Stereotype refers to social beliefs about the characteristics, attributes, and behaviors of certain groups, which is usually represented as semantic schema in long-term memory. According to the different levels of involvement of consciousness in the process of semantic activation, stereotypes can be classified as implicit and explicit types. Instead of drawing on the conventional “automatic activation-controlled inhibition” research perspective of the Dual-process model, this study aimed to examine the differences in representation and the mechanism of activation between the implicit and explicit stereotypes based on the Multiple Memory Systems (MMS) Model. As a classical theory of memory, the MMS model could account for the differences of memory storage and retrieval process between the implicit and explicit stereotypes, but encounters difficulty in explaining their traits in semantic representation, as well as their control- inhibition processes. Given this research gap, the current study intended to take advantage of the respective strengths of Mirror-Mentalizing System Model and the Dual-process Model in explaining the processing of traits and beliefs and the control-inhibition of stereotypes. By using the EEG/ERPs method and the dynamic causal modeling of fMRI, this study would propose a model for the dynamic processing of distributed semantic activation of stereotypes.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among earthquake survivors, and will adversely affect individuals, families and societies. Recent systematic review study showed that the number of health related academic articles dropped dramatically 2 years after the earthquake, which, to some extent, reflected, that researchers ignored the long term impact of a disaster to the affected population. Clearly, then, there is a need for more research on the long-term health consequences of earthquake. This study is a follow-up study conducted among survivors of the Sichuan earthquake, based on six-wave repeated cross-sectional survey during 2008 to 2016. Following questions will be answered: what is the prevalence of probable PTSD at different time points following an earthquake? Why people have different symptoms: Chronic, delayed, recovered, and resilience? How is the relationship between PTSD and changes of income, relationship and resources? When and how to organize and promote activities for PTSD intervention? The results of this study have theoretical significance and may be helpful for further mental health interventions for survivors after earthquakes. It will provide references for policymakers to make policy for public health service in disaster.
Based on the theory of resource scarcity and focusing illusion, we used two studies to test whether focusing missing affects instant feelings of happiness. In Study 1, we adopted the graphical focusing task to examine the relationship between the focusing missing and instant happy experience. The results showed that compared with the no-focusing missing group, focusing missing participants who preferred to choose missing pictures to represent their current life were easier to experience focusing missing phenomenon. In Study 2, we used the priming method to examine the impact of focusing missing on instant happy experience. Through the manipulation of focusing missing level, the results showed that compared to low focusing missing, high focusing missing makes one’s emotional happiness much lower. Initially, it has also been proved that one usually overestimates the proportion of missing in the whole life, and it exists the phenomenon of “amplification of missing”. Unlike former focusing illusion researches focus on affective forecasting bias, we make a further step on instant happy experience. Meanwhile, its focus is to transfer from “material scarcity” to “abstract missing”. In conclusion, the results suggest that focusing missing will influence individual happy experience, and missing amplification effect may occur as a consequence.
It has been found that collectivism differs across provinces within China. Nevertheless there’s still no consensus on its underlying mechanism. We propose that the strength of Confucianism is the main reason behind differences in collectivism across China i.e. central Confucian places tend to be more collectivistic than other places. We tested 745 Han Chinese participants from 27 provinces and found that southerners tend to be more collectivistic compared to northerners on loyalty/nepotism task. These results stand in support of the strength of Confucianism hypothesis arguing that south China had replaced north China as the center of Confucianism since Song dynasty due to the relocation of Central-Plains culture from north China to south China.
Studies have indicated that working memory (WM) play an important role in mathematics learning. However, results reported with regard to the associations between working memory components and early mathematics learning were inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore the strength of this relationship, and the factors affecting this relationship. In this meta-analysis, 307 effect sizes from 33 studies including 42423 children aged 3~8 years old were reviewed. The results indicated a strong correlation between working memory and mathematics learning. All working memory components were associated with mathematics learning, with the highest correlation between central executive (CE) and mathematics. As to the relationship between WM components and different mathematics abilities, CE didn’t show significant different relationships across different aspects of mathematics learning, phonological loop (PL) and visuospatial sketchpad (VSSP) both showed a significant closer relationship with number operation than number concept. In addition, Age had a significant effect on the correlation between CE, PL and mathematics learning. However, it didn’t have effect on the correlation between VSSP and mathematics. Literature review also helped to identify the shortcomings of previous studies, particularly focus of the studies was mostly on number concepts and number operations. More studies should focus on the area of geometry, space, and measurement in the future.
