Acute stress and attentional bias towards threat are two key factors associated with developing and maintaining symptoms of anxiety disorder and PTSD. Acute stress is characterized by high activity of sympathetic nervous system, increased secretion of catecholamine and glucocorticoids. These psychophysical changes have significant effects on attentional bias towards threat. However, how acute stress affects attentional engagement and attentional disengagement of attentional bias is not clear. In this project, we will investigate neural mechanism of acute stress effects on attentional engagement and attentional disengagement towards threat by using modified dot probe task and spatial threat cueing task combine with eye tracking, event related potential as well as fear conditioning technique. The findings can provide guidance for the treatment of anxiety disorder and PTSD, and can help the government make good decision about public health.
Established as a widespread problematic behavioral and a stable individual tendency across time and different contexts, procrastination is harmful to the procrastinator’s psychological, physical, and financial well-being. Given the cognitive mechanism of procrastination is unclear and methodologies in previous studies was dated, we are developing studies from a behavior-brain-gene perspective, using a multi-modal MRI (Task, Resting, VBM and DTI) methodology and considering HTR2B gene as a breakthrough direction, to reveal the cognitive mechanisms, neural mechanisms and hereditary basis of procrastination systematically. In addition, we intended to design interventions for procrastination as well. Our studies will includes four aspect: (1) from a behavioral perspective, we are exploring the cognitive mechanism of deciding to procrastinate by combining paradigm of dread studies with intertemporal choice task; (2) from a neural perspective, we are using a multi-modal MRI methodoloty to reveal the neural mechanism of procrastination; (3) from a genetic perspective, we are utilizing molecular genetic methods and taking the HTR2B gene as our targeted gene to disclose the genetic mechanism of procrastination and test a mediating role of neural structure or function between hereditary basis and procrastination; (4) Considering intervention for procrastination and malleability of brain, we also intend to design training program to reduce procrastination and test procrastination related neural plasticity.
How do readers select a landing position when they make a saccade is an interesting and important question in cognitive psychology research. For alphabetic languages (i.e., English and German) which use blank spaces to segment words, readers usually make saccades to the preferred viewing location (PVL), which is usually slightly to the left of the center of a word. For non-alphabetic languages like Chinese, however, the absence of obvious visual cues between words makes the selection of a landing position more complex. Recently, researchers have studied saccade target selection from the perspective of dynamic saccade adjustment based on foveal-parafoveal processing. They found that saccade lengths are influenced by the demands of on-going foveal and parafoveal processing. Moreover, the processing of parafoveal information directly determines the saccade lengths. However, more efforts are needed to understand precisely how saccade length is adjusted to accommodate foveal and parafoveal processing demands during the reading of both alphabetic and non-alphabetic languages.
In the research field of negation processing, there are two important and opposite psychological theories: the Propositional Symbol Theory and the Embodied Cognition Theory. The former mainly includes the Schema-Plus-Tag Model and the Model Theory of Negation. It holds that negation is an abstract logic symbol whose function is to transform into the opposite of the core proposition (the assertive proposition). The latter mainly includes the Two-Step-Simulation Hypothesis and the Perception Simulation Theory of Negation. It holds that negation is an embodying process represented by the related time cost or space projection. On the basis of introductions of the main ideas and their respective limitations of these theories, the differences between these theories were compared and analyzed. At last, the Suppression- Reactivation-Resuppression Theory was proposed, and the future research approaches was discussed.
People tend to classify and store the cognitive objects according to different standards or rules, namely, category learning. As the basis of various cognitive processing, the working memory has an important effect on the category learning. Based on the existing researches, this paper combs the influence of the working memory on the implicit and explicit learning from three aspects of the executive function, visual processing and working memory capacity. At present, there are controversies about whether the executive function affects the implicit and explicit learning system and whether the working memory capacity has the consistent influence on the implicit and explicit learning system. What’s more, whether the working memory influences the cognitive processing stage of the category learning is unclear. Therefore, the next stage needs to make clear the influence of its executive function on the implicit and explicit learning and further tests the reasonability of the influence of the working learning on the cognitive and processing model of the category learning.
In the last decade, accumulating studies on infant false-belief understanding have found that infants’ positive performance on a variety of spontaneous-response tasks demonstrates a certain degree of flexibility. Given this result, some researchers persist with the rich interpretation which claims that infants can attribute false beliefs to others, while some insist on the lean interpretation assuming that infants’ success on the tasks can be explained by other abilities such as the use of behavior rules. There are also researchers who recently come to offer a compromising interpretation in the new conceptual framework. To finally solve the question on whether infants have an understanding of false belief or not, a specific standard on the acquisition of false-belief understanding is needed.
