In recent years, the increasing gap of wealth between the rich and the poor has given rise to the public’s strong sense of income unfairness, which was primarily caused by relative comparison between individual own income and others’ income. This project is based on the reference dependence and loss aversion of prospect theory value function, carrying out a series of empirical studies on the formation mechanisms and management measures of the public’s sense of income unfairness. This project will use multiple methods of psychological measuring, laboratory experiment and intervention study; employing the ERP technique of nerve electrophysiology and SCR method of psycho-physiological experiment; probing into mechanisms of self-reference vs. other-reference dependence, single-reference-point vs. multi-reference point comparison and the loss aversion acting on the asymmetry of advantageous inequality vs. disadvantageous inequality leading to individuals’ sense of income unfairness; finally choosing community resident and manipulating the referent, the reference-point, and the gain-loss framing, and then conducting multi-round and multi-variable intervention studies so as to empirically investigating into the coping strategies of lessening individuals’ sense of income unfairness, which will be used as the basis of management strategies and policy advice.
Psychological insecurity refers to the anxiety about potential harm and threat. Many individuals make decisions when they are psychologically insecure. Existing literature has revealed inconsistent results regarding the effects of psychological insecurity on risk preference, and the mechanism of such effects remains unclear. The current study proposed compensation mechanism as a mediator and option distribution as a moderator in order to investigate why and how psychological insecurity would influence risk preference. The findings would help to clarify the patterns of decision-makers’ risk preference under psychological insecurity, improve the theories of decisions under risk, and offer scientific evidence for practical implications in public administration.
The superiority effect of social prediction is a well established phenomenon in social cognition literature, whereby predictable stimuli are better recognized than unpredictable stimuli. The neural mechanism for the superiority effect of social prediction is an important topic in the area of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Predictive coding model suggests that predictable neural signals are attenuated. However, the predictive coding model has been challenged by the fact that prediction sometimes seems to enhance rather than reduce neural signals. Therefore, study 1 and 2 will investigate the role of unconscious and conscious social attention in the predictive coding model, thereby embedding them in the model. In study 3, we will explore a translation mechanism, and ultimately construct a predictive parsimony frame which consisted of the translation mechanism and the predictive coding model. Exploring the neural mechanism for the superiority effect of social prediction may contribute to improving the predictive coding model and broadening the research field of social prediction.
This meta-analysis was designed to explore the status of mental health about Chinese policemen of public security organization and assess the effects of six demographic variables and three characteristics of studies on the policemen’ mental health. Sixty-seven primary studies from 1996-2015 that met the requirements of meta-analysis were selected, including total subjects of 50371. By comparing the scores of nine SCL-90 factors from these studies with the two national norms, only the effect size of the interpersonal sensitivity factor was not significant (SMD = 0.049 points, 95% CI = −0.017 to 0.115, p = 0.142) while other factors’ SMDs reached significant level. According to comparing with the soldier norm, there were five factors with significant but small SMDs (SMD = −0.156~0.210, p = 0.000~0.041). The results showed that the mental health of the policemen were worse than the normal and similar to the soldier. Except gender, demographic variables and research characteristic variables such as age, marital status, educational level, division of police service, region and the sample size have significant influence on the policemen’s mental health. Several unresolved issues and future research directions are also discussed.
Based on the retrieval-induced forgetting paradigm, socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting focuses on how the selective retrieval of the speaker according to his own memory influences the listener’s memory under social settings. This becomes a new field of social memory research.The impacts of several factors including the involvement levels of listener, the characteristics of the speaker, social relationship between speaker and listener, search strategy during retrieval, emotional valence and individual differences for socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting were investigated by many studies with different kinds of materials.Lots of researches demonstrated that socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting not only promoted the memory convergence of group members, but also promoted the propagation in a small sequence of social interactions, which both have great influences on the formation of collective memory. Further studies should be conducted to explore influence factors, underlying mechanisms, related brain substrates and applications of socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting in social settings.
Imitation is an important learning mechanism. However, do preschool children emphasize efficiency and copy actions selectively, or emphasize fidelity and copy indiscriminately? This debate on preschool children’s imitation is becoming a key question among developmental psychologists, comparative psychologists, and evolutionary anthropologists in the last 10 years. Some researchers proposed the automatic causal encoding hypothesis and the intention misunderstanding hypothesis based on how preschool children reason causal relations. Other researchers proposed the social affiliation hypothesis and the natural pedagogical hypothesis according to how preschool children communicate with others socially. To date, no one hypothesis has been able to explain all the evidence. To understand this debate from a new perspective, the “benefit-and-loss trading” hypothesis was proposed, which states that preschool children copy other’s actions by trading the benefit and loss.
