Self-control is the important motivation clue in the trick recognition. However, self-control plays the motivation clue role the in the deceit recognition and plays the supervision mechanism role in implementing deceits, the cognition mechanism and the neural basis remains unclear yet. The influences of the self-control ability and self-control resources on the deceits are different, but the neural basis of the impacts hasn't been solved yet. It is necessary to adopt multiple technique methods and experimental tasks such as the behavioral study, the event-related potential (ERP) and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In order to investigate recognizing the others’ self-control ability in deception or recognizing the self-control resources plays major role And investigating the self-control ability or the self-control resources play the major role in the deceits. And the impact of self-control resources on deceits is agree with the energy depletion view or energy saving view.
Along with the increasing support from our government, more and more new businesses are emerging, but the failure rate of these new businesses is very high. Sustaining subsequent entrepreneurial intention after encountering a failure in entrepreneurship is a realistic problem that needs to be solved urgently. A few methods including transverse survey, longitudinal comparison and scene simulation will be discussed in this project. Mediated moderation effect of achievement goal orientation and self-compassion in the relationship between the entrepreneurial failure and subsequent entrepreneurial intention will be analyzed.In addition,the multiple mediating effects of social comparison,learning from entrepreneurial failure and entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the relationship between entrepreneurial failure,and subsequent entrepreneurial intention will also be analyzed. This project has important theoretical significance according to the above design.Entrepreneurs can be guided to learn from suitable role models through upward social comparison in the practice, this help stimulate entrepreneurs to start new businesses again. Moreover, entrepreneurs can be induced to escape from negative emotion by self-compassion intervention,and increase the intention to run a company again, So the results of this project research will have critical practical significance.Social comparison and self-compassion intervention research has distinctive Chinese culture features.
Effects of firm pay level, vertical pay dispersion and horizontal pay dispersion on firm innovation, performance and turnover were examined in an SEM-based meta-analysis of 254 effect sizes from 113 empirical studies of 438880 western and eastern companies. Results showed that pay level could not only increase firm innovation and performance, but also decrease firm turnover level. Although the effects of vertical and horizontal pay dispersion on firm performance were not significant, they could decrease firm innovation and increase turnover level. Further moderation analyses showed that the relation between pay level and firm performance was moderated by nation. Compared to American firms, pay level in Chinese firms was more positively associated with firm performance. Our conclusion has important implications to firm compensation management.
Implementing a visual task across both visual hemifields results in a better performance than in a single hemifield, which is termed as “bilateral field advantage”. The BFA is elicited by two closely linked mechanisms: the early competitive interactions in the visual cortex and the top-down attentional modulation mechanism in the dorsal fronto-parietal network. The former is mainly produced in areas V1–V4, which have a topological relationship with retina, and the latter is mainly involved in bilateral intraparietal sulcus, the right frontal eye field and the right precuneus. Future research will be needed to adopt 3-D stereo vision to further explore the BFA and investigate the brain neural mechanism how it interacts with other types of visual field advantages. It is also meaningful to solve the remaining controversies over the systematic functional connection between brain areas of the dorsal fronto-parietal network.
Depressive rumination is the focused attention on the symptoms of one's distress, and on its possible causes and consequences, as opposed to its solutions. It is characterized by excessive concern about negative affect, deficits in cognitive control and maladaptive self-reference process. Based on these cognitive characteristics, recent fMRI evidence showed that the neural mechanisms of depressive rumination were associated with amygdale, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and default mode network (DMN). Future studies should focus on the brain region mediating subtype of depressive rumination, gene, as well as providing useful interventions.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is confirmed to be impaired in visual-spatial working memory, mainly characterized by effects of cognitive load and capacity limitation. Recently, the functions of attention and central coherence in ASD through visual-spatial working memory performance started to be concerned. Neuroimaging studies have showed functional and structural brain abnormalities in frontoparietal working memory networks in ASD, which are generally linked to frontal-lobe dysfunction. In addition, studies also involved in relations between visual-spatial working memory and other cognitive processes, such as verbal working memory, executive functions and social cognition. From wide view of previous researches, future studies should put ecological validity of experimental tasks on the important status, take full advantage of neuroimaging techniques and longitudinal studies, further reveal the mechanism separation of object and spatial working memory in ASD, and devote to develop an effective intervention training mode.
