Currently, divergent thinking task, remote association task and insight task have been widely used in evaluating one’s creativity ability and the neural mechanism of creativity. However, these tools are non-scientific problem-solving tasks, the ecological validity and predictive validity are limited. Based on the previous studies, this project aims at investigating the creativity construct and mechanism of prototype heuristic with real scientific innovation problem. In the first study, two behavior experiments were adopted to explore the creativity components of prototype heuristics in scientific innovation problem solving. The second study examined the construct validity of these creativity components with the functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging data. In the third study, three fMRI experiments were adopted to explore the brain mechanism of creativity components of prototype heuristics when participants tried to solve scientific innovation problem. The last study tested the predictive validity of these creativity component tests with tracking study in colleges and companies. The ultimate goal of this project was developing new creative thinking tests which have desirable predictive validity and ecological validity.
China is in a period of social transformation and social change, and social risk is increasing. One important characterization is that group events frequently occur. It hints that people do not accept public policy. If formulation and implementation of public policy does not fully consider public acceptability, it is likely to constitute a new social risk, threatening social stability. Therefore, how to effectively improve public acceptance of public policy has become a major problem that should be solved in our country. The objectives of this study are to establish a model of acceptance of public policy and satisfaction with government with the impact of procedural justice, outcome favorability and trust in authority (cognitive trust and affective trust) and to effectively enhance the acceptance of the policy. Through scenario, experiment, and cross-sectional survey, this study tries to investigate the interaction between procedural justice and outcome favorability on acceptance of public policy and satisfaction with government, and the boundary effect of trust in authority on this mechanism, on the basis of which to further analyze the moderation of cognitive trust and affective trust on the relationship between acceptance of policy, satisfaction with government and their factors. The results can be used to improve public satisfaction with the policy, and to provide a scientific basis for government policy.
A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between empathy and prosocial behavior, and the factors affecting this relationship. Through literature retrieval, 76 cases and 77 independent effect sizes together with 20352 participants which met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were selected. Heterogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. The result of funnel plot and Egger’s intercept illustrated that there was not publication bias. Main-effect test findings demonstrated that empathy was significantly associated with prosocial behavior (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). The moderator analysis revealed that empathy measurement tools and participants’ age moderated the relationship between empathy and prosocial behavior but the culture background had no moderate effect.
In spite of the fact that the majority can carry a tune, some individuals show deficits in producing or imitating pitch. During the past decade, the poor-pitch singing domain has produced a large body of literature on the definition, cause and mechanism of poor-pitch singing. To date, there has not been a standard strategy to identify poor-pitch singers, while it is likely to provide thorough information over an individual’s singing proficiency to use the multi-task, multi-measure, and relative criterion approach. Singing involves four major components: perception, sensorimotor integration, vocal motor controlling, and memory. Among them, the deficient sensorimotor integration is thought to be the major cause of poor-pitch singing. The recent MMIA model describes the distorted association between auditory and vocal motor imagery, offering a proposal for how the abstract notion of an internal model over the sensorimotor association is implemented within the auditory-vocal system. Future study should further explore the auditory-vocal motor association by testing and refining the MMIA model, which paves the ground to improve individuals’ pitch singing skills.
Emotional information is important for human survival, and researchers have investigated whether emotion processing is automatic. A large body of evidence has demonstrated that emotional information can be detected rapidly, even without attention and consciousness. Firstly, the characteristics of automatic processing of emotions were discussed. Secondly, it was summarized that the subcortical pathway to amygdala through superior colliculus and the pulvinar nucleus of thalamus is important for automatic processing of emotions. Thirdly, the current controversial viewpoints regarding the experimental paradigms, techniques and the fast-subcortical pathway were discussed. In future studies, more precise experimental paradigms and techniques are needed to explore the nature of emotion and the neural underpinnings of emotion.
Flexible strategy switch is an important condition for individuals to solve tasks effectively. It has been fully proved that strategy switch needs cost, but whether the strategy switch cost is symmetric or not remains uncertain. Based on existing research, we introduced two typical effects, strategy sequential difficult effects and sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects, then proposed a hypothesis that asymmetric strategy switch cost may be the sum of symmetry switch cost and strategy sequence difficulty effect, and further put forward the idea to separate strategy sequential difficult effects from sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects by manipulating time variable. In addition, it made a new explanation of the inertia and setback of strategy choice from the angle of strategy switch cost.
