This paper first describes the characteristics of organizational behavior and leadership research, and delineates the status quo of Chinese and international research. We can see that Chinese scholars have made fast progress in this field in the past decade and have tremendous potentials. Second, after comparing Chinese and oversea researchers in studied topics and methods, we point out the shortcomings of the current Chinese research. The third section of the paper presents the innovations of the organizational behavior and leadership research in theory, method and paradigm. Scholars are encouraged to focus on the phenomena relevant to Chinese economic and social development, to identify the research questions that are relevant to this field, and to conduct research in rigorous and creative ways. To achieve this goal, Chinese scholars need to learn from the existing theories and methods, and choose appropriate perspectives to examine the identified questions. In order to inspire Chinese scholars to investigate the important phenomena in the Chinese context, and therefore to contribute to the international academy, the third section also introduces several recent studies with high impacts. The paper concludes with the future research directions in the field of organizational behavior and leadership.
The default mode network (DMN) is a brain structure persisting activity during the resting state. As resting state has been demonstrated with function of memory consolidation and sub-regions of DMN, the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, are the key regions of memory consolidation, we hypothesize that the DMN is the core structure of sleep-dependent memory consolidation. With the high resolution in temporal and spatial domain of simultaneous EEG-fMRI, we will study the neural mechanisms of the DMN-involved memory consolidation, which includes: 1) describing the dynamic process of memory consolidation based on the EEG source localization and cross-frequency coupling analysis; 2) distinguishing the functional connectivity of DMN during resting and sleep states based on the sliding time-window and module analysis to reveal the basic principles of memory enhancement within the iteration of day and night; 3) revealing the influences of types of memory and sleep stages in memory consolidation by multimodel fusion. This project will not only develop new techniques for dynamic analysis of brain function, but it also has profound theory significance to elucidate the neural mechanisms of memory consolidation. Moreover it may ultimately provide new ideas for the treatment of the learning and memory related disorders.
The modality effect in multimedia learning showed that learning outcomes were enhanced if words were presented in an audial format with pictures, rather than a visual format (see Mayer, 2009). However, research on the reverse modality effect indicated a totally opposite result (e.g. Crooks, Cheon, Inan, Ari, & Flores, 2012; Tabbers, Martens, & van Merriënboer, 2004). A meta-analysis based on 91 empirical studies was conducted to investigate the effect of text modality on both retention and transfer tests. After pooling data preliminarily, ninety-four independent effect sizes (8088 participants) were finally included in retention-related meta-analysis while 83 independent effect sizes (6664 participants) in transfer-related meta-analysis. The results suggested that participants who learned from narration outperformed those who learned from visual text both on retention test (dretention = 0.24) and transfer test (dtransfer = 0.25) with different effect sizes from Ginns’s (2005). Further moderator analyses indicated that modality effect on learning outcomes was significantly moderated by the pace of presentation, dynamism of pictures and duration of learning materials. Specifically, the modality effect occurred mainly in conditions of system-paced presentation (dretention = 0.43, dtransfer = 0.44), dynamic pictures (dretention = 0.50, dtransfer = 0.59) and short learning materials (dretention = 0.38, dtransfer = 0.33). All of the results didn’t reveal a reverse modality effect. The replicated strong modality effect suggested that performance on recall and comprehension tasks was better when words and pictures were presented in a dual modality, rather than a single one, which supported Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML). Moreover, the pace of presentation, dynamism of pictures and duration of learning materials should be considered as vital boundary conditions of modality effect.
Previous studies have demonstrated an obvious graphical effect in the field of risk avoidance such that graphical formats could convey more effective risk information than numerical formats. However, those studies only present risk information in gray or black. Moreover, some studies have indicated that red, relative to blue and other colors, can induce stronger avoidance behavior. Based on these considerations, the present study aimed to explore graphical effect in the different colors (i.e., red and blue). The results showed that participants in the red condition, compared with those in the blue condition, exhibited stronger risk avoidance behavior. Furthermore, the strength of graphical effect was stronger in the red than blue conditions. This finding reflected that color could moderate graphical effect, which was named "red graphical effect". Thus, it is proposed that the red color, as a kind of warning color, can elicit stronger risk avoidance and enhanced graphical effect.