The method of meta-analysis was utilized to analyze the relationship between demographic characteristics and voice behavior. Eighty-one primary empirical studies with a total sample size of 39118 participants were included in this study. Results of the meta-analysis showed that age, education, tenure and position were positively and significantly correlated with voice behavior. Namely, older employees with higher level of education and longer tenure would present more voice behavior. Meanwhile, the relationship between position and voice behavior had significantly variance under different cultural background. The test of moderating effect disclosed that culture played an moderator role in the relationship of position and voice behavior. Namely, due to the influence of Chinese traditional culture, employees in China who in low positions dared not to speak up to their supervisors thus their voice quantity was significantly less than those in high positions. However, this variance was not quite obvious in other culture. What’s more, the positive relationship between age and voice behavior was moderated by the evaluation method of voice in such a way that it became stronger when the assessment was conducted by others (i.e. Leaders or peers) than by themselves. The study results provided more accurate estimates for predicting voice behavior by demographic characteristics and also the future research directions of voice behavior.
It has been well documented that the etiology and development of depression have important genetic underpinnings. With the advancement of experimental methods of cellular and molecular biology and analysis techniques of molecular genetics, there is growing concern about BDNF gene, which relates to neural plasticity and found to be an important candidate gene of depression. Generally, existing studies had mainly explored the direct association between BDNF gene and depression, the interaction between BDNF gene and other genes, as well as the moderating effect of environmental factors on the association between BDNF gene and depression. However, the conclusions have been inconsistent and even contradictory in some cases. This might be due to the differences in research designs, indexes of environment measurement, methods of depression measurement, and participants’ ethnic backgrounds of extant studies. Future research should focus on such issues as multiple gene–environment effects on depression, the moderation effect of participants’ ethnicity, gender and age on the association between genes and depression, and the neural biological mechanisms underlying depression.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received widespread concern at home and abroad. Exposure therapy, based on fear extinction, is commonly used in clinical practice. But the recurrence rate is still high after treatment. It suggests that the inhibition of fear relapse may be the key issue in the treatment of PTSD. Animal models of conditioned fear relapse include reinstatement, renewal, and spontaneous recovery, but most of the research has focused on renewal. Previous studies showed that fear relapse has heterogeneity, but the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdale may constitute common neural substrates. This article reviews brain region mechanisms and pharmacological intervention associated with conditioned fear relapse. It may provide reference for theoretical study and clinical treatment.
The research on the effects of video games focuses mainly on the violent video games and their harmful effects on adolescents. With the research going on as well as the emerging of the positive psychology, more and more researchers show interests in the positive effects of prosocial video games on the adolescents. Most of the research is based on the General Learning Model (GLM). According to this model, prosocial video games can influence adolescents’ prosocial behavior by affecting a person’s internal state, consisting of cognition, affect, and arousal that are related to the prosociety. Existing studies show that playing a prosocial video game increases helping behavior and reduces aggressive behavior. Various methods have been used to explore the psychological mechanism and the results are consistent with the GLM. In the future, it is necessary to examine the influence of several more factors such as gender, age and culture, and explore the mechanism from the cognitive neuroscience perspective.
In behavioral economics, inequity aversion means that individuals resist inequitable outcome; that is they are willing to give up some material payoff to move in the direction of more equitable outcomes. Inequity aversion is a common anomaly in economics, which is a focus of social preference theory. Many previous studies have demonstrated this kind of irrational behavior in various situations. Currently, the researchers have constructed FS-ERC model to illustrate the mechanism of inequity aversion. Based on such model, inequity aversion could also be illustrated by negative emotions, intentions, as well as social reward. The factors influencing inequity aversion primarily include demographic variables, social distance, decision time, and the features of experimental task. As to future directions, the researches are expected to the deeper understanding of psychological and neural mechanism about inequity aversion, and to reexamine such phenomenon in various conditions.
