Insight experience is an important approach to uncover the nature of insight. Previously, numerous studies focused on the processes of “how to abandon the old and ineffective thinking on problem-solving” as well as “how to form the new and effective thinking on problem-solving” from the perspective of cognition. However, insight experience itself was less discussed. Investigating insight experience has significant contribution to clarify the relationship among critical processes of creative insight and understand the nature of insight. Based on the dynamic perspective on “the transition from the old to the new” of creative insight, the present project explored the psychological characteristics and neural mechanisms of impasse-related and solution-related experience occurred on the problem-solving stage and the flash of problem solution stage, combining verbal and figure creative insight task. The present project could not only enrich and optimize the methodological system of insight problem solving, but also deepen the understanding on neural mechanism of creative insight from the transitional level of cognition to emotion.
Based on the cognitive perspective, we illustrates the important influence mechanisms on how environmental uncertainty context affect leadership effectiveness. Specifically, combing the qualitative methods with quantative methods, we (a) firstly explore the perceptive process model from archival environmental uncertainty (AEU) to perceived environmental uncertainty (PEU) based on Sense-Making Theory, (b) secondly explore and examine the influence paths in linking environmental uncertainty context with leadership effectiveness drawing on the managerial cognition and strategy choices and (c) finally explore and examine the interacted influence of environmental uncertainty, organization culture, and organizational types on leadership effectiveness. The results will theoretically overcome the limitations of traditional contextual theories of leadership and explore the influence mechanisms of environmental uncertainty by connecting macro-level and micro-level. It will also help improve leadership effectiveness under uncertainty in practice.
In the cases when the celebrity is a defendant, the negative image of a celebrity has an effect on public sentence prediction. This was established via survey on public prediction on defendants’ sentence before the trial concerning the case of joint offense including a celebrity with a negative image and a non-celebrity. The results showed (N = 192) that the defendant’s celebrity status had a negative effect on public sentence prediction. The sentence prediction for celebrity was longer than for non-celebrity defendant, with significant gap between the two. The sentence prediction for celebrity accessory was shorter than those for non-celebrity accessory, with no significant gap between the two. In conclusion, in the case of joint offense, if a celebrity with negative image is principal offender, his/her celebrity status will have significant negative effect on public sentence prediction. If celebrity is accessory, his/her celebrity status will have no significant effect on judgment.
A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between praise and intrinsic motivation in children. Sixteen papers including 30 independent samples (N = 2339) met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The result of the meta-analysis showed that there is a medium positive correlation between praise and intrinsic motivation, persistence and self-evaluation. Statistically significant heterogeneity was found between studies in the size of the correlation between praise and persistence and between praise and self-evaluation. Moderator analyses revealed that cultural background had a significant moderating effects on the relationship between praise and persistence; no significant moderating effects were found for age and proportion of boys. Western samples show a significantly higher relation between praise and persistence than eastern samples.
Individual differences in trait empathy is one of the important research topics in psychology. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been done to reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of trait empathy. As these studies found out, both trait emotional empathy and trait cognitive empathy show individual differences in the brain’s empathic responses, brain structures and resting-state functional connectivity. Such findings imply that trait empathy is closely related with imitative ability, emotional processing capacity and emotion understanding level. Moreover, with several types of genes related to it, trait empathy is also highly inheritable. Further studies are needed to extend the understanding of the structure of empathy, explore the interaction of environment and gene in shaping individual differences in trait empathy, and apply theoretical findings to the clinical practice of training and improving empathy ability.
Emotional prosody recognition is the process that someone extracts emotional information from the changes in acoustic cues, and infers others’ emotions. The defect of emotional prosody recognition, which is influenced by the intensity of emotional prosody, semantic information, situational context, psychoacoustic ability and co-morbidity, is a common performance in autism spectrum disorders. The reasons that explain this defect in these patients concentrate on the mentalizing account, the social motivation theory and hypo-priors hypothesis. The neural mechanisms of emotional prosody recognition in autism spectrum disorders focus on comparative studies with typically developing subjects, including right-hemisphere superiority, increased brain activation, under-connective brain networks and abnormal early attention processing. Future studies should focus on improving the ecological validity of the paradigms, taking the individual differences into account, integrating the theories, as well as exploiting effective evaluation tools and interventions.
Language disorder represents one of the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. It is of great importance for children with autism to improve their verbal expression. Some previous studies found that musical intervention has positive effects on the verbal expression in children with autism. There are two types of the intervention materials including music matching with words as stimuli and music as a learning background. Both of interventions can improve the verbal expression of children with autism. The representatives of music interventions include Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT), Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) and background music intervention. It remains to be resolved as to the choice of music style and the combination of music with other activities as well as its applicability of different groups of children with autism.
