We present the basic tenets of fuzzy trace theory, a comprehensive theory of memory, judgment, and decision making that is grounded in research on how information is stored as knowledge, mentally represented, retrieved from storage, and processed. In doing so, we highlight how it is distinguished from traditional models of decision making in that gist reasoning plays a central role. The theory also distinguishes advanced intuition from primitive impulsivity. It predicts that different sorts of errors occur with respect to each component of judgment and decision making: background knowledge, representation, retrieval, and processing. Classic errors in the judgment and decision making literature, such as risky-choice framing and the conjunction fallacy, are accounted for by fuzzy trace theory and new results generated by the theory contradict traditional approaches. We also describe how developmental changes in brain and behavior offer crucial insight into adult cognitive processing. Research investigating brain and behavior in developing and special populations supports fuzzy trace theory’s predictions about reliance on gist processing.
Extraversion is closely linked with emotional activity: it not only affects people’s adaptive capacity and subjective well-being, but it’s also closely associated with emotional and behavioral disorders such as anxiety and impulsiveness. Prior studies focused on the influences of extraversion in sensitivity to emotional stimuli. Participants’ positive emotional responses to reward stimuli increase significantly with higher extraversion scoring. However, we hypothesize that the links between extraversion and emotion may also be manifested by the impacts of extraversion on the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of emotion regulation. Therefore, we are going to manipulate two variables – extraversion and emotion regulation strategies – to test these hypotheses. Accordingly, it is theoretically and practically meaningful to address the following three scientific questions using behavioral/physiological, EEG, and fMRI measures: 1), developing an emotion regulation questionnaire inclusive of most of the common strategies, and comparing emotion regulation characteristics between extroverts and introverts; 2), exploring the impacts of extroversion on cognitive emotion regulation and the neurophysiologic underpinnings; 3) exploring brain mechanisms underlying interactive influences of emotional stability and extraversion. The ultimate goal of this series of studies is to unravel the brain mechanisms of emotion regulation differences in people with varying extraversion, to better understand the relationship between emotion and personality, and to lay theoretic and practical bases for clinical treatment of affective disturbances.
Inattentional blindness refers to that observers cannot detect some stimuli even if the stimuli stand exactly where their gaze falls. This phenomenon is common among our daily life and contributes to many traffic and medical accidents. We reviewed the papers and found that “limited resource” and “attentional set” take accounts to this phenomenon. In general, the two causes contribute to this phenomenon simultaneously. However, “attentional set” will lead to this phenomenon independent of “limited resource”. More in depth, from the aspect of neuro-mechanism, “limited resource” and “attentional set” acted on the middle stage of brain processing. The unexpected stimuli have ever received some conscious processing in the traditional conscious processing region even when they are not been aware of. The conscious inputs in occipital-parietal areas in the middle stage, the activation level of temporo-parietal junction and intraparietal sulcus determine whether the unexpected stimuli can arrive to conscious level.
Mild Alzheimer's disease is accompanied by prospective memory impairment with different levels. Previous studies have investigated what extent an association between mild Alzheimer's disease and prospective memory impairment. On this basis researchers made a comparison of the association with other three types of association observed, that is, other cognitive impairments - prospective memory decline, mild Alzheimer's disease - retrospective memory impairment, and between mild Alzheimer's disease - genetic expression. In addition, other studies have explored how to promote the prospective memory of the patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. To get a clearer understand of the association between mild Alzheimer's disease and prospective memory impairment, further research should be concerned with the variables of severity of disease and type of prospective-memory task. Furthermore, research need to assess the neural mechanism of prospective-memory impairment in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease by using of ERPs and fMRI techniques.
