Anxiety is an important emotion in our daily life, which influences human decision-making significantly. Investigating the research field of rewarding learning may help with understanding the role of anxiety in decision-making process. However, the potential impact of anxiety on rewarding learning is largely absent in previous literature. In addition, studies devoted to this topic have limitations about the experimental paradigms and techniques being applied. Regarding the complexity of the reward learning concept, we suggest researchers exploring the relationship between anxiety and reward learning in various scenarios including probabilistic learning, associative learning, reversal learning, and social learning. The moderating effect of anxiety on individual reward learning in different scenarios may appear to be diverse, which is awaited to be clarified.
The smile is the most common and frequently expressed facial expression. Human beings have evolved ways to fake smiles, and developed the ability to detect the disguise. Dynamic information of facial movements has been shown to be essential in both expressing and recognition of facial expressions. The underlying dynamic information of smiles may be investigated to better differentiate between fake and genuine smiles. With the aids of feature extraction methods from Computer Vision, we investigate the dynamic features of smiles (such as the duration, direction, velocity, smoothness, dynamic symmetry, and synchronicity and head motion patterns). Furthermore, we investigate how various dynamic features of genuine and fake smiles may differ across different situations to further our understanding of the human smile. We also aim to investigate the underlying mechanism of individual's ability to distinguish between genuine and fake smiles. We examined whether paying attention to effective dynamic features would help improve recognition performance, and test the perception-attention hypothesis. By comparing the features of smiles and examining the underlying mechanism behind people’s ability to recognize the veracity of smiles. We can obtain a better understanding of the relationship between encoding and decoding of the facial expressions.
In recent years, increasing evidence has indicated that perceptual cues can affect higher level cognition, or metamemory. Metamemory refers to a person's cognitions about his or her own memory, consisting of two key components: monitoring and control. Studies have found that perceptual cues (such as font size, volume, clarity of text, weight, luminance, and so on) impacted on both metamemory monitoring (e.g., judgment of learning and judgment of confidence) and control (e.g., study time allocation). It is assumed that processing fluency or beliefs may contribute to these effects. Further researches should be conducted to explore the conditions under which perceptual cues influence metamemory monitoring and control, and to clarify the specific contributions of processing fluency and beliefs to the process of perceptual cues affecting metamemory.
Expertise reversal effect research began in the mid-1990 s and focused on the interaction between learners’ prior knowledge and the effectiveness of instructional techniques within a cognitive load framework. The research paradigm of expertise reversal effect arises from the Aptitude-Treatment Interaction models. The cognitive load theory suggests that presenting redundant instruction to higher prior knowledge learners imposes a higher cognitive load resulting in the expertise reversal effect; whereas a motivation explanation suggests that the redundant information for higher prior knowledge learners may be a load on motivation resources. The theory has generated considerable experimental data for teaching designers to minimize extraneous cognitive load and maximize germane cognitive load enabling teaching methods to be adjusted for learners with different levels of prior knowledge. The emergence and development of the expertise reversal effect theory should involve improving research methods, broadening fields, and summarizing and analyzing contemporary achievements in the future.
The fusiform face area (FFA) is a sub-region of the human visual cortex, which is highly selective to faces relative to other objects. However, there are controversies about the functional specialization and collaboration of the bilateral FFAs. In terms of the processing of specific stimuli, the right FFA is responsible for perceiving face categories while the left FFA is tuned to fine facial features. As for cerebral plasticity, the normal development of the right FFA underlines the teenager’s social capacity and perceptual learning while the left FFA contributes to face learning in adults. Within the face perception network, the bilateral FFAs link to different cortices in order to perform various cognitive functions. The directions of collaboration are tasks contingent. Three questions deserve further examinations: (1) What is the extent of plasticity of the left FFA and whether this plasticity is cognitively specific? (2) What is the cognitive implication of the left FFA and how does it connect with other brain areas; (3) What are the directional patterns of connectivity within the facial network.
Stress is an unavoidable event in our daily life, and exposure to stress chronically is considered a principal cause for psychosomatic disorders. Stressor could trigger a series of physiological responses, including over-activation of automatic nervous system (ANS)and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Social support might relieve the effect of stress on ANS and HPA axis by buffering or attenuating the activity of stress-related neural regions and therefore reinstate homeostasis rapidly, which prevents the organism from stress-related damage.