Fear of pain (FOP), an experience associated with pain catastrophizing beliefs and interpretations of actual and potential pain as threat to body tissue, plays an important role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Recent evidence has found fear of pain can be acquired through associative learning, observational learning and verbal threat information. Acquired fear of pain can generalized new stimuli sharing features with original fear stimuli. Fortunately, fear of pain can be reduced successfully by extinction procedures including in vivo graded exposure to laboratory and “real-world” pain sensations. Brain regions including the amygdale, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, are involved in the acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of FOP. Future research should investigate how FOP is reinstated and reconsolidated after its extinction neural mechanisms underpinning the phenomenon, and treatment implications to patients with chronic pain.
Recently, researchers in educational psychology pay much more attention to disfluency effect. Studies showed that students’ learning performance was enhanced if materials were presented in a perceptually harder-to-read format, rather than an easier-to-read format (Diemand-Yauman et al., 2011). Previous studies mainly manipulated the extrinsic characteristics of text, picture, and sound in the educationally relevant materials to investigate the role of perceptual fluency in learning. In this article, we firstly reviewed researches about the effects of disfluency on both judgment of learning (JOL) and learning outcomes. Second, theories of disfluency and their potential controversies were introduced and reviewed. Third, based on empirical studies related to perceptual fluency, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine to what extent disfluency would influence students’ learning outcomes as well as JOL. According to previous studies, metacognitive illusions occurred when information was perceptually easy to process, and yielded a sense of overconfidence from fluent materials. However, learning disfluent materials made JOL more cautiously. It’s possibly leading to a remission of overconfidence. However, it remained various mixed results of the effects of disfluency. The generality of the disfluency effect was questioned by many researchers. From the perspectives of desirable difficulty and disfluency theory, perceptual disfluency is likely to improve the storage strength of memory or activate analytical thinking. More subjective efforts and additional cognitive burden are needed while perceptual difficulty is increased. Therefore, learners would process information more deeply, abstractly, and carefully, and result in better retention or comprehension. However, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) might predict an opposite result of learning for the reason that disfluency bring about an increase of extraneous cognitive load, rather than germane cognitive load. Results of meta-analysis revealed that disfluency lowered learners’ confidence of JOL (d = −0.54, p < 0.01) and hindered learning (d = −0.36, p = 0.06). This result supported Cognitive Load Hypothesis. Finally, implications and further research were discussed. Future studies should focus on the manipulation, the systematic evaluation of disfluency itself, and boundary conditions of disfluency effect.
High performance work system (HPWS) is a set of human resource practices that designed to improve organizational performance, which has attracted widespread attention over recent decades. Existing research, however, revealed that the system had also brought negative effect apart from the positive outcomes. This paper clarified the conceptualization of HPWS and analyzed the causes for the negative effect from perspectives of management philosophy and measurement techniques. Differences of the impact of HPWS on organization and individual employees were analyzed and the sources of negative effect from pluralistic perspectives were presented. Building on the Job Demand-Resources model, Self-Determination Theory, Attribution Theory and the Too-Much-of-a-Good-Thing effect, we explicated the underlying mechanisms that HPWS exerts negative impact on employees and proposed the boundary conditions at both individual and organizational levels. Finally, implications and suggestions for future research were discussed.
Causations of corporation unethical behaviors have become an important problem that puzzled managers and scholars in organization management. The mechanism of occurrence and development of unethical behavior has also received highly attentions in psychology. Moral disengagement theory may solve this problem. Employees and leadership are the two dimensions for research of situational factors as the impact on corporation unethical behaviors with moral disengagement theory. The key to the future researches in this field is to explore and carry out empirical tests about the effects of moral disengagement’s selective preference on unethical behaviors, as well as continuous discussion about the mechanisms between moral disengagement and unethical behavior at both levels of employees and organizational leader.
Socioeconomic disparities in health refer to the systematic differences in health outcomes between the populations of different socioeconomic status. In the past three decades, studies from Western societies have well established the negative associations of socioeconomic status with a wide array of health outcomes, and have explored socioeconomic disparities in health in terms of structural conditions and personal characteristics. On the basis of empirical evidence, theorists have proposed sociocultural self-model, reserve capability model, and biopsychosocial model to comprehensively understand the mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in health. Future work should further investigate the roles of sociocultural factors and individual difference variables in socioeconomic disparities in health with more diverse research designs. This work contributes to the understanding of health disparities in the globe, and has implications for the practice of promoting health equality in Chinese societies.
Facial attractiveness indicates the aesthetic evaluation of human faces. From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, facial attractiveness is a cue for mate value, which is the central working hypothesis of research on facial attractiveness. In this article, we review relevant studies on the relationship between facial attractiveness and mate value, particularly those studies that focus on factors influencing facial attractiveness, including sexual dimorphism, fluctuating asymmetry and facial adiposity.