Different emotional experience shapes different mental environment in the expression of implicit attitude and explicit attitudes, and regulates correspondence between implicit and explicit attitudes. Positive emotion increases correspondence between implicit and explicit attitude, however the effects of specific negative emotion are inconsistent. The single dimension of emotion is insufficient to explain the different effects of specific emotion. The emotional certainty and interaction between emotion and trust in intuition, also play important roles in regulating correspondence between implicit and explicit attitudes. This paper systemizes the theoretical basis covering associative–propositional evaluation model (APE) and feelings–as–information model. Finally some issues which are worthwhile regarding in the domain are put forward. For example, we can explore specific emotion effects on correspondence between implicit and explicit attitudes, emotion effects on correspondence between implicit and explicit stereotype, and use cognitive neuroscience technologies to reveal the neural mechanism of correspondence between implicit and explicit attitudes.
Physical activity might not only improve physical health, but also can have a positive and clinically meaningful influence on affect. A growing body of research has detailed the beneficial relation of physical activity and affect. Overall, the extant literature suggests that physical activity might be related to more positive affect and higher satisfaction with life. Regular physical activity such as aerobic exercise also may be an effective way to reduce negative emotion and emotional disorders symptoms. There is little evidence for interaction between activity types, exercise intensity and training frequency. The biological and cerebral mechanisms of affective responses also remain plausible. Future researcher should take into account the factors such as interpersonal and intrapersonal differences in affective responses, the connection between affective responses and brain function, to further enhance our understanding of physical activity and affect.
The development of depression has important underpinnings. With the advancement of molecular genetics, the research on the mechanisms of depression has reached molecular level in recent years. Recent studies have demonstrated that the MAOA (monoamine oxidase A) gene has played an important role in depression. Evidence has been reported that MAOA gene had a direct effect on depression, and MAOA gene interacted with environments and other genes in predicting depression. However, the related research findings have not been always consistent and even contradictory in some cases. Future research should focus on such issues as the complex interactions between MAOA gene and multi-environments or other genes, examining the age effect of MAOA gene on depression, and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
Child-mother attachment, as a primary relationship established during infancy, has a significant influence in the process of socialization during early childhood. Recent research has outlined three approaches to the studies of parenting and child development, including trait approach, domain-specific view approach and social cognition approach. In these studies, the authors discriminated the different roles of maternal sensitivity, protective situation and social anticipation of infant in the developing attachment security. By comparing the different understanding of mother-child interaction between trait approach and social cognition approach, as well as strengthening the importance of the interactive situation from domain-specific view approach, the authors proposed the necessity and possibility of integration of all three elements emphasized by different researchers. Finally, future attachment intervenes should aim at improving parents’ abilities of awareness and response to infants’ negative emotion, and providing appropriate contingent experience learning for infants.
Personality has an important influence on cognitive ability. The relations between different personality traits and cognitive ability are distinct, and there are age differences in their relations. Current research is mainly about three aspects: the relations between personality traits and cognitive ability; the impact of different personality traits on cognitive ability; the comparison of the relations in different ages. The results of the impact of different personality traits on cognitive ability become clear, but there still is lots of controversy in current research. In order to get more scientific conclusion of the research problem, the future research can be further deepened in the following aspects: the stability of personality and the influence on cognitive ability; the mechanisms of the impact of personality on cognitive ability and the influencing factors; cross-cultural research; research paradigm.
Self-punishment refers to behaviors that an individual inflicts pain or imposes sanctions on himself/herself after the transgression. Self-punishment could be influenced by several different factors such as negative emotion, opportunities of remedy, opportunities of compensation at the expense of others and gender. Moreover, two core models, namely emotion model and reciprocity model, were summarized. With the development of neuroscience, it could be inferred that ACC, insula, RLOFC, DMPFC, NAcc, VMPFC are closely linked to self-punishment. Finally, authors’ opinions about future research were provided.