Depression has highly complicated polygenic underpinnings that do not follow the law of Mendelian inheritance. However, existing research on the genetic mechanism of depression has primarily focused on the effects of single candidate genes. Recent studies using the method of polygenic risk scores and the gene by gene interactions approach have provided new evidence respectively for the existence of both additive genetic effects and interactive genetic effects on depression. These studies demonstrated that multi- genes interact with environmental factors in their effects on the etiology of depression, and gender has a strong influence on these interactions. It is assumed that the effects of multi-genes on depression would be possibly mediated by the specific endophenotypes, such as cognitive factors, personality and stress hormone. Future research in this realm should pay greater attention to the interactions between multi-genes and multi-environments, gender differences in the polygenic underpinnings and the dynamic changes in polygenic effects over development.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, as shown by alterations of cortisol levels. However, results on the link of cortisol level with PTSD are inconsistent. Recent studies imply that PTSD patients show temporal characteristics of the change in cortisol level with the elevation at early stage and thereafter the decrease relative to the normal basal cortisol level after traumatic exposure. The temporal characteristics might be disturbed or masked by some factors, such as characteristics of biomarker, course of PTSD, type and intensity of stressor and comorbid disease. The present review suggested that future research needs to further profile temporal characteristics of change in cortisol level among PTSD patients by controlling the influencing factors and utilizing long-term follow-up design in combination with acute-stress and chronic- stress biomarkers and investigate whether it can be used to predict and intervene PTSD through cortisol treatment. Considering that cortisol level is regulated by metabolism and antagonism procedures, the use of multi-biomarkers will facilitate the reliable evaluation of the HPA axis activity among PTSD patients.
Fear of pain plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Fear of pain appears to have a key role in early stage of attention processing towards pain-related information across different types of stimuli and groups. Considerable evidence indicates associated attention biases reflect hypervigilance that may contribute to perpetuating the focus on pain and interfere with the capacity to attend to non-painful experiences. Modifying attention biases related to fear of pain has the potential to improve pain experience. Future research should use tasks with more ecological validity to investigate information- processing related to fear of pain and its neural substrates. In addition, more research is needed to explore how effective different attention modification strategies are in reducing distress and disability among chronic pain patients.
In people’s daily life, they often have different ideals and goals, when they are driven by specific goals, attend to influence the type of emotions they will experience, the time when the emotion appears, and how to experience and express such emotions, emotion regulation occurs. Schizophrenia is a complicated mental illness, and patients with such diseases often have emotional flaws. Through handling various internal and external factors, emotion of the patients with schizophrenia could be regulated effectively, which is beneficial for them to construct the healthy emotional experience, and has clinical significance in promoting the sound development of their mental and physical health.
Abnormal mental imagery is a common phenomenon across many emotional disorders. From a perspective of mental imagery, many researchers tried to understand the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive mood, emotions of bipolar disorder, and social anxiety. Empirical research mainly focused on two typical symptoms, which were flashbacks in PTSD and overgeneral memory, and emphasized on the functions of mental imagery in maintenance of emotional symptoms. Overall, three types of pathogenic factors of emotional disorders were underlined, including abnormal processing in memory formation and retrieval, negative reinforcement of cognitive and behavioral protective strategies, and cognitive biases toward events and self. Existing interventions and trainings targeting or using mental imagery can be divided into four categories: reducing negative images, changing contents of negative images, enhancing ability of positive images, and increasing concreteness of memory. Future directions include further analysis on the functions of intrusive imagery, exploration of the relevant psychopathology models, and expanding studies on intervention and training.
In recent decade, it has become one of hotspots in developmental psychology and health psychology that examining the interaction between peer relationship and mental health from a perspective of social network. With whole network data and longitudinal design, most of the research focused on two mechanisms of social network-mental health co-evolution: selection process (the effect of psychological and behavioral variables on developing, maintaining, and dissolving of peer relationships and social network) and influence process (the effect of peer relationships and social network on psychological and behavioral variables). Based on the above two mechanisms, some prominent findings on health risk behaviors (such as smoking, drinking, and substance use) and emotion problems (such as depression, anxiety and loneliness) of adolescents in the social network perspective were reviewed. Future researches in this field should pay more attention to a wider range of social networks beyond class and school contexts and special samples, increase studies on positive psychology and negative ties, strengthen the theoretical construction, apply social network analyses into online network environment more, and deeply explore biological foundation of social network.
