Mounting evidence has demonstrated that impulsivity could be a potential biomarker that plays a crucial role in the development of addictive behaviors, thus impulsivity is considered a possible treatment target for early intervention of addiction. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how the mechanisms underlying the trajectories of impulsivity are involved in drug addiction and non-drug addiction. This project aims to identify the neural mechanisms of impulsivity in both nicotine dependence and internet gaming disorder by combining a direct comparison of drug and non-drug addictive behaviors with longitudinal studies and a cognitive-behavioral intervention study, using neurocognitive tasks and neuroimaging techniques. Firstly, nicotine-dependent individuals and internet gaming addicts would be tested on a series of behavioral tasks of impulsivity as well as in fronto-striatal brain systems using both structured and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3T Philips Trio MRI. Then we will move on to investigate the predictive role of impulsivity for nicotine dependence and internet gaming disorder through a 2 to 3 year follow-up study with a large sample of non-addicted adolescents consisting of two groups with either high- or low- levels of impulsivity. Thirdly, a study of 6 to 12 month cognitive behavioral intervention would be conducted on nicotine-dependent individuals and internet gaming addicts to explore the possible effects of reducing impulsivity level on the exacerbation of addictive behaviors. And this study will also evaluate the effects of continuous behavioral training on brain functions in fronto-striatal brain systems through fMRI tests. Totally, these studies should be helpful for shedding light on the possible efficacy of impulsivity as a potential biomarker and treatment target for addictive disorders.
This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of Self-Help Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (SH-CBTI), explored potential moderators of treatment outcome and evaluated the quality of evidence. Thirty five studies were included, and results showed: (a) The immediate efficacies of SH-CBTI for SE, SOL, WASO, TST, SQ, depression and anxiety were 0.66, −0.52, −0.47, 0.20, 0.34, −0.32 and −0.33 respectively; (b) SH-CBTI and face-to-face CBTI showed an equal efficacy at post-treatment while both minimal treatment and pharmacotherapy showed significantly smaller effects; (c) Comorbidities and support formats had a significant impact on the outcome. Evaluation on the quality of evidence showed that qualities of SE, WASO, TST, depression and anxiety are moderate, which means that the true effect is likely to be close to the estimated one. Low-level evidence supports SOL and SQ qualities, which indicates that the true effect may be substantially different from the estimated one.
"Mind-wandering" tends to occur in reading and other activities where vigilance may be low. It refers to the experience of thoughts not remaining on a single topic or task in which people were asked to engaged. However, since it is difficult to induce and control "Mind-wandering" under laboratory conditions, this issue was laid aside for quite a long time until 1990s. The present review focused on theoretical hypotheses and influencing factors of "Mind-wandering" in reading. Firstly, three main hypotheses of mind wandering in reading were summarized respectively: executive-control theory, control-failure hypothesis and attentional decoupling hypothesis. Secondly, main influencing factors of "Mind-wandering" in reading were also considered. These factors were divided into three categories: reading mode variables, reading material variables, and subject variables. To reveal the mechanisms of "Mind-wandering" further, more work on reducing the limitations of methodology still need to be done in the future.
There are three theories of implicit sequence learning consciousness: global workspace theory, neural plasticity theory and extraneous stimulus theory. All of them ignore body sense which is the key factor of consciousness. Therefore it is difficult for them to reveal the fundamental cause of consciousness. Embodied consciousness theory and its studies showed that motor/emotional mirror neuron system and their interaction with self and control systems are the source of primary/advanced consciousness. However, they did not involve the rule consciousness of implicit sequence learning which is very important to human study and cognition. In essence, previous researches on implicit sequence learning were close to reveal that the mechanism of implicit sequence learning is just sense/motor embodied learning, that its consciousness mechanism is likely to be motor/emotional embodied consciousness, and that the consciousness processing brain areas of implicit sequence learning mostly overlap the embodied consciousness brain areas. Future research should use Granger causality brain network technology to prove the embodied origin of implicit sequence learning consciousness, to examine the embodied basis of the three kinds of consciousness theories, and to explore the embodied mechanism of factors influencing consciousness.
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, as a method of non-invasive visual imaging and convenient data acquisition, has become an important measurement to explore brain functional variation in Alzheimer's disease and its symptomatic predementia phase. Recent studies demonstrated that patients with mild cognitive impairment have already showed the alteration of resting state networks, whereas more diffusion alteration was found in Alzheimer patients’ networks. Specifically, with the pathological progression, the functional connectivity of patients’ default mode network is gradually decreasing, whereas the connectivity of fronto-parietal network increased at first while decreased afterwards. In addition, the alteration of brain network and brain structure cannot simply be considered which happened first. More probably, the interactions between them bring up the cognitive impairment gradually. Future research needs to explore the sensitive neuro-pathway along the pathological progression, and further investigate the potential resting brain network biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and monitoring.
