Speech perception has long been an important issue in psycholinguistic researches. Despite the fact that a number of studies have focused on speech perception in different age groups including infants and adults, only very few of these studies were carried out in preschool-age children. There is still a large gap in terms of our understanding of how proficiency in speech perception develops between infancy and adulthood. Furthermore, most of models of speech perception have been proposed based on the researches of non-tone language and are not fit well for explaining Chinese processing. Chinese is a tone language, in which lexical tone is signaled by pitch variations and associated with spectral processing. Moreover, lexical tone is lexically contrastive and can distinguish lexical meaning just as phonemes are. Here we will investigate the Mandarin speech perception in 3- to 5- year-olds preschool children by combining the method of eye tracking, event-related potential recordings and source estimation (LORETA). In the present project, we will focus on the following issues: (1) how children discriminate Mandarin segmental and supra-segmental information at pre-attentive and attentive stages; (2) What are the roles of segmental and supra-segmental information on Mandarin spoken word recognition in preschool-age children, and whether the memory traces for words will be observed in preschoolers; (3) the neural mechanisms underlying Mandarin speech perception in preschool-age children. The investigations of this project present a valuable opportunity to extend the results from infants and adults, and will provide new experimental evidences for the current models of speech perception that built on the studies of non-tone languages.
During the past fifteen years, the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) was used extensively to screen Chinese kindergarten teachers. However, results of these studies have been inconsistent. To synthesize inconsistent findings and draw conclusions about this literature to date, the present meta-analysis analyzed 37 primary studies including 42 independent samples. Analyses indicated that, (1) the mental health of included preschool teachers did not differ from SCL-90 norms and better than the primary and middle school teachers; (2) the moderating effects of location and Kindergarten ownership were partially significant; (3) Moderating effects of divorce rate and educational appropriations were also significant. The positive spectrum of mental heath and the causal relationships between stress, resources and mental health of kindergarten teachers warrant more attention in future research.
Silent and oral reading are two basic reading models in reading research. In this study, we summarized the differences between silent and oral reading from the following three aspects. First, reading behaviors are different under silent and oral reading. Second, previous studies show that cognitive mechanisms are also different between silent and oral reading. Finally, silent and oral reading could lead to different brain arousing. In addition, we also give some suggestions about the future research. The future research should focus on the specific phase of transforming from oral to silent reading, eye movement differences in the development process of the two different reading modes, influences of the pronunciation and the background music on reading under the two different reading modes, the difference in children’s brain mechanism under the two different reading modes and so on.
Creativity measurements are the foundation of creativity research. However, the accuracy of the results of creativity measurements have been long questioned by scholars in the field, making precise creativity measurements an urgent topic for exploration. For example, the divergent thinking test is central in the study of creativity, but its traditional scoring systems have faced well documented problems. Insight tests may represent individual creativity levels, but their validity still remains to be confirmed. Creative achievement tests are not always used legitimately, which may cause common method variance, and consensual assessment techniques may cause rater effects.
Social interaction is an important factor that affects older adults’ cognitive functions. Social interaction contains three elements: social networks, social support and social engagement. Previous research has indicated that social interaction has a positive effect on cognitive functions but is does not go deep and specific. For example, the type of social networks may be more crucial than the size of social networks in clarifying the relationship between social networks and cognitive functions. Besides, for older adults, the more social support does not mean the better cognitive functions. Only appropriate social support protects susceptive older adults from cognitive impairment. Also, although social engagement has a continuous protective effect on cognitive functions, different types of activities benefit to different cognitive domains. Therefore, future research should conduct thorough studies on the following domains: firstly social networks typology, secondly mediators and moderators between social support and cognition, and intervention study about effects of social activity on cognitive function.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge-eating episodes and marked distress. These individuals eat unusually large amounts of food during which they experience a subjective loss of control. BED can have negative consequences for physical and psychological well-being. In the present review, key precipitants of BED are discussed including stressors, negative affect, an impulsive personality style, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, interpersonal problems and instrumental feeding from parents. In addition, leading explanations of the disorder are reviewed: the affect regulation model, food addiction model, interpersonal model and perfectionism model. Finally, select future research directions are discussed, particularly in relation to elucidating risk factors, refining theoretical perspectives, and identifying reliable neuro-cognitive mechanisms through neuroimaging methods. Finally, recommendations are discussed for prevention and intervention aimed at reducing suffering and improving quality of life among people with BED.
Emotional complexity refers to the variety and differentiation of individuals’ emotional experiences. Emotional complexity may play an important role in the development of psychiatric symptoms. It may affect psychiatric symptoms by changing the frequency and extent of emotion regulation strategies, and by moderating the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and psychiatric symptoms. Interventions based on emotional complexity can enhance the efficacy of exposure therapy. Mindfulness can improve emotional complexity, but it probably bases on different mechanisms. Future research should focus on the multiple assessments, the moderators and neuropsychological mechanisms of emotion complexity.