Transcranial direct current stimulation revived in last years as non-invasive method of brain stimulation with features of safety, low-cost, lightweight. Transcranial direct current stimulation can produce a series of physiological changes, and has advantages compared to the traditional method of brain imaging. There were some applications in fields of working memory, declarative memory, procedural memory and combining tDCS with the cognitive training. tDCS can not pinpoint, but can affect cognitive processes of perception, attention, memory based on brain region. Not only tDCS can be used as a treatment in clinical practice, but also used as neural training methods for healthy people. tDCS has good prospects.
The Joint Simon Effect (JSE) is a spatial stimulus-response compatibility effect that appears when two participants complete complementary components of a standard Simon task. The effect is considered as a valid index of the degree of self-other integration. Two main factors can influence the effect: social and nonsocial factors. Researchers explain JSE through the social facilitation theory, the co-representation account, the spatial response coding theory and the referential coding account. Future work on JSE should further explore the factors that influence it and the underlying brain mechanism, and further investigate its theoretical underpinnings.
The research on harsh parenting has developed into an important area during the past twenty years, due to its negative impact on children’s physical and mental health. Harsh parenting is evoked by various individual and environmental factors. The former mainly refers to parents' hostile personality, lower cognitive capacity, experiences of being harshly disciplined themselves, as well as children's difficult temperament and genetic vulnerability. The latter mainly includes familial economic hardship and neighborhood disadvantages. Children exposed to harsh parenting are at risk for a number of negative developmental outcomes, like externalizing and internalizing problems, lower interpersonal competence, and physiological/neural disturbances, etc. This literature review calls for more studies to explore new influencing factors such as disadvantaged family backgrounds and to examine the manifestations and negative effects of harsh parenting. It is also expected to have new studies to strengthen indigenous research for improving its prevention and intervention.
The attentional bias of individuals with insecure attachment refers to the fact that individuals with certain traits generate the attention of preference, attached or avoidant, responding to the attachment information, which allows individuals to form a specific cognitive mechanism dealing with the relationships with attachment figures: The avoidant individuals prefer defensive mechanisms and tend to shy away from the attachment information; the anxious individuals are in favor of exaggerated mechanisms, incline to exaggerate the threatening information, pay more attention to the threatening information and thus seek closeness to attachment figures actively. In the study of behaviors, the attentional bias of individuals with insecure attachment mainly reflects on emotional information, spacial allocation, pain sensation and working memory; about the EEG index, it mainly involves P1, N1 and LPP waves, which respectively represent automatic attention processing and controlled attention processing; on the part of brain network, it mainly includes limbic system which is responsible for the assessment of emotion and neural networks which are in charge of emotion management and represented by prefrontal cortex. Future studies should focus on ecological validity of stimuli, inspection on whether attachment system is activated or not, the relationship between automatic processing and controlled processing stages to attentional bias, the molecular genetic mechanism which results in the attentional bias of individuals with insecure attachment and the cross-culture study of attentional bias.
Positive empathy is a process where positive emotions are vicariously understood and shared among individuals. Positive empathy is not significantly different from negative empathy, which also depends on the mirror nervous system and the theory-of-mind system, but they are different in terms of generation diffculty. However, opinions differ with regards to the cerebral representation of positive empathy: while some researchers think it is represented in insula and the related areas in the same way as negative empathy, others point to the reward system. Studies of the influencing factors of positive empathy have been focused on the relationship between the subject and object of empathy. Further studies are needed to explore the neural representation and regulation mechanism of positive empathy. It is also important to start the study of positive empathy as a psychological trait and to establish its neural basis
Careerist orientation is defined as the propensity to pursue career advancement through non-performance-based means. Employee with a careerist orientation have career goals that are inconsistent with the interests of the organization in the long run. They believe that it is difficult to advance in organizations through merit alone, it is necessary to engage in strategy of organizational politics behavior, impression management, even deception which will ensure a promotion. Many factors such as trust in employer, an individual’s perceptions of organizational justice, perceived opportunities of career growth, five-factor model personality traits, Machiavellianism and the primary psychopathy, would influence the employees to adopt the career development attitude of careerist orientation. A careerist orientation to work is negatively related to many variables (job satisfaction, life satisfaction, work motivation, job involvement and organizational commitment), and positively related to turnover intentions. Some major directions for future research are put forward.
