But the market shares of green innovative products have not increased significantly over the past decade. Hence, it becomes the responsibility to explore the psychological barriers to buy green innovative products. Inaction inertia means that consumers have positive attitude but have no action. Why does this happen? According to the construal level theory, we hold that, relative to the future long-term purchase, consumers tended to be more conservative and pay more attention to realistic value in the near future, which lead to higher perceived risk of green innovative product and delay purchase. Based on the above concept, this project intended to start from the perspective of temporal reference, revealed the forms, process and mechanism of inaction inertia, so as to provided new strategies for market intervention.
Pedagogical agents are lifelike characters presented on a computer screen that facilitate learners’ performances.Pedagogical agents in the multimedia learning are important in computer-assisted learning and instructional design. First, we reviewed the definition of pedagogical agent, and introduced theories related with pedagogical agent. It was found that the effects of pedagogical agent on multimedia learning were debatable. Second, based on the empirical studies, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine the positive and negative effects of pedagogical agent on learning. Results of meta-analysis revealed that pedagogical agent could effectively improve scores on the retention tests (g = 0.19), transfer tests (g = 0.39) and other tests (g = 0.31). However, it did not facilitate learners’ motivations and interests. These results were consistent with the Social Agency Theory. However, the Social Presence Theory still needs to be further tested. Third, moderator analyses indicated that different variables were moderated by different factors, such as voice, gesture, disciplines and self-paced or computer paced learning. Pedagogical agents with computer-edited voices facilitated learners’ interests (g = 0.81) than those without voice. Pedagogical agents were more beneficial to K-12 students (g = 0.51) than adults. Pedagogical agents improved participants’ scores on transfer tests when the materials focused on science and technology (g = 0.46) rather than the humanities. Moreover, compared with no gestures, pedagogical agents with gestures could improve participants’ scores on transfer tests (g = 0.67). Future research should explore the effect of pedagogical agents extensively on learners’ attention, and the mechanisms underlie the beneficial effect of pedagogical agents, as well as pedagogical agent’s gestures on learning.
Eye movement is one of the most fundamental skills for human being to explore the world around us. Microsaccades refer to the involuntarily fast and large eye movements during visual fixation of a stimulus. Over the past 15 years, microsaccades have gradually become one of the hottest fields of vision research. Investigation of microsaccades has relied heavily on successful detection and measurement of the microsaccades. Although during the past half century, microsaccades have received much attention in the fields of psychology, how to detect and measure it robustly and accurately is still an open question. The current paper reviewed the literatures on the algorithm of the microsaccades-detection procedures, and pointed out that the future studies could combine the objective threshold procedure with the multiple- indexes analysis to further optimize and improve the detection procedure of microsaccades.
The bilinguals typically make more errors and spend more time when switching between different languages, which is termed “code-switching costs”. The code-switching costs provide a useful insight into how bilinguals control languages and have attracted wide research attentions in recent years, particularly in the field of speech production, for the process of speech production fully reveals the bilinguals’ proactive control of languages. A primary paradigm with the task of a single word production without context has been used to explored where (i.e., locus) and how (i.e., mechanisms) code-switching costs occur. Recently, some novel paradigms were implemented to investigate the influence of sentence context on code-switching. The different patterns of code-switching costs which were obtained under the different experimental settings were interpreted in terms of code-switching cues, perception and expectation processes. Based on the literature and discussion, the characteristic of code-switching in bilinguals’ speech production in everyday life was assumed, and the prospects for the future studies are considered.
It is very important to withhold inappropriate behavior in emotional situations. Recently, both behavioral and imaging techniques have been applied to explore the mechanism of how emotions exert influence on conflict processing. Based on these findings, emotional stimuli may facilitate or hinder conflict processing and conflict adaption compared to neutral stimuli. Moreover, it is revealed that research paradigm, task relevance, individual differences as well as task demanding mediated how emotion affect conflict processing course. Future studies should focus on how approach-avoidance motivation influence conflict processing, pay attention to how differential emotion affect conflict processing, and explore the effect of conflict processing experience on emotional processing.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as a neural-developmental disorder, has been suggested to be associated with empathic deficits, and several studies have even proposed that lack of empathy was a hallmark in individuals with ASD. Nevertheless, behavioral studies are only slightly more likely to observe empathic deficits to identify basic and complex emotions in individuals with ASD, comparing with normal individuals. Increasing agreement has been made on the specific difficulties for the individuals with ASD to integrate information, for instance when vocal, facial, bodily and situational cues are presented simultaneously. Moreover, previous findings showed more severe impairments in implicit than explicit processing of empathic responses in individuals with ASD. Numerous theories, e.g., Mind-Blindness Hypothesis, Extreme-Male-Brain Theory, Empathy Imbalance Hypothesis, and The self to other model of empathy, as well as neuromechanisms include Broken-Mirror Theory and Social Brain Theory, have been proposed to explain the cognitive mechanisms underlying impairments of empathy in individuals with ASD. Although these theories delineate cognitive neural model of empathy that could be used to explain deficits in individuals of ASD, future studies should adopt more rigorous experiment paradigms to verify the validity of these theoretical models.