Retirement is a multi-phased dynamic process whereby retirees draw pensions at a specific age. There are three types of retirement models, viz., the Antecedent Model, the Process Model and the Outcome Model. The Antecedent Model of Retirement includes Classic Antecedent Model of Retirement and Multilevel-model of Retirement, which address antecedents of retirement respectively in individual- environment and macroscopic views. The Process Model of Retirement involves the Three-Phase Model of Retirement Decision-Making, the Temporal Process Model of Retirement and the Resource-based Dynamic Model for Retirement Adjustment; they reveal the process of retirement from the perspectives of the phasing, individuality and dynamics of retirement. The Outcome Model of Retirement explores the effect of retirement on individuals and organizations. In addition, the Four-Phase Model for Retirement is an integrated model based on Western models and in the light of China’s reality. It is suggested that future studies in this field focus on increasing the diversity of objects, revealing the functioning mechanism of psychological variables that affect retirement, improving the applicability, and facilitating the indigenization of the latest study.
Food is a natural rewarding stimulus, which promotes human to seek for it because of their instinctive desire and need for reward. “Wanting”, “liking” and “learning & reinforcement” are three main components of food reward, and each of them is represented in its corresponding neural pathway. Food reward regulates food intake behavior and body weight. The association between food reward and obesity has predominantly been explained by three main theoretic models, namely the incentive sensitization theory of addiction, the reward-surfeit theory of obesity and the reward deficit theory of obesity. In human studies, the association between food reward and obesity has usually been studied by using a cross-sectional design, perspective design or longitudinal within-subjects design, in which either food pictures or palatable liquid foods (such as milkshake) were used as the experimental stimuli to obtain brain responses to food cues or actual foods, respectively. In addition, human brain response to both food cues and actual foods is regulated by the human genome. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dopamine D2 receptor gene TaqIA rs1800497 and the FTO gene rs9939609 is discussed in the current review.
Trust and creativity are focal topics of psychological study. In recent years, researchers in psychology, pedagogy and management have developed a series of theoretical and empirical studies about how trust affects creativity in group settings. There are three hypotheses on the whole: activation, inhibition and the inverted U model. The activation hypothesis means that trust can promote creativity generally. The inhibition hypothesis shows that under certain conditions, trust will hamper creativity. The inverted U model means that with the effects of conflict and other variables, trust may create a “sweet spot effect” for creativity. The three hypotheses all can be supported by theory and empirical analysis, but there still appears to be some problems. In the future the research should be developed from the angle of selecting the measurement methods properly, clarifying the influence of trust on creativity and deepening understandings of the mechanism of how trust influences creativity.
The watching eyes effect describes the phenomenon that just showing simple images of watching eyes can change people’s behaviors. There is much debate about whether this effect can be explained by the reputation mechanism and the norm psychology. Furthermore, the watching eyes effect has been found to be affected by factors such as task type, experimental situation, exposure time, anonymity, participants’ group identity, and personal characteristics. Future research need to explore evolutionary mechanisms from the perspective of embodied cognition, cross-cultural variations in the watching eyes effect, and neural mechanisms underlying this effect. Researchers should also consider applying the watching eyes effect in real-life situations to increase prosociality.
Risk-sensitivity theory, which is based on experimental examination of the foraging behavior of animals, proposes that decision makers shift from risk aversion to risk preference in situations of need. As a biological theory of decision making, predications based on risk sensitivity theory has been supported by both animal studies and studies involve human participants. Existing evidence suggests that risk-sensitivity theory can account for various patterns of decision-making in a wide range of domains. It’s necessary to provide a systematic review of risk-sensitivity theory, including its theoretical speculation, main arguments, and development of mathematical models. Distinctions among risk sensitivity theory and other well- established theories were also speculated in consideration of the reference point. Risk-sensitivity theory contributes to the literature as it provides additional explanations for shifts in individuals’ risk taking tendencies under a wide range of situational factors, including changes in economic inequality and power.
Exploration of moderators has been one of the major theoretical focus of emotional labor literature in recent years. Our review on the empirical studies indicated that a great variety of variables in three aspects—individual difference, job context and culture—had significant moderating effects on the effects of emotional labor. By taking a contingent perspective on emotional labor, we found that: (I) the display rules at organizational, industrial and cultural levels could exert different yet related influence on individual emotion expression in workplace; (II) the potential detrimental effect of surface acting could be possibly buffered, eradicated or even turned into positive one by means of either individual internal mechanism or organizational management intervention; (III) deep acting had a positive effect consistently across individuals and contexts; (IV) cultural context functioned as an important boundary condition for emotional labor process. It was revealed that both emotional labor requirements and regulation behaviors could possibly bring benefits to employees.
Ethical consumption refers to that consumers should consider the impact of their consumption choices upon the environment, animals and society in the acquisition, use or disposal of products. Despite embracing the values of ethical consumerism, most consumers rarely support their beliefs at the check-out counter, which is considered to be the attitude–behavior gap. This study shed light on the attitude–behavior gap of ethical consumers from the perspective of construal level. From the temporal dimension, ethical consumer is in high construal level when evaluating ethical products, since he or she is far from ethical products in psychological distance, but in purchasing stage, ethical consumer is near from ethical products, so he or she is in low construal level. There are many differences in motivation and cognition under different construal levels, which lead to the attitude–behavior gap. Future research needs to focus on how to transfer this kind of support into truly positive purchasing behavior.