Magnitude representation of fraction has become one of key issues in contemporary mathematical cognition field. Based on the latest ten-year studies, some new developments of investigations in fraction magnitude representation were reviewed. First, it was summarized how magnitude representation of fraction developed. Then the different fraction magnitude representations were introduced, and some tasks and background factors that affected magnitude representation of fraction were systematically analyzed. In addition, the relationships and differences between magnitude representation of fraction and whole number or decimal fraction were also explored. Future researchers should pay more attentions to individual differences in fraction representation, and cross-cultural investigations and other intervention aspects to strengthen the understandings on fraction representation.
Drug addiction is a disease with central nervous system dysfunction. Muscarinic receptor belong to cholinergic system, has five subtypes, M1-M5 receptors. Behavioral research show that interference with M receptor could affect drug addiction behavior. Both opioids and psychoactive drugs could active central DA system. And M receptor regulating dopamine system in various brain areas, implicate there is a potential way that M receptor affect addiction behavior through interaction with DA system. Activing M2 and M4 receptor could inhibit DA system activating, and active M5 receptor could facilitate DA system activating, in corresponding to the effect of intervened with M2、M4、M5 receptor in drug addiction behavioral research. These evidences prove that M receptor regulating DA system in drug addiction behavior, and M receptor could be new neural target for treatment of drug addiction.
Insula and amygdala are crucial neural network center for the formulation of fear of pain (FOP). FOP exacerbates pain perceptual experiences in patients with chronic pain, and then enhances their depression, anxiety and functional disability. Insular, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex are crucial neural substrates for the impact of FOP on pain perception. Reducing FOP by using cognitive intervention therapies can effectively decrease pain experience in patients with chronic pain, and improve their depression, anxiety problems, and daily function. Future studies should develop new measurement tools to assess FOP, and furthermore to reveal the neural mechanisms about the impact of FOP on pain perception in patients with chronic pain by using the functional magnetic resonance imaging technology.
There is considerably concern regarding adolescent addiction behavior and numerous research have investigated the mechanism underlying substance abuse. The “Gateway theory” proposes that the development of addiction in adolescents can be defined as model of sequential stages of involvement in drugs which begin with legal drugs and proceeds to other illicit drugs. The concept of progression in drug use has been supported by empirical research. On the basis of previous research, this review found that although evidence support the developmental processes of drug use suggested by the Gateway theory, there are some uncertainties, for example, unstable sequences of progression across classes of drugs, the limitation of explanation scope, lack of integration between underlying mechanism and various influencing factors. Future research need to investigate the internal mechanism of the sequence effect with a wide range of sample and classes of drugs.
Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by grandiosity and inflated self-views. A large body of research has linked narcissistic personality with different characteristics of the self, including grandiosity, the need for admiration, egocentricity, high self-esteem, a lack of emotional empathy, and alexithymia. Research suggests that narcissistic features of grandiosity and the need for admiration stem from distorted self-views and self-enhancement. Some studies have shown that the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), medial prefrontal cortex (MPF), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), precuneus (PC), and anterior insula (AI) are involved in self-enhancement and self-evaluation. Research also suggests that AI, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and the right posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) might contribute to the lack of empathy. Future research will be dedicated to combining methods from Genetics, Electrophysiology, Biochemistry, and Brain Imaging Technology to construct a neuro-physiological model of a narcissistic personality.
Non-verbal behaviors are defined as behaviors without linguistic content. As an art of interpersonal communication, psychological counseling emphasizes the use of non-verbal behaviors. Existing researches have demonstrated that appropriate non-verbal behaviors could enhance the counseling process. On the other hand, inappropriate non-verbal behaviors have impeded the counseling process. By reviewing previous studies, main problems in this field were summarized as follows: 1) lack of empirical research; 2) limited to counseling process research; as well as 3) monotonous research methods which lead to stagnation of research. There is a call for a breakthrough in this field, and methods from other relevant fields may help to eliminate the bottleneck.