Auditory processing is of great significance for individuals to interact with external environment, especially during the development of emotional and social cognition. As we know, individuals are able to hear before birth and neonates can discriminate changes in pitch and latency of sounds in the first days of their life. In this review, we discussed issues on the development of auditory processing of emotional sounds and social voices, as well as the influence of early social experience on this development. First, we introduced three components (perception, discrimination and recognition) involved in the development of emotional cognition. Related studies have shown that infants prefer positive auditory materials in the first half of the year and then they display negativity bias as adults after half-year old. Also, infants show stronger reaction to human voices and native languages compared to non-voice sounds and foreign languages, which might help them to prepare for language learning. Besides, mothers’ voices and the infant-directed speech are more attractive for infants, compared with strangers’ voices and the adult-directed speech. Second, we pointed out that three aspects of social cognition (facial recognition, bidirectional action-effect association, and abnormal development caused by auditory dysfunction) may be significantly influenced by the auditory processing in infants. Third, the theory of emotional and social development was discussed according to experience-expectant and experience-dependent mechanisms. Finally, we suggested that longitudinal designs and multi-modeling imaging studies are urgently needed to clarify the unsolved problems.
Terror management theory (TMT) highlights the impact of death thought on the cognition and behavior of individuals. However, the role of emotion in TMT is controversial. The previous affect-free claim which suggests that mortality salience provokes defense without triggering any real emotion experience has been challenged. Recent studies show that anxiety, fear and disgust can be potential reactions aroused by mortality salience. The timing and paradigm of emotion measurement, as well as the selection of the control group are crucial in emotion detection. This study proposes that emotion plays a vital role in mortality salience effect and should be included in the cognition model of TMT. Further improvement on the cognition model and directions for further research are also discussed.
The limited resources model (i.e., the Strength Model of Self-control) has been under challenge in recent years. The considerable debate involved the unclear mechanisms of blood glucose, unsatisfying replication results, and the inadequate model lacking psychological factors such as personal willingness and beliefs. Among all other competing models, the reward based model rooted from behavior economics literature offered relatively more plausible explanation in accounting for the results found in behavioral research and the evidence from neuroscience. Based on this model, we suggest that future studies on self-control may further explore the neural mechanisms as well as the nature and nurture factors of trait self-control.
Agency is the pursuit of individuality through power and control; communion is the participation in a large organism through care and contact. Agency and communion are regarded as a personality taxonomy which can be properly used to classify phenomena within domains of traits, motivations, and values. However, theoretical reasoning and empirical findings show some disagreement about the relationship between agency and communion. Specifically, for traits, an orthogonality of agency and communion is supported; for motivations, a divergence exists between a mutually exclusive relation and a partially exclusive relation; for values, a divergence exists between an orthogonal relation and a mutually exclusive relation. Possible reasons for the disagreement are as follows: diverse definitions of agency and communion by different researchers; unique properties of each personality domain, as well as interactions between these domains. Further research should focus on the influence of culture background on the relationship and the meanings of agency and communion. The application of such taxonomy to the personality of Chinese should be explored as well.
Exposure to air pollution may impair nervous system, brain function and cognitive function, particularly for susceptible groups like children, elderly adults and patients with chronic diseases. It may also reduce subjective well-being, cause anxiety and depression, and even increase suicide risks. The physiological mechanisms of different pollutants’ influences on cognition and psychological well-being are different. Apart from physiological mechanisms, air pollution can also generate psychological impacts on individuals or groups indirectly through media representation, and the severity of these impacts is associated with social vulnerability and resilience. Future studies should explore the pathogenesis of nervous system impairment and cognitive impairment caused by air pollution exposure, explore the influence of air pollution on the psychological well-being of Chinese citizens and its underlying inequality among different social groups, and then develop effective psychological intervention measures.