Personal need for structure is referred to be an individual’ s prefer or need to the simple structure, clarity things and environments, which naturally is a kind of motive and desire, and could be manifested by simplifying complex information or in an order and well-structured cognitive processing way. There are individual differences in the personal need for structure. Individuals with higher personal need for structure scores are especially likely to simplify complex information and environments, understand and structure their worlds in unambiguous, simple representations or descriptions, thus to reduce cognitive resources’ expenditure and consumption, improve the efficiency of cognitive manipulation and maintain internal stability of cognitive and behavioral tendency. This article is to synthesize the current theoretical foundation and conceptual development on the personal need for structure, and introduce two main measurements (PNS-12 scale, PNS-11 scale) and related researches, which are presented according to antecedent variables, consequent variables of the personal need for structure. The future research is proposed to make a thorough inquiry on the concept and structure, improve the research methods, develop more effective measuring tools, explore the mechanisms and conduct the indigenization researches of the personal need for structure.
Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model has explored the formation and function mechanism of work stress from effort, reward and overcommitment, which based on society exchange theory. We introduces the expansion of the theory in many fields and the new developments at home and abroad based on summarizing and analyzing the empirical research literature relevant to ERI model in resent 10 years, including the exploration of intermediate variable and antecedent variable of ERI model. Researchers begin to transfer the ERI theory to many realms of the society and conduct the inspections and innovations of the ERI theory in China. Finally, we also put forward researches prospect and the hypothesis model: Effort-Reward Dynamic Cross Imbalance model.
In recent years, two models of developmental plasticity—differential susceptibility and vantage sensitivity—have been proposed, both of which indicate individual variation in response to positive environment. Psychological interventions have been included in this domain as one type of special positive environment. Research based on these models has demonstrated that clients with certain characteristics benefit more from psychological interventions, thus leading to better outcomes. Such inherent characteristics mainly include personalistic and temperamental, genetic, and physiological characteristics. Essentially, research in this area has been trying to address the issue of what works for whom, but existing research could only partially answer this question. Hence, at what level does the above characteristics account for variance of psychological intervention outcomes remained to be explored.
Client motivation is key for behavior change and treatment result. It is also critical in the process of counseling and psychotherapy. Self-determination theory (SDT), a broad theory of motivated behavior, defines client motivation using a taxonomy along a relative-autonomy continuum.The more clients present autonomous motivation, treatment outcome is more effective.It addresses that therapist’s autonomy support is critical to clients’ active engagement and adherence in change. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an another popular clinic technology and strategy in health contexts, initially used to treat addictions. For it can follow the person-centered guiding to elicit and strengthen client motivation to change. Although there are different starting points, foci and developmental processes between them, the potential for systematic integration between both approaches was found to enhance evidence-based practice. Recently client motivation has received increasing attention across counseling approaches.
Most of the history of human evolution took place in natural environment. Nature played an important role on human physical and psychological health, cognitive function, and other aspects. Three theories explained the underlying mechanism behind: Biophilia Hypothesis stated that the tendency for interaction with nature was hereditary and promoted human health and happiness; The Attention Restoration Theory stated that the involuntary attention used in natural settings could replenished the voluntary attention fatigue; The Stress Recovery Theory stated that exposure to nature invoked positive emotion, which might resulted in psycho-physiological stress recovery. Practical applications included Horticultural Therapy and Natural Environments Therapy. In the future, other psychological theories could be used to explain the effects of nature. Future research could investigate the differential effects between real nature interaction and virtual nature interaction. Research could also investigate the effects exposure to nature through other sensory channels beyond vision. Research in cognitive neuroscience could provide a better understanding of the neural mechanisms behind human nature interaction.
Recently, body image disturbances are growing prevalent among males, and the mass media has been considered as a significant factor that influence how people feel and think about their bodies. Recent research has demonstrated the negative effects of media on the cognition, feelings (or emotion) and behaviors of males. Based on the sociocultural theory, researchers developed the tripartite influence model to explain the underlying mechanisms of the media influence on males’ body image (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999). In this model, three influences (peers, parents, and media) are thought to have a direct effect on body image dissatisfaction as well as indirect effects through two mediational processes: appearance comparison and internalization of ultra-thin and muscular body ideals for women and men, respectively. Future research is needed to assess generalization to diverse samples, combine experimental manipulations with longitudinal study, consider the influence of other variables, enrich and expand the tripartite influence model, and use neuroimaging technology to investigate neural mechanism. In addition, research about prevention and intervention is also needed to reduce the body image disturbance among males.
Filial Piety refers to the combination of social attitudes and behaviors that children have towards their parents. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the research fields of filial piety, including construction of theories, exploitation of measuring instruments, application of measuring instruments to estimate and measure the variations of filial piety and also its relation to other variables. The key to advancement of research in this field is to establish multiple filial piety models, improvement of filial piety measuring tools, enhancement of research quality by systematic thinking and the application of multiple research methods and paying more attention to the relationship between filial piety and positive psychological variables.
Experience sampling is an effective method of collecting longitudinal data. As the advantages of this approach have gradually been recognized by social science researchers, its application in organizational behaviors has also increased. Nevertheless, Chinese scholars are still on the emergent stage in applying this method and thus, empirical studies in China adopting such method are so far limited. A content analysis on 26 empirical papers using the experience sampling method published in Journal of Applied Psychology over the last five years (2010~2014) offers a comprehensive understanding of the major characteristics of the method, including appropriate variables and research questions, sample size, incentive methods, data collections, and implementation process. The review provides an overview of the current application of experience sampling in organizational behavior research and directs future developments and applications of such method in the fields of organizational behavior and human resource management.