Dimensional comparison, which is another important comparison type following social comparison and temporal comparison, refers to the process in which a single individual compares his or her ability in a target domain with that in a standard domain. Dimensional comparison predicts contrast effects when the “far comparisons” between different domains are triggered, and assimilation effects for the “near comparisons”. Although dimensional comparison and social comparison significantly influenced self-concept, social comparison exerted a stronger effect than dimensional comparison. Future research of dimensional comparison should expand its application domains, strengthen its integration with other comparison types, and improve its research methods.
Framing effect is an irrational deviation in decision-making, and the age differences of it has been gradually concerned by the academics. In general, the older and younger adults differ in framing effect when facing the medical and economic decision-making, mainly in susceptibility and type. The framing effect in elderly adults is mainly influenced by decision making context, cognition, emotion and neurophysiologic features. In addition to further explore the characteristics of framing effect across different domains and its influencing factors, future researchers need to extend the study from the views of other individual characteristics of the elderly adults, the experimental material and design type, the psychological mechanism and applied values.
The framing effect on social preferences refers to the phenomenon in which individuals, who are influenced by the frames of scheme selection, show the change of cooperative, reciprocal and altruistic behaviors. It is the application of framing effect in the field of social preferences. There are five theoretical models to interpret this phenomenon in the previous literature of social preferences, which are prospect theory, misperception theory, psychological dynamic model, construal level theory and mood maintenance theory. Meanwhile, evidence revealed that framing effect on social preferences may be influenced by some factors, such as psychical distance, value orientation, personality and culture. Therefore, further researches for framing effect on social preferences are expected to explore its mental and neural mechanism, to make its research paradigm more abundant and to improve the external validity. Finally, it is necessary to promote studies by using multidisciplinary methods.
Utilizing a cognitive perspective, earlier researchers investigated antecedents of trust violation and strategies of trust repair. In recent years, the important role of emotions in repairing trust has received increasing attention. Yet, the underlying mechanism of the effect of emotions has not been fully uncovered. Existing research examining the effect of emotions on trust repair mainly focuses on the cue-dependent effect of emotions, and the effect of discrete emotions (e.g., guilt, shame, anger, and sadness). A careful literature review reveals that guilt and empathy are the two most important moral emotions influencing trust repair. Specifically, guilt can encourage the trusted party to engage in compensating behaviors, while empathy can facilitate the trusting party to forgive others. Based on these findings, we build an emotion-based trust repair theoretical model that also integrates the moderating effects of target cues and trait forgiveness of the trusting party. We also suggest future research investigate the effects of other discrete emotions, particularly moral emotions, on trust repair, and the interaction effect between contextual factors and emotions.
Innovation has long been recognized as a core competence for contemporary organizations. In the past decades, rich knowledge has been accumulated about the antecedents of innovation. However, the prior research mainly focused on how to stimulate employees’ creative behaviors, neglecting the transformation from idea generation to idea implementation. Creativity, if not implemented, cannot contribute to organizational development and success. It is idea implementation not idea generation that really counts. Extant research on idea implementation has some limitations. To gain a deeper understanding of idea implementation, integrating quantitative and qualitative methods and extending research level and perspectives need to be pursued in the future.
Based on each examinee’s answers of previous items, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) selects items and aims to measure examinee’s actual ability more efficiently and accurately than paper and pencil-based tests. While it is a natural thing for examinees to review their answers and possibly change them in paper and pencil-based tests, the same thing is less common to happen in most CATs since it could deteriorate the measurement efficiency and make tests vulnerable to manipulative test-taking strategies, as confirmed by many researchers. The absence of review opportunities on operational CATs creates a dilemma for test developers as examinees need to review and change answers during the test in order to achieve more accurate estimates of their true ability. Researchers on reviewable CAT mainly focus on three aspects, namely changing the test design, improving the item selection strategy and building models. Future studies could further explore the comparison and combination of different methods and pay more attention to review and change methods for cognitive diagnostic CAT.