The construct of ethical leadership has garnered much research attention in recent years. However, researchers have not reached consensus on the conceptualization and measurement of ethical leadership. Based on an extensive review of publications, this paper classifies prescriptive and scientific definitions of ethical leadership, defines connotations and boundary of ethical leadership from a scientific view, and distinguishes ethical leadership from other similar leadership constructs. Then, we summarize and compare scales used in ethical leadership research, and highlight potential deficiencies of these instruments. We further provide recommendations for improving the conceptualization and measurement of ethical leadership, as well as indigenous research in the Chinese context.
Loyalty to supervisor refers to the relative strength of subordinates’ identification and internalization with supervisor and their values. An employee with high loyalty to his/her leader would show more attachment behavior like sacrifice and dedication towards leader. The mainstream measurement model of loyalty to supervisor has three types: (1) three-dimensional structure model consists affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment in the west. (2) five-dimensional scale proposed by Chen et al. which consists identification with supervisor, internalization of supervisor’s values, dedication to supervisor, attachment to supervisor, and extra effort for supervisor; (3) five-dimensional model includes identification with supervisor and internalization of the supervisor’s values, initiative accommodation, task assistance, obedience, and sacrifice for supervisor raised by Jiang et al.. The existing empirical research have identified that individual characteristics, leaders’ factors, cultural and organizational context all have influence on loyalty to supervisor. Besides, the consequences of loyalty to supervisor such as job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, turnover intention, job satisfaction, supervisor- subordinate conflicts have become a hot focus to scholars. The future orientation of such research may consist of the effect of personality factors on loyalty to supervisor, the negative effects of loyalty to supervisor, the dynamic evolution of loyalty to supervisor, and the "person-centered" approach of supervisory loyalty.
In recent years, abusive supervision has received increasing attention from organizational behavior researchers. However, previous studies have primarily focused on how abusive supervision negatively affects individuals and the underlying mechanism, with few examining this topic on the organizational level. Based on moral exclusion theory, we illustrated the effect of abusive supervision on organizational justice, and established a conceptual multilevel model explaining the effect of abusive supervision on employees through organizational justice. In addition, we discussed the effects of abusive supervision at both individual and organizational levels, as well as the cross-level effects. Our discussion also integrated leaders’, targets’, and bystanders’ angles. We suggest that future studies explore the role of culture in abusive supervision research, investigate the role of other organizational justice dimensions on the effects of abusive supervision, and improve existing research methods. Further, we encourage researchers to explore positive coping strategies against abusive supervision, and to examine the motives for leaders to engage in abusive supervision.
Group efficacy refers to individuals’ beliefs that the ingroup is able to achieve group goals through joint effort, which is influenced by factors of group identity, ingroup interaction and moral conviction. The important role of group efficacy in stimulating group members to participate in collective action varies with situation and struggle strategy. All extension variables of group efficacy such as efficacy of nonviolent collective action, identity consolidation efficacy, participative efficacy and bystander efficacy have specific mobilization mechanisms in collective action. Further researches should investigate the role of group efficacy in the development of collective action, incorporate authorities into the study framework and explore the relationship between organizational structure on group efficacy.
Others’ advice can help decision makers improve the quality of their decision. However, most decision makers can not choose the appropriate strategy of advice taking. In other words, they tend to underestimate the efficiency of averaging strategy and use the egoistic weighting strategy. Factors affecting advice taking were listed as followings. The first was advice features, such as the advice types and advice numbers. The second one was task features. Then the judge’s features, including their power, emotion, self-esteem, cognitive style and complexity. The last one was the advisor factors, such as the advisor’s similarity with the decision maker, the adviser’s confidence and reliability, all of which can affect advice taking. Feature research should explore how the type of advisor power, as well the evaluation sensitivity of decision maker may influence the degree of advice taking. Secondly, the nominal advice-taking is also a good topic in China. Additionally, more attention is compulsory for the area of advice giving so that the research field of advice could be enriched and developed constantly.
Work hours is one of most important factors that can influence employees’ well-being. Researchers has considered work hours solely as depleting, and had negative impact on employees’ well-being. Some of the researches have contradictory results. Drawing on a heterogeneity perspective of work, I argue that there is unaccounted for variability in the nature of work hours such that some are actually restorative rather than depleting. I articulate the four type of work hours through simultaneous consideration of the extent to which a given work hours is (1) depleting of regulatory resources and (2) generative of three particular resources shown to compensate for the effects of ego depletion. Beyond the depleting work hours that have been the focus of research to date, the resulting typology reveals two restorative types (replenishing and breakthrough) that I theorize positively shape well-being in both the short and long term. The new perspectives of future studies based on these reasons were discussed.