Substance dependence is a chronic, prevalent brain disorder that harms not only the individual suffering from it, but also the whole of society. Previous studies indicated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can effectively reduce drug craving (a key aspect of dependence) and improve cognitive function by temporarily regulating the excitability of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Several advantages such as very few side effects, user-friendly manipulation and low cost, make the application of tDCS in the field of substance dependence treatment research very attractive and viable, with broad potential and promise. Future studies should continue to determine the best stimulation parameters for different types of drug and other individual differences found between abusers, investigate ways for combining tDCS with other therapeutic methods, and further explore the underlying neural mechanisms of tDCS treatment in substance dependence.
Beta (15~30 Hz) and Mu (8~14 Hz) rhythm in the human motor cortex have similar activity patterns associated with human actions, and have been viewed as two sub-components of one EEG mechanism for movement representation, planning, understanding, and execution. However, growing evidence suggests that Beta rhythm generated by motor cortex may be independent of Mu rhythm from the same regions. Thus, Beta synchrony might play a different functional role in human action. This review focuses on studies of the functional role of Beta rhythm, and emphasizes evidence that Beta modulation is independent of Mu modulation in is association with human action processing. Current theoretical hypotheses on the function of Beta modulation are discussed based on research on developmental population to help distinguishing ongoing arguments. Finally, future investigations of this topic are proposed.
As a classical concept in social psychology, self-esteem has increasingly attracted the attention of neuroscientists. Existing studies show that trait self-esteem and state self-esteem have both common and specific neural mechanisms. More importantly, trait self-esteem can modulate state self-esteem by exerting influence on an individual’s brain and neuroendocrine reactivity. Future research is needed to develop an integrated model for revealing the complicated relationship among types of self-esteem, the brain, and neuroendocrine function.
Self-esteem has been intensively studied by researchers from various fields of psychology since this concept was raised. Yet despite all the efforts of numerous researches and theories, there has been no widely-accepted conclusion about the essential of the concept. Much confusion and misunderstanding about the concept of self-esteem still exist. Based on the developmental history of self-esteem, the present paper reviews several most influential theories involving researches on self-esteem and compares various related concepts. Furthermore, the paper introduces the true self-esteem which is the focus topic in recent years, suggesting that contingency and conditionality are essential differences between true self-esteem and non-true concepts. This research could provide the theoretical basis for further experimental studies.
Problematic social networks usage of adolescent is a common concern in the world. Problematic social networks usage is often referred to as “addiction to social networks”, “use of pathological social networks” or “overuse of social networks”, and the standard concept and definition have not been reached a consensus. The reasonable use of social network has positive significance for promoting the establishment, maintain and development of social relations. However, problematic social networks usage has a negative impact on adolescent physical and mental development. A discussion on the problematic social networks usage in adolescent will provide the basis for the intervention research. Future research should clarify the concept and definition of the problematic social networks usage, and use the method of multidimensional perspective to carry out in-depth study on the mechanism of problematic social networks usage, and strengthen the theoretical construction and intervention research on the problematic social networks usage.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) refers to any form of aggression and/or controlling behaviors by a current or former partner in an intimate relationsip against the other. It causes harm not only to the physical and mental health of women, but to social adjustment of the children concerned. IPV is closely associated with both children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors. As protective factors, the age and emotional regulation ability of the children and the social support they received may decrease their adjustment problems. The cognitive-contextual framework, emotional security theory, spillover theory and developmental psychopathological framework explain the mechanisms of how IPV impacts children’s social adjustment. Several intervention programs are conducted by practitioners to facilitate the social adjustment ability of the children. Future research should take more efforts to differentiate various IPV assessment, control co- occurring risk factors, highlight neurobiological research and improve intervention studies.
Based on attribution theory, this paper reviews leaders’ perception of employee voice-behavior motives to explain the different leader responses to employee voice behaviors. We propose when leaders believe employees' voice behaviors are driven by either organizational-concern motive or prosocial-values motive, they will have positive responses; such as praise/ acceptance, rewards, and task execution. Alternately, negative responses such as punishment, neglect, and revenge will result when leaders attribute employees' voice behaviors to a challenge motive, disengagement motive, impression management or self-protection. Further, we argue that power distance will moderate the relationship between leaders’ motive perception and employees’ voice behaviors. Specifically, leaders of low power distance are more likely to support and accept voice behaviors exhibiting stronger relationships between expertise and voice climate with positive motive perceptions; while a weaker relationship is seen between challenge motive and negative motive perceptions. On the other hand, leaders of high power distance tend to assert absolute authority and control over subordinates, and exhibit weaker relationships between expertise, creditability, and voice climate with positive motive perceptions; and a stronger relationship between challenge voice and negative motive perceptions. Finally, we suggest future research focus on the following areas: 1) examine voice as a process to examine the process whereby leaders’ responses to voice behaviors can affect employees’ subsequent attitudes and behaviors; 2) explore how a voice climate develops and examine its effects at the individual and organizational levels; 3) clarify on the role of emotions in voice behaviors.
