With the wide use of work teams in organizations, academics have increasingly focused on team and team effectiveness. As one of the fundamental characteristics of team effectiveness, team leadership and its mechanism has attained more and more attention. Till now, multi-level and mediation effect during team process of leadership have been illustrated; however, empirical research concerning cross-level interaction effects of leadership is still scarce. Moreover, the situational issues of leadership assessment have been short of concern. The present project proposed a conceptual framework, on the basis of Dual-Level Transformational Leadership Theory and Social Identify Theory, describing how transformational leadership affects team and individual effectiveness through multi-level processes (team level, individual level, and cross-levels, respectively). Specifically, we will develop a situational judgment test of the dual-level transformational leadership in Chinese context and will test the interaction effects of team-level variables (e.g., group-focused transformational leadership, relational identification, collective identification) and individual-level variables (e.g., individual-focused transformational leadership, LMX, relational identification to leader) and the boundary conditions and their effects on effectiveness via multi-wave questionnaires data. Structural equation model and hierarchical linear model will be used to examine the model. The findings can contribute to the development of dual-level team leadership theory, and can also provide a new view for team leader selection in organizations.
The current update meta-analysis focused on the effect sizes of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) for anxiety disorder, and explored the potential moderators by subgroup analysis and hierarchical meta-regression. To understand the mechanism of CBM, mediation analysis by two-stage structural equation method (TSSEM) integrating meta-analysis and structural equation method is applied. The results demonstrate that (1) CBM may have small effects on anxiety symptom reduction at the risk of publication bias; however, CBM can modify cognitive bias better with a medium effect size. (2) The type of intervention, training environment, publication year and impact factor moderate the effect size of CBM on post-training anxiety. Training environment and the type of anxiety disorder are moderators of the effect size on cognitive bias. (3) Cognitive bias is the partial mediator by which CBM may have an influence on anxiety symptom.
The present study conducted a cross-temporal meta-analysis of 83 papers that using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to investigate Chinese college students’ self-esteem. There are 48384 college students involved in 83 papers and the data collection time ranged from 1993 to 2013. Results showed that: (1) The self-esteem of Chinese college students decreased steadily in the 20 years between 1993 through 2013. Compared to the year of 1993, it dropped 0.86 standard deviations in 2013; (2) Self-esteem of both male and female Chinese college students declined significantly, whereas, self-esteem scores had no significant gender difference; (3) Furthermore, there’s no difference of self-esteem between rural and urban students. Both of them declined significantly.
Microexpressions are caused by true feelings which leak from oppression and hiding, and their last times are about 1/25~1/2 s. They often appear in lie situations, and may be result of "tug of war" between voluntary facial movements controlled by vertebral bunch of motor system and involuntary facial movements controlled by vertebral body movement system。Preverse reaserches have built a series of microexpression databasees, and developed BART and JACBART microexpression recognition tests as well as training tool such as METT, and discussed relationships among microexpression recognition and cognition, personality, culture, and professional. But these studies only detectived microexpressions under the background of neutral expression, which were special cases of real microexpressions set in various expressions backgrounds, therefore they did not have a high level of ecological validity. A small amount of researches have explored effect of expressions backgrounds in microexpression recognition, but did not establish any standardized test. So in the future we should develop ecological microexpression recognition standard tests and training tools, establish ecological microexpression database, and use them in many fields. We should also get through the boundary of occurrence and recognition of microexpression, and explore their mechanisms by using physiological-psychological, electrophysiological and brain imaging techniques.
Multiple object tracking (MOT), a wildly used paradigm, offers an opportunity to analyze the attention processes in dynamic context. Endogenous cuing and exogenous cuing could be separated by the difference of processing time span during target acquisition (TA) phase. The location and feature argument between the Object File Theory and the Visual Index Theory was well investigated by juggling variant and trajectory variant, which either alternated the features of objects within a trail or fixed trajectory of targets, distractors, or both of them. However researches on cognitive resource allowance and strategy has not been fully discussed at now.