Comorbidity of chronic pain and depressive disorders are highly prevalent, yet no sound theory has been proposed to describe the underpinning neuropsychological mechanism. Brain imaging studies reveal that chronic pain and depressive disorders share similar emotional circuit abnormalities, which are in consistent with the fact that patients suffering from chronic pains or depression show similar cognitive- affective bias (CAB) towards pain-related or depression-related information in behavioral measures. Recently, convergent evidence strongly suggests that these emotional circuit abnormalities, causing similar deficits in information processing, may underlie the neuropsychological processes of pain-depression comorbidity. Cognitive-affective biases, as a set of behavioral indicators reflecting these abnormalities, may play an important role in emersion, development and maintenance of pain-depression comorbidity.
Autism spectrum disorder is a set of neuro-developmental disorders caused by a series of physiological and psychological factors which occurs in early life. The current evidence of the biological basis of autism spectrum disorders is analyzed from genetics, brain structure, nutrients and other aspects. Brain and body abnormalities formed in individuals early gestation could be crucial to autism spectrum disorders. These abnormalities affect postnatal development, specifically on physiological pathway such as neural activity, brain development, immune system, inflammatory reactions et. al. In the future researchers could try to stretch across different subtypes of autism spectrum disorders, ages and developmental stages to carry out a large-scale study which combines horizontal and vertical views.
Based on the perspective of multiple memory systems, the dual representation theory (DRT) of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) underlines the functions of ventral and dorsal streams of visual processing on both of the formation and retrieval of the intrusive imagery. The DRT proposes that two types of competitive cognitive tasks (i.e., verbal and visual-spatial tasks) can influence traumatic information processing and traumatic memory reconsolidation by taxing the cognitive resources of ventral and dorsal streams respectively. Alternatively, the working memory model (WMM) argues that the effect of competitive cognitive tasks is a result of taxing the cognitive resources as a whole. Both of the DRT and WMM have received some empirical support. Future studies should consider individual differences in working memory capacity. Especially, it would be helpful to conduct more intervention studies, and effort should be made to improve research methods and design new competitive cognitive tasks that are more compatible with culture and closer to real life. Besides, studies with clinical applications and simulation intervention studies should be conducted increasingly; intervention studies in real traumatic situations should be carried out appropriately; more studies that are related to training relevant capacities of information processing should be conducted as well.
The relationship between the deceased and bereaved may not terminate upon death; an ongoing inner relationship with the deceased person may be presented by the bereaved individual, which is defined as continuing bonds (CB). CB is universal across different cultures. CB expressions seem to vary along several dimensions, e.g. locus of bond, initiating agent. The role that continuing bonds plays in adjustment to bereavement has received considerable attention in recent years, with complex and contradictory findings emerging across studies. Further studies should explore the manifestations and specific meanings of CB, the types of CB, and develop measurement tools on local culture. Meanwhile, more theory-driven empirical studies need to be conducted in the future.
Leader behavioral integrity is defined as follower’s perceived pattern of alignment between a leader’s words and deeds. Behavior integrity is an adjunctive virtue which is neither morally good nor morally bad in nature, but is necessary for achieving moral uprightness. To measure leader behavioral integrity, two kinds of methods, namely written scenario or scales, are usually used by researchers in empirical studies. And leadership behavioral integrity is separately designed as dependent, independent, mediator or moderator variables by researchers in their theoretical models. Future research should focus on developing multiple methods to measure leader behavioral integrity, examining the moderating effect of institutional factors between leader behavioral integrity and resulting variables. And it should also focus on leader’s word-deed misalignments, the application of the concept of behavioral integrity to collective level or employee level, and so on.
Calling has emerged as a pertinent construct in psychology and management. Calling originates from religious and is secularized in sociology, and resuscitated in psychology and management. The extant literature on calling showed that calling could lead to positve outcomes such as higher individual’s well-being, higher organizational duty, less team conflict, and so on. In the current paper, the connotation, measurement and work-related outcomes of calling were systematically reviewed. On the basis of review, the article pointed out the three topics (i.e. the structure, outcomes and antecedents) which future researchers should focus on. Meanwhile, the theory-guidance, multiple-level, longitudinal, and indigenous study should be strengthened in the future research.