Can collectivism promote bribery? This article tries to answer the question by reviewing the related research. Bribery is an “arrangement” that involves “an exchange between two parties” which has an influence on the allocation of resources either immediately or in the future. Social scientists have paid a great attention to whether collectivism can promote bribery. The results from various perspectives of bribery and kinds of collectivism were different. There were three perspectives of bribery: perception of bribery, the attitudes towards bribery and bribery behavior (propensity). It is consistently found that collectivism facilitated bribery behavior propensity. However, mixed results were found regarding the relationships of collectivism to the perception of bribery and attitudes towards bribery. With the developing of collectivism construct, researchers also tried to figure out whether different kinds of collectivism have different relationships with bribery. Meanwhile, the underlying processes of the impact of collectivism on bribery were explored from the perspectives of moral engagement and the theory of planned behavior. To further explore the effect of collectivism on bribery, three future research directions were suggested.
In this paper, we review relevant studies to develop the evolutionary hypothesis that voice quality is related to human mating behavior and that this relationship extends to other domains of human social living. Both men and women show preferences for certain voice quality of the opposite sex. In general, males prefer high-pitched female voice, and females prefer low-pitched male voice. This voice preference results in the carriers having differential reproductive success. We analyze this phenomenon for men and women, respectively. A low voice pitch is partly caused by a longer vocal track due to the descent of the larynx in adolescence that results in smaller formant dispersion. The lowered position of the larynx is associated with higher rates of choking which therefore serves as an honest indicator of good genes. The lowering of the larynx is also associated with increased testosterone which is an indicator of good genes as well as intra-sex combativeness and competitiveness. Thus, sexual selection through female choice, which is mainly for good genes but also male-male competitiveness and thus good provisioning, provides the mechanism underlying the female preference for low pitched male voice. The more straightforward evolutionary explanation of male preference for high pitched female voice is that high pitch indicates fertility and, because of concealed human ovulation, men develop heightened sensitivity over fertility indicators such as high pitched voice. We review these theories and the relevant empirical research supporting the association between the quality of voice and mating success. Beyond mating behavior, we also show that the effect of voice quality extends to other domains by affecting social cognition of and for the target persons with some of the effects being negative. In the end, we discuss a number of directions for future research, including the use of additional voice parameters other than fundamental frequency, the application of sexual selection in analyzing mainstream research on intimate relationships, and the potential relationship between voice preferences and such cognitive processes as attention and memory.
Organizational climate is the subjective perception of employee on organizational environment. In this paper, the origin of researches regarding organizational climate were first reviewed, with the definitions of general and special climate summarized, on the basis of which a new definition of organizational climate has been given. Organizational climate had three levels of analysis: the individual level, team level and organizational level, with different methods of measurement adopted. Differences and connections between organizational climate and organizational culture were then stated. Finally, through using theories of social interaction, attraction selection attrition, emergence and sense-making, the formation of organizational climate and its possible influencing factors were clarified. Further studies were necessary to explore the conceptualization, measuring methods and antecedents of organizational climate. Future studies should pay more attention to the advancement of the cultural differences of organizational climate.
Work engagement is a positive, fulfilling state in which people can be highly focused and immersed within their tasks. High frequency of engagement at work contributes significantly to people’s well-being. The construct of work engagement has garnered attention both in business contexts and academic settings, and several approaches for understanding work engagement have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the current status of theory and research on work engagement. The origin and development of its various conceptualizations are summarized and comparisons are made with similar constructs, such as job involvement, flow, and mindfulness. Selected measures of work engagement, including the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Shirom-Melamed Vigor Measure, and different theoretical perspectives, including models with various factor structures, are presented. Antecedents and consequences of work engagement identified in recent studies are also discussed. An integrated approach to work engagement is presented, as are three directions for future research.
Missing data are not uncommon in longitudinal studies. Different techniques for handling missing data affect accuracy of the results and validity of statistical inference. Firstly, we will elaborate on missingness mechanism and how to judge them. Then we make a summary of missing data techniques that mainly used in longitudinal study, and how to choose an appropriate missing data technique as well as software for analysis. Secondly, based on a literature review of psychology research in China, among 92 studies, we found that 59 contain a certain degree of missing data. Among these, 39 studies reported using deletion method. The validity of missing data techniques needs further study, and the reporting of missing data in published research also needs to be better established.