Object affordance refers to the phenomenon that the visual presentation of object can activate action it afforded. Gibson postulate that humans could directly detect action possibilities (affordances) from the physical properties of objects in the environment in an automatic fashion. However, a growing body of evidence has suggested that object affordance could be modulated by action semantic knowledge and context. That is, individuals can select appropriate action towards the object in terms of the top-down processes. In addition, there is specificity in different judgment tasks for object affordance studies. Only judgment tasks containing deep processing of an object rather than demanding discrimination of the surface properties of the object can evoke action object afforded, demonstrating that the motor activity is task-dependent and is not fully automatically evoked by viewing object. Further study needs to explore the role of action sematic knowledge and context in the mechanism underlying object affordance and the reasons that caused the specificity in different judgment tasks.
The consciousness level of error processing includes conscious processing, unconscious processing, and the levels between the two. The error reporting paradigm is usually used in studies of error processing under different consciousness status. Based on the sorting results, correlational studies can be classifed as the binary consciousness research and the multiple consciousness research. Previous research mainly focused on the relationship between consciousness level and Ne, Pe. Two kinds studies of ERP consistently showed the relationship between consciousness of error and Pe with no support, but whether the Ne reflects conscious processing of error is still under controversial debates. Besides, researchers explored the influence of attention on error consciousness, which results supported the relationship between the Pe and error consciousness and doubted the effects of attention on consciousness level. Based on the review of past studies, we propose some directions for the future research.
Risk-based Decision making is to choose between options with known outcomes and certain distribution of possibilities. Previous research, based on rodent models, has found that prefrontal-limbic- striatal circuits are the critical substance of Risk-based Decision making. Specifically, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex mainly contribute to the decisions formulation and flexibility of switching among a variety of strategies. While the basolateral amygdala and the nucleus accumbens are mostly involved in maintaining strategies and evaluating their values, mediating the preference to different options and adjusting the intensity of action. Besides, orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and dopaminergic neurons encode probabilities and risky information in the course of Risk-based Decision making. Furthermore, dopamine and some other monoamine neurotransmitters also exert complex effects on Risk-based Decision making in both receptor-type specific and brain-region specific ways.
Widely regarded as a paradoxical phenomenon, trust refers to one’s willingness to place one’s resources at the disposal of another party, sometimes without adequate information for judging the other person’s motives, intentions, and actions. As a fundamental social signaling mechanism, trust plays an important role in the development and maintenance of well-functioning relationships. Using the Trust Game, researchers have explored cognitive neural mechanisms of interpersonal trust and have proposed four theories including the betrayal aversion theory, social norm theory, moral norm theory, and the default behavior model. Neuroimaging studies have indicated certain brain regions to be differentially associated with the decision to trust, including medial prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, amygdala, and insula. Future research should emphasize the integration of different theories under the framework of multi-level analysis, pursue functional connectivity analysis of brain regions, and take individual difference factors into consideration.
Psychological control is a form of intrusive parenting and refers to parental behaviors that manipulate children’s thoughts and feelings by guilt-induction and love withdrawal. Psychological control has been found to have detrimental effects on children’s psychosocial functioning including increased behavioral problems and diminished autonomy. A large number of cross-cultural studies report that Chinese parents are particularly liable to exert strong psychological control over their children. Social-contextual factors, parents’ personality characteristics, and children’s behavior might be related to the likelihood and impact of psychological control. We propose that future research consider Chinese cultural effects and investigate how factors including multiple caregiver networks and children’s differential susceptibility impact on psychological control.
Defocusing is a strategy to reduce focusing illusion by diverting individual’s attention away from focal events or factors. How to make use of defocusing to improve our experienced well-being has become a focus in positive psychology. Defocusing can significantly alleviate different types of negative emotions, and its mechanism can be explained by distraction hypothesis and emotional processing theory. Furthermore, we recommend that future researches pay attention to the comparison of generic defocusing and self-relevant defocusing, the subsequent impact of defocusing on experienced well-being and the influence of re-focusing on experienced well-being.
Regulatory fit theory proposes that individuals prefer behavior strategies that are consistent with their orientations (regulatory fit), which could lead to better performance. This paper reviewed previous studies of regulatory fit in research on sport behavior, and found that regulatory fit would promote many sport behaviors such as sport performance, sport decision-making, and exercise participation. Moreover, three suggestions should be clarified in future research: (a) expanding the research contents on regulatory fit; (b)exploring the mechanism of regulatory fit; (c) refining the research methods on regulatory fit.