Inclusive leadership, a new leadership style, emphasizes focusing on and satisfying followers’ needs. Inclusive leadership exhibits openness, accessibility, and availability in their interaction with their followers. By systematically clarifying the history of inclusive leadership, its conception, dimension, measurement, comparison with other leadership theories, empirical researches and the contingent effects of indigenous cultures, this study summarizes and evaluates relative research at home and abroad. It also identifies the trends of future study in this field and discusses their implications for inclusive leadership’s conceptualization and measurement, research levels and methods, comparative study with other leadership theories and contextual effectiveness.
Factors affecting the effectiveness of inter-group apology are manifold. For perpetrator groups, an effective inter-group apology needs to include admitting mistakes, taking responsibility, expressing regret, making commitments, etc. in verbal expressions. Simultaneously, perpetrator groups should consider behavior strategies of the inter-group apology, as well as the impact from the internal motivation behind the apology on their verbal expressions and behaviors. For victim groups, the effectiveness of the perpetrator- group’s apology lies in the fact that the apology itself eases the fury, meets the victim group’s psychological needs for self-esteem and expectations, and meanwhile is subject to the moderation of perceptual degree of sincere apology. Additionally, an inter-group apology will also be affected by the quality of inter-group relations, the degree of conflict, cultural beliefs, and other external factors. In future studies, it should be attempted to integrate the process mechanisms of group apology, to enrich the inspection indexes of the effectiveness of group apology, and to allow apologies to play an active role in the area of social life.
Envy is a mixed emotion that arises when a person lacks other’s superior quality, achievement, or possession with feelings of inferiority, hostility and resentment, and enviers desire to gain advantage from the envied objects or hope them to lose superiority. As a complex emotion directing to other’s fortune, benign envy and malicious envy will trigger different action tendencies, and mainly depend on the cognitive appraisal process from individual to other’s good fortune. Envy arises from upward social comparison, and then the social events deservingness, subjective fairness and core self-appraisal all impact it. This article analyzes the cognitive psychological process and developing process of envy from social comparison perception, cognitive processing and neurophysiology function. Based on deficiency of the current researches, future research may further improve the aspects of the development and early cognitive basis of envy, measurement methods, and differentiation of motive functions.
Studies on well-being have been derived from two general perspectives: the hedonic approach and the eudaimonic approach. “Flourishing”, being a newly holistic, comprehensive and structural standard for evaluating well-being, is receiving increasing attentions among researchers. Meaning in life is closely related to well-being. It reflects the value of existence and the purpose of life of an individual, has implications on one's motivation, and can be realized in one's actions. Meaning in life includes two dimensions, presence of meaning and search for meaning. “Presence of meaning” is positively related to increased well-being. While the relation between searching for meaning and well-being is negative, the negative relation has variability and transience characteristics. From the perspective of eudaimonia, although negative experiences and feelings reduce individual's current happiness, individuals can achieve their goals and self-worth in the process of searching for meaning, thus acquiring lasting well-being internally.
The recent replication crisis in psychology has raised increasing concerns. Given that it is important for psychologists to understand the replication crisis and the consequent changes in the field, the present review aimed at providing an overview of the relevant events and highlighting the methodological reforms in psychology. First, we briefly recapitulated the events that raised doubt about reliability of psychological research. Then, we focused on a recent large-scale replication study (Reproducible Project: Psychology) and the following debates. In addition, three underlying causes of the replication crisis were examined: 1) the overabundance of false positive results, which is mainly caused by the prevalence of questionable research practices, 2) publication bias, and 3) the over-reliance on Null-Hypothesis Significant Testing (NHST) and misunderstanding of p-values, which was confirmed by our survey among Chinese psychology students and academics. More importantly, the proposed solutions provided in the literature were also reviewed, e.g., shifting from NHST to alternative statistical methods and adopting new ways to enhance research integrity (i.e., pre-registration, full disclosure, and open data and materials of studies). Finally, we call for joint efforts by policy makers, researchers and educators to solve the replication crisis.