The description-experience gap (D-E gap)refers to the observation that choices are influenced by whether information about potential alternatives is learned from a summary description or from the experience of sequentially sampling individual outcomes. In terms of the role that cognitive factors played in the development of decision paradigms, this literature review summarized the discovery of D-E gap and latest studies in this field. Within the cognitive process framework, relevant factors of D-E gap were discussed in terms of information processing, and D-E gap was explained in an overall perspective. Finally, the issues worthy of further research were also outlined, such as improving research methods, the comprehensive comparison of both decision-making paradigms.
High-quality connections (HQC) refers to short-term, dyadic, positive interactions at work. It has three structural features, i.e. higher emotional carrying capacity, tensility and connectivity of the connections, which can make connected individuals experience vitality and aliveness, positive regard and mutuality of the connection. HQC has received much attention in the field of positive organizational scholarship because it not only has positive impacts on physiological health, work attitude, learning behaviors of individuals, but can facilitates organizational development through organizational process, top management team decision- making and resilience, and team creativity. Mechanisms in terms of cognition, emotion and behavior are significant methods to build and strengthen HQC. Future studies should further examine antecedents, construction and reinforcement of HQC as well as the relationships between mechanisms.
Expressive suppression refers to the “conscious inhibition of one’s own emotionally expressive behavior while emotionally aroused”. Many studies have shown that expression suppression is not an useful or effective strategy. But what we should not ignore is that cultural factor is an important moderator between expression suppression and outcome variables. That is to say, expression suppression often plays a negative role in individualistic culture. While in collectivistic culture, expression suppression is not completely an inappropriate regulation strategy. This may be associated with cultural values, one's attitude to “face” and parents' way of coping with affairs. Future studies of expression suppression should be aimed at the role of expression suppression in collectivistic culture and different subculture. At the same time, it is necessary to pay more attention to the role of expression suppression and its cultural differences in academic domain and the diversification of sampling subjects.
Prosocial reputation is the evaluation that prosocial actors acquired regarding his/her prosocial traits. Actors establish prosocial reputation through prosocial behavior. Then prosocial reputation could generate extrinsic prosocial motivation of actors through indirect reciprocity and partner choosing process, and intrinsic prosocial motivation through self-concept. Thus, it could promote actors’ prosocial behavior. The influencing factors of prosocial reputation include actors’ resources at hand, publicity of prosocial behavior, personal benefits, and ways of advertising. Future research should focus on the mutual promotion between prosocial behavior and prosocial reputation, by exploring the interaction effect of the costs and the benefits of actors’ prosocial behavior on prosocial reputation, the moderate effect of actors’ social class (by affecting people’s expectation) on the relationship between prosocial behavior and prosocial reputation, as well as the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions of how prosocial reputation promotes actors’ prosocial behavior.
With increasing interest in happiness research from varying disciplines, a key aspect is to study the notion of hedonic adaptation. The present research first defines and reviews hedonic adaptation from different perspectives, namely its relationship with happiness, its underlying mechanism, and its thwarting ways, followed by the application of hedonic adaptation theory in other disciplines, including consumer behavior, economics, and organizational behavior. Findings from the present research will inform individuals on how to sustain happiness and enables enterprises to increase consumers’ and employees’ positive cognition by thwarting hedonic adaptation and sustaining positive emotion. Future studies should apply hedonic adaptation in other disciplines, focusing on the effect of subject and form of variability on hedonic adaptation.
Traditional hypothesis testing, which serves as the data analysis tool in psychological experiments, can be appraised according to two criterions, the first one is legality and the second utility. The logic foundation of traditional hypothesis testing, rooted in the frame of frequency school statistics, is, in fact, correct. But, in terms of utility, traditional hypothesis testing involves two shortcomings. One is that its alternative hypothesis can’t be denied, and the other is that it can only provide qualitative conclusion. Confidence interval is suggested to replace traditional hypothesis testing to report the results of psychological experiments, for it can modify and supplement traditional hypothesis testing in these two aspects. Clarification of the mistakes in the using of traditional hypothesis testing also makes the researchers pay much attention to the PSI problem, which would turn the focus of the design and data analysis of psychological experiments from emphasizing population to emphasizing individuals.