Informal information is a crucial component of information communication prior to organizational change. It has potential influences on the decision-making and implementation of organizational change. This research first conceptualizes informal information prior to organizational change. Based on psychological coping mechanism and cognitive restructuring, this research then explores employees’ dynamic adjustment of their cognitive and affective readiness to change when they receive informal information before the implementation of organizational change. Finally, this research examines a process whereby possible decision-making of organizational change moves forward to feedback on informal information, which in turn moves to decision improvement. In the whole process, the initiator of organizational change incrementally optimize their decision-making by obtaining their employees’ cognitive and affective feedback on organizational change. The findings of this research will enrich the literature on organizational change communication and provide managerial implications for organizational change practices in China.
With the deterioration of the environment, people begin to pay attention to how to protect the natural environment which we depend on to survive. Consumers play an important role in protecting the environment. Although there have been many findings related to green consumption, research on psychological mechanism of green consumption is insufficient. Based on the social-cognitive perspective moral identity theory, we focus on psychological variables that influence green consumption. There are three aspects of contents to explore: (1) the mediation mechanism between moral identity and green consumption, and the boundary condition of the mediation mechanism; (2) factors that moderate the relationship between moral identity and green consumption; (3) different effects of the two dimensions of the self-importance of moral identity (internalization and symbolization) on green consumption. Theoretically, we enrich research in fields of moral identity and green consumption. Practically, we can provide feasible advice for the government and corporations on how to promote green consumption behavior of consumers.
A meta-analysis Structural equation modelling was conducted to investigate the relationship between family socioeconomic status, parental involvement and academic performance of students on the basic of family stress model and family investment model. Analysis of 25 studies (N = 79665) met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The result of meta-analysis showed: family socioeconomic status had medium positive correlation to academic performance of students. Moderator analyses revealed that measurement method had significant moderating effects on the relationship between family socioeconomic status and academic performance, and the moderating effects of grade was not significant. Mediation analysis revealed that parental involvement plays partial mediation effect between family socioeconomic status and academic performance. Moreover, partial mediation effect of parental involvement was significant when students were from kindergarten or elementary school. The results suggest that family socioeconomic status is an important influencing factor to academic performance from kindergarten to secondary school. And before secondary school, family socioeconomic status partially affects academic performance by parental involvement.
A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between meaning in life and subjective well-being. Forty-five relevant studies met the criteria of meta-analysis were taken into research. All studies included 51 independent samples with a total of 27291 participants. Results of meta-analysis showed that meaning in life has a positive correlation with subjective well-being (r = 0.505, p < 0.001), life satisfaction (r = 0.395, p < 0.001), and positive affect (r = 0.325, p < 0.001) significantly, while a negative relationship with negative affect (r = −0.195, p < 0.1). The relationship between meaning in life and subjective well- being was regulated by gender differences and type of participants (e.g. gender differences could significantly positively adjust this relationship). Results suggested that meaning in life could predict subjective well- being effectively.
In the past decades, researchers have investigated the neural basis of developmental dyslexia and revealed the specific regional abnormality in dyslexics with a view of brain functional localization. However, given the complexity of reading process and its engagement of multiple regions, more and more researchers have studied this issue from an inter-regional brain connectivity perspective in recent years. These studies revealed that dyslexics exhibited disruption in both white matter structural connectivity and functional connectivity. These findings suggest a tight link between reading impairment and abnormalities in inter- regional brain connectivity. Future studies should explore the relationship between the connectivity disruption and specific regional abnormality in dyslexia and combine gene, brain, behavior, and environmental factors to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of dyslexia.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) has psychological and physical consequences that seriously compromise individual health. At present, researchers conceptualize AN using biopsychosocial perspectives that address biological, psychological and social influences on the disorder. In the present review, key precipitants of AN are discussed including genetic susceptibility, changes to neurotransmitter activity, personality traits, fear of fatness, life stressors, internalization of a "thin" attractiveness ideal, and family relationship dynamics. Together these factors can increase risk for physical, psychological and behavioral problems related to AN. In addition, select future research directions are discussed, particularly causal relations between neuroendocrine functioning and anorexia. Finally, recommendations are discussed for prevention and intervention aimed at reducing suffering and improving quality of life among people with AN.
Exposure to stress could have a negative impact on the individual’s physiological function and behavior, and even cause depression. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In recent years, research shows that the epigenetic regulation influences the onset of stress-induced depression. Epigenetics refers to the various processes leading to long-term heritable changes in gene expression without alteration of the DNA base sequence. Stress-induced epigenetic regulation from the aspects of HPA axis, monoamine neurotransmitters, and the BDNF, plays a vital role in the onset of depression. The epigenetic limitations and future research hotspots were also discussed.