Future work self (FWS), a future-oriented concept, refers to representation of the self in the future that reflects individual’s hopes and aspirations in relation to work. FWS is the application of possible self in the field of work, and provides us with a new perspective for understanding the motivation of proactive career behaviors. Distinct from occupational possible self, FWS has two critical attributes, i.e., future work self salience (FWSS) and future work self elaboration (FWSE). At present, empirical studies have suggested that self-esteem, proactive personality and career exploration can predict FWS, while FWS can influence proactive career behaviors, job search outcomes, creativity and job performance. Future research should focus on FWS elasticity and accessibility, the predicting effect of cognition, the mediating effect of emotions, the moderating effect of leadership styles and intervention effect.
Sleep deprivation is a situation of shorter-than-optimal sleep time caused by some environmental or individual reasons. A variety of empirical researches studied the relationship between sleep deprivation and risky choice, but there was an argument about whether sleep deprivation leaded to risk-taking. This paper tried to explore the psychological mechanism between sleep deprivation and risky choice. There are three elements influence risky decision making, (i.e., risk perception, risk tolerance and risk decision strategies), and its psychological mechanism can be explained by dual-process models of cognition and emotion. Furthermore, neural studies provided evidences to support our conclusion. In the future, on the one hand, because most sleep deprivation studies were examined in laboratory, more researches should be focused on the sleep loss in real life; on the other hand, interaction effect of cognition and emotion should be considered to further complete the theoretical model of sleep deprivation and risky choice.
Characteristic perception and relationship perception are the two important factors which influence the interpersonal trust. These two factors exert diverse effects in the different cultural contexts due to the different Chinese and Western cultural backgrounds. By reviewing the related previous research findings, this paper indicates that the research on the influence of relationship perception on interpersonal trust should not be restricted on the effect of “closeness relationship”. In the future studies of understanding Chinese interpersonal trust, researchers should further investigate the relationship schema which can reflects the essence of Chinese social relationship – “class relationship”. What’s more, we should pay more attention to explore and discusse fatherly the effect of class relationship perception on Chinese interpersonal trust, which might reflect the core architecture of Chinese social relations. It supposes that relationship perception, especially class relation perception, might regulate the effect of characteristic perception on Chinese interpersonal trust.
Interpersonal conflict refers to a series of reactions related with people’s cognition, emotion and behavior, which occurs under the interactive effects among people’s disagreement, negative emotion and interference and formed by sensemaking. Previous researches divide the interpersonal conflict into two types, namely, single and multi-feature conflict, and focus on the exploration of interpersonal conflict models. They also interpret the dimensions and function models of interpersonal conflict from the perspective of expression. This paper tries to put forward the specific coping strategy according to conflict types, expression and function model. Future research should try to (a) embed cognitive differences into dynamic conceptual framework; (b) figure out the boundary range of conflict salience and verify the effectiveness of given conflict solution; (c) explore the influence of organizational power on interpersonal conflict; (d)carry out empirical studies of the localization across the multiple subcultures.
Extended contact effect proposes that knowledge of an in-group member has a close relationship with an out-group member can lead to less inter-group prejudice, and more positive inter-group attitude. Inter-group anxiety, perceived in-group norms/perceived out-group norms, including others in self, and self disclosure are the mediators in the relationship between extended group contact and attitude. Individual differences on sensitivity of group norms, closeness of relationship with in-group members, attitude of social consciousness and direct inter-group contact are the moderators in the actual effects of extended inter-group contact. More studies are needed to explore the motivations behind the extended contact effect, compare the differences of extended contact effect on children and adults attitudes, focus on the far-reaching social consequences of extended contact, and intensify integration of different indirect inter-group contacts.
Priming effect is rigorously defined as the effect that the former stimuli unconsciously influence the response in the subsequent irrelevant context, and the objects to prime should belong to cognitive representations or processes, such as concept or mindset. The concept of priming originated in the studies of cognitive psychology, and then Higgins introduced it to the studies of social psychology. There are three common types of experimental techniques of priming research in social psychology: conceptual priming, mindset priming, and sequential priming. Although a plethora of rather amazing findings were produced in the field of priming research, some important challenges about internal and external validity of priming studies should be addressed, such as experimenter effect and confusing the priming with the general experiment manipulation. Among these challenges, the greatest one is the replicability of priming results. Future studies should strive to solve these problems and explore the mechanism of priming.