Client engagement, considered as a prerequisite for clients to benefit from counseling and psychotherapy, refers to clients’ mental and behavioral process of engaging in counseling and psychotherapy and making unremitting efforts towards changes. The majority of present studies focusing on client engagement primarily examined behavioral perspectives. Client engagement consists of three core elements: session attendance, intro-session involvement, and inter-session involvement, measured separately through different methods. This paper also summarized several factors related to client engagement, including client characteristics, therapist characteristics, client-therapist interaction, family and social culture, and other objective factors. Among all the factors, client’s cognition and motivation may exert a great influence on client engagement. Future research should explore the elements, dynamic characters, and influential factors of client engagement, and improve its assessment and intervention. In addition, the relationship between client engagement and counseling outcomes should be examined in the future.
Self is a core concept of psychological counseling and therapy. With respect to psychoanalytic, behavior, and cognitive therapies, the concept of self is only focused on behavioral and cognitive levels, and the newly emerging mindfulness based therapy extends the concept to body and perception. Findings for embodied cognition and cognitive neuroscience research suggest that body, perception, and cognition are inseparable, and they are closely connected with self. By incorporating extant evidence from psychotherapeutic theories and empirical studies, the current paper proposed an integrate concept of self, comprising rationality (symbolic function, cognition and emotion), sensibility (non-symbolic function, sensation and perception) and body (physiological function).
This review provides a brief introduction of the research about the impact of context on empathy. Empathy is defined as the propensity to “share and understand other’s feelings during interpersonal interaction”. It includes two components of cognitive empathy and emotional empathy. Empathy appears to be a very situational cognitive process as the context has an effect on empathy. The privacy and meaning of the specific context influence the occurance or intensity of empathy. Group membership and interpersonal relationship also influence the processing of empathy. The contextual factors trigger empathic responses through automatic and controlled processing. Although much progress has been made in the field of the contextual effects on empathy, more work could be done in the future. The connotation of contextual factors is worthy to be explored in the future. We could take the perspective of people who empathize with others to confirm how the contextual effect on empathy is moderated by individual differences. Additionally, we can try to explore the mechanism of contextual effects on empathy under the background of cognitive processing.
Meaning Maintenance Model (MMM) is a well-received social psychology theory in recent years, which claims meaning maintenance to be human’s most fundamental social motivation. Meaning violations evoke an aversive arousal, and relieving this feeling provides power to meaning maintenance which motivates compensation efforts to restore the meaning system. In a sense, MMM integrates theories like cognitive dissonance theory and has high explanation strengths. The process of meaning maintenance, including meaning violation, aversive arousal and compensation behavior, is well corroborated by expanded theoretical discussions and a large body of empirical studies. Nevertheless, there are certain problems of MMM, like vague conceptions, inadequate evidence for aversive arousal as a mediator and an alternative explanation of priming against compensation et al. Future researches should test the process of meaning maintenance. Besides, researches can focus the operation of compensation behavior and a positive process of meaning maintenance.
Fat talk is a social phenomenon related to discussing the physical appearances, especially referring in terms of self-degradation about body size, shape and eating habits among females. Expected beneficial effects of fat talk about one’s own body might include receiving others’ comfort, support and good impression management. However, Fat talk has a negative impact on body image, emotion, well-being and eating disorder symptoms. Future research should emphasize longitudinal research designs on effects of fat talk and broadening the standard research methods.
Power is an asymmetric control over valued resources. The effects of power on individuals’ prosocial behaviours depend on active goals. And both selective attention and social distance mediate this moderating process of power, active goals and prosocial behaviours. Prosocial behaviours could be promoted by increasing high-power individuals’ prosocial goals from personal, institutional and cultural levels. Future studies are required to explore the effects of different power types, power and status, and culture on the relationship of power and prosocial behaviour, as well as the effects of group power on intergroup prosocial behaviours.
In decision-making tasks, groups are often expected to achieve better decision quality than individuals because groups possess various information from their members. But a lot of research results showed that groups are not as effective as expected in using the various information. Groups tend to focus more on the information possessed by all members (shared information) than on the information possessed by an individual member (unshared information). This phenomenon is called “Shared Information Bias “(Stasser & Titus, 1985). The existence of shared information bias hinders the groups from achieving better decision quality. Based on the hidden profile paradigm, this paper illustrated the mechanisms of shared information bias from four perspectives, namely information sampling model, dynamic collective information sampling model, mutual enhancement effect, and preference effect. Also, this paper summarized the roles of four influential factors including information distribution, group task characteristics, member characteristic, and motivation factors. Future researches could focus on combining the team cognition, exploring the influences of affective factors, and integrating the group decision effectiveness model.
Servant leadership is a frontier topic in the field of leadership research. Servant leadership is one who is servant first and puts serving others as the number one priority. Based on the servant leadership literature both at home and abroad including its conception, structural features and measurements, comparisons with other types of leadership and empirical researches, the scientific status of servant leadership was reviewed. There are some problems and limitations in existing studies. Future researches should focus on the validity of servant leadership’s measurements, improvement of research levels and methods, identification for the nomological network of servant leadership, and exploration of its effectiveness.