Projection bias is one of the cognitive biases that individuals are prone to project their current preference to future preference prediction and to exaggerate the degree to which their future preference will resemble their current one. Many previous studies have observed and demonstrated this kind of phenomenon in different judgment and decision-making situations. Psychological mechanisms of the projection bias consist in affect-cognition processing, temporal correction, and mental simulation. The factors influencing the projection bias primarily consist of both endogenous factors (including visceral feeling, emotional state and need) and exogenous factors (including event-related information, weather condition and choosing situation). In addition, three kinds of coping strategies of projecting bias are summarized. In the end, this review points out several promising research topics that future researchers of the projection bias may probe into.
Based on information processing, models of intertemporal choice can be classified into two broad classes: alternative-based models and attribute-based models. The former assume that options are independently assigned an overall value. These values are then compared, and the option with the highest value is chosen. The latter assumes that options are directly compared along their attributes, and the option favored by these comparisons is chosen. This paper reviews recent evidence supporting the attribute-based models with regard to behavioral results, process data and violations of assumptions of the alternative-based models. The paper suggests that, researchers should strengthen process-oriented studies by adopting cognitive experiments and eye-tracking techniques, conduct fMRI studies with the guidance of the attribute-based models, and expand the research of intertemporal choice into the loss domain.
The concept of relative deprivation (RD) is identified as a kind of subjective cognition and affective experience. It refers to that some individuals or groups perceived themselves at disadvantage circumstances by comparing with the corresponding reference groups, thereby leading them to experience some negative emotions, such as anger and resentment. In previous studies, the main testing models of RD consist of the two-dimension vertical structure model involving individual-group RD and cognitive-affective RD, the dual-dimension structure model of cognitive-affective RD, the two-dimension structure model of individual-group RD, and the three-dimension structure model of RD. In terms of influencing factors, the existing researches have mainly investigated the impacts of demographic variables, individual factors, and social environment factors on RD. As to its outcome variables, previous studies have focused on the effects of RD on interpersonal level outcomes, such as mental health, individual behavior, together with the intergroup level outcomes, such as intergroup attitudes, and collective action. Finally, the improvement of concept and structure research, the study of adolescent and special groups, the broadening of study contents and perspectives, the strengthening of longitudinal and intervention research, as well as localized and cross-cultural research are the trends of study in this field.
Social network sites (SNS) help us to maintain and develop our social ties. Social capital is the resources embedded in our social ties and it can be accessed and mobilized through appropriate SNS use. So there is a close relationship between SNS use and social capital. However, previous studies on the relationship between SNS use and social capital are inconsistent. Specific types of SNS use behaviors have positive effects on specific types of social capital. Self-disclosure behaviors on SNS are necessary to obtain social capital. In addition, relationship maintenance behaviors, resource mobilization attempts and privacy protecting behaviors are helpful strategies for users to get social capital. Last, the limitations of the concept of social capital and the problem of overlapping between online and offline social capital are discussed.
Life History Theory (LHT), as one of the representative theories in evolutionary psychology, has integrated the influences of both social and individual factors. It mainly focuses on the effects of individuals’ early experiences and living environment, and it is closely linked to research topics in social psychology. However, it only received limited attention in the field of social psychology. Therefore, in attempt to draw more attention to LHT and give readers a thorough understanding of it, this paper will explore through its establishment, process of development, core concepts and tenets and major measurements. Also, LHT is frequently used to analyze moral behaviors, which constitutes a significant part of social psychology. In doing so, researchers try to find out how fast and slow life history strategy would exert influences on pro-social, unethical/violent criminal behaviors; and propose possible mediators, such as the locus of control, sense of security, and the regulatory focus. Therefore, researchers see the need to broadly apply LHT in studying social psychology, as it would provide new perspectives and shed new light on the research of morality.