Materialism refers to a value that emphasizes the importance of material possessions. Current article reviewed the antecedents, measures and interventions about adolescents’ materialism. First, previous research has shown that adolescents’ materialism is mainly influenced by the factors from three sources: family, peer, and mass media. Second, the Youth Materialism Scale, the Material Value Scale for children and the Consumer Involvement are three self-report scales that are widely used in the surveys related to adolescents’ materialism. Moreover, collage, imagination as well as social model video are popular paradigms in the experiments of adolescents’ materialism. Third, family, school, media and government play different roles in intervening adolescents’ materialism. Finally, this review outlined some directions for future research: a) examining the environmental effects on the formation and development of adolescents’ materialism; b) exploring adolescents’ materialism under the Chinese context.
A large body of research has examined social networks of college students. This study aims to provide a systematic review and suggestion for further research. First, we clarify the concept, dimensions and measurements of college students’ social network (CSSN). Second, we summarize the antecedents of CSSN in terms of family and individual factors. Specifically, individual factors include demographic characteristics, implicit traits and explicit behaviors. Third, we classify the effects of CSSN into four aspects: attitudes and behaviors of college students during college time, employment and entrepreneurial processes after graduation. Future research should further explore on the maintenance strategy, dynamic evolution of CSSN, and etc.
Active mediation refers to parents’ active guidance with children and media usage, such as providing helpful information and advice on educational programming, advertising, and video games. In today’s modern society, digital media technology plays an important role in the development of children and adolescents, so it is necessary to explore how to fully take advantage of the benefits and how to minimize the negative effects of electronic media. Parental active mediation can effectively improve the cognitive and social development of children and adolescents by helping children to develop critical thinking skills and resisting the acceptance of aggressive attitudes. Many factors, such as family and social upbringing, have been found to influence parental active mediation. Future research should develop effective methods to facilitate active mediation and investigate the mechanisms of the interaction effect between parental mediation and media use, and focus on the effectiveness of active mediation with children and adolescents.
In recent years, the relationship between group identification and individual mental health has attracted the attention of researchers. Through referring to the relevant literatures, we demonstrate that identification with different types of groups, including nations, countries, schools or families, and number of identified groups are significantly associated with individuals’ mental health. On the one hand, motivation to identify with groups and group evaluation moderate the association between group identification and individuals’ mental health. On the other hand, the relationship between group identification and individuals’ mental health are mediated by self-esteem, social support, perceived personal control and attribution styles. In the future, multiple methods should be used in the further study on moderating variables and mechanisms for the relationship between group identification and individual mental health.
Cultural construct of individualism/collectivism is particularly relevant cultural dimension. The value orientations of individualism and collectivism are poles apart. Individualism focuses on the self-distinctiveness, while collectivism focuses on the interpersonal relationships. So far many new theories have been proposed in order to explain the factors that influenced individualism/collectivism. There are four representative theories among those: modernization theory, pathogen prevalence theory, rice theory and climate - economic theory. The latter three theories are relatively new theories put forward in recent years, and they discuss the causes of individualism/collectivism from the perspective of distal factor. They provide a new way of thinking for researchers investigating the origins of individualism/collectivism. Future research should integrate different approaches to measure individualism/collectivism and/ or explore the influence factors of individualism/collectivism from the gene’s perspective.
Applicant’s non-verbal information is an important factor affecting the interviewer’s rating accuracy in structural interview. Several theories, such as Social Interaction Theory and Dramaturgy Theory from the perspective of the interviewer, Social Influence Theory and Interdependence Theory from the perspective of the applicant, have been trying to explain the impact of applicant’s non-verbal information on interviewer’s rating. In addition to the traditional self-report questionnaire, some of the emerging computer recognition technologies have also been used to measure the non-verbal information. Some actions should be taken to eliminate the impact of non-verbal information on the accuracy of the interviewer’s rating before, during and after an interview. Future research can be based on machine learning and big data analysis, to explore the impact mechanism of non-verbal information on interviewer’s rating in structural interview and construct a new theory to explain the impact on the rating process.