Research shows that young children’s ownership judgment depends on different cues. Three-year- olds can reason ownership based on cues such as first possession, labor, testimony, control of permission and some stereotypes. Social and cultural factors can influence children's use of different cues in ownership judgment. There might be some delay in using the first possession cue for children in less developed regions or countries. Children in collectivistic cultures tend to be more conservative, indicated by their favor of the cue of first possessor when it conflicts with the cue of labor. Future studies can examine the weights of different cues in children’s ownership judgment by using the conflicting cues paradigm. Furthermore, researchers can use eye tracking techniques to reveal younger children’s ownership cognition.
Cooperation and self-interest are individuals’ basic behavioral patterns in situations of conflicting interests. Within the rationality framework of economics, selfish behavior is viewed as human being’s instinct reaction. However, recent opinions claim that cooperation is an automatic reaction by nature. Theories and researches on unconsciousness, cognitive capacity, and ego depletion, as well as evidences from neurosciences studies, have verified that complicated social behaviors such as cooperation can be automatically activated. Future studies should further demonstrate whether self-interest or cooperation is automatic, and reveal psychological mechanisms of automaticity of social cooperation and its conditions.
A situation in which one must make a choice between his reputation and profit is so called a reputation-profit game. Individual usually tends to sacrifice their profit to obtain reputation in this kind of game. Competitive altruism theory regards the reputation obtaining behavior as a strategy with which one can attract investor’s interest to gain more profit from the investment in the future. The identity of the observer would affect the degree of gamer’s tendency of reputation obtaining behavior. According to the purpose of reputation, observer’s objective capacity to pay back the investment of reputation (e.g. ability) which would decide the upper limit of the possible benefits in the future and observer’s subjective capacity to pay back the investment of reputation (e.g. social distance) which means the degree to which the gamer believes the observer would give him the chance would affect the generating of reputation obtaining behavior jointly. And these two capacities should be viewed as core factors which would decide the tendency of the game. Based on these two core factors, three levels of identity information (detailed/specific/ambiguous identity) should be taken seriously in future researches to verify the effectiveness of these two factors and provide empirical evidences for the construction of the mechanism of reputation-profit game.
Self-deception in autobiographical narrative is a kind of self-deception in the perspective of intrapersonal, and a strategy that individuals use to maintain self-identity in the process of self-construction under no interpersonal pressure. It occurs in the process of autobiographical narrative, in which individuals widen narrative distance between “new me” and “old me” through narrative language, construct a new goal to seek and achieve, and finally set up a narrative identity. In this process, individuals are motivated to maintain a positive self-concept by using biased information processing, and to meet the need of consistent experience and evaluate of emotion as well. Self-deception in autobiographical narrative can affect individuals’ self-consciousness, and result in self-change. Future research would focus on the occurrence and coping strategies of self-deception in autobiographical narrative in clinical treatment. Meanwhile its cognitive neural mechanism will be investigated, and its characteristics and influencing factors under different socio-cultural backgrounds will be explored.
With the development of the Internet, Social Network Sites (SNS) play more and more important roles in romantic relationships. SNS accelerate the formation of romantic relationships, and enhance relationship satisfaction. However, SNS also tend to cause jealousy and surveillance. Besides, SNS alter the behavior model of the individuals to end romantic relationships. Exposure to online information about ex-partners can slow down the healing process and personal growth after relationship dissolution. In the future, researchers need to pay attention to adolescents and online relationship groups and examine individuals’ psychological change characteristics through diary method and ecological momentary assessment method. Besides, researchers should focus on mental health problems, avoiding the negative effects of SNS.
Existing researches usually investigate the effect of workplace incivility on targets’ work-related outcomes within workplace. Actually recent researches revealed that the negative effects of workplace incivility have a ripple effect and are far beyond workplace boundary. That is, workplace incivility can spillover from work domain into home domain, and can have a similar bad effect on those who are closed to targets. This paper discussed the spillover and the crossover effect of workplace incivility, including concept, theory and mechanism. Specifically, we summarized the internal mechanisms of the spillover and crossover effect. Meanwhile, we think the spillover effect of workplace incivility due to the chronic nature of it and its accompanying negative affect. Stress transmission plays an important role in the relationship between negative affect/behavior and marital dissatisfaction. Additionally, empathy moderate the direct crossover effect and social undermining mediate the indirect crossover effect. Finally, we suggest future research using longitudinal measures, multiple data and sources of workplace incivility; choosing other outcome variables and examining these two effect in other relationships; exploring the mechanisms and boundary conditions; and investigating the integral spillover-crossover/crossover-spillover effect.
Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) are one family of psychometric models developed primarily for assessing examinees’ mastery and non-mastery of skills or attributes. The extent to which the cognitive diagnosis models’ hypotheses fit the real response patterns substantially influences the validity of cognitive diagnostic evaluation. The model-data fit tests in cognitive diagnostic theory are typically based on the item fit tests, the overall fit tests and the person fit tests. Comprehensive and structural introduction and evaluation of the model-data fit test methods and related statistics are intended to aid the future cognitive diagnostic studies and practice. Directions of future researches on model-data fit for cognitive diagnosis models include further inspection of the evaluation and comparison of fit test statistics under more complex simulation conditions, the improvement of the existing fit statistics and the development of novel fit statistics.