Perceived waiting time is defined as how individuals perceive and feel about the duration they have to wait and how it affects their approach behavior. This paper systematically reviews the effective factors that could have an impact on perceived waiting time, which includes objective factors and subjective factors. The objective factors include the fillers, certainty, service phase and the physical environment during waiting time; the subjective factors contain negative emotions, self-control and personality. Moreover, It results in irrational decision making behaviors, such as time sunk cost effect, delay/speed-up framing effect, peak-end effect, preference reversal, et al. Future research direction includes: (1) Compare the differences of perceived waiting time under the conduction of time priming and money priming; (2) Study the rules of perceived waiting time in the view of time mental accounting; (3) Explore the mechanism of waiting time based on the time perception theory models.
Social cognition refers to individual's perception and comprehension to social object, social phenomenon and their relations. According to the object, social cognition can be divided into self-cognition, interpersonal cognition, intergroup cognition and social events cognition with social decision as the core. Domestic scholars have carried out a series of beneficial explorations focused on above four aspects, which made a pioneering contribution to the research of the Chinese social cognition. However, no matter in terms of theoretical construction, research paradigm and research content, amount of studies followed overseas studies’ precondition and category, that is “own-based cognition”. These studies broke away from the basis of the breed of Chinese social cognition – the traditional cultural based on “differential pattern” and the cultural in the context of current dramatic social change. Through combing and integrating the studies which related to the subject of social cognition, we found that the fundamental characteristic of Chinese social cognition is “he-based cognition”, and it reflects as “intergroup cognition (hierarchy cognition)” which derived and developed from “differential pattern” cultural. And then, around the main line of “intergroup cognition”, we try to interpret and construct the theoretical framework of Chinese social cognition. This study, which can promote the research of Chinese social cognition, has profound theoretical significance and practical significance.
Visual selective attention is not only based on space, but also based on objects. Object-based Attention (OBA) has become an increasingly popular topic in the area of visual attention. The commonly used behavioral research paradigms to investigate OBA is two-rectangular cueing paradigm and flanker interference paradigm, Some electrophysiological and fMRI studies also explored the underlying neural substrates. Theories of the mechanisms of OBA are sensory enhancement hypothesis, attentional prioritization hypothesis and shift costing hypothesis. Evidence from various paradigms is provided to support these different theories respectively, but we propose that these theories may not be mutually exclusive. Stimulus characteristics, other perceptual processes and experience all influence OBA effect. Specifically, latest research focuses mostly on “object” definition and the factors that influence OBA effect. OBA effect emerged not only in objects defined by Gestalt principles, but also in top-down semantic object, invisible object and changed object.
Research in neurolinguistics in the past 50 years has demonstrated the cognitive effects of bilingualism (or multilingualism). In this review we focus on the research over the past 10 years on the effect of bilingual or multilingual experiences in resisting Alzheimer's disease (AD). The possible neural mechanisms underlying such effect are explored under the theory of Cognitive Reserve. Some unsolved questions about language types, proficiency, age of learning and research methodologies are also raised for further discussion. The implication of these findings in helping prevent or delay AD, in promoting second language learning and teaching, and in offering insights into future research on interdisciplinary linguistics are also discussed.
Effective visual attention is crucial for drivers to search and detect the potential hazard in driving. By analyzing the effect of visual attention on hazard detection, we proposed situation awareness hypothesis and mental workload hypothesis. The former hypothesis pointed out that the quality of situation awareness determined the flexibility of drivers’ visual scanning pattern, thereby affecting hazard detection. While the later hypothesis highlighted that when the drivers’ mental workload increased, their visual attention tended to concentrate, reducing the possibility of detecting a hazard. In the future, more attention should be paid to comparing the difference of cognitive compatibility of situation awareness among different road users, and applying vehicle automation technology to reduce drivers’ mental workload as well as how to distinguish the effect of situation awareness and mental workload at the same time.
Distributive justice concerns how individuals distribute resources in a fair manner, including three main principles: equity, equality and need. Firstly, we review the concepts and principles of distributive justice based on the equity principle. Secondly, the paper examines the characteristics of distributive justice judgment and behavior on young children, with conclusion that young children could perform distributive justice judgment and behavior. Then the paper examines the factor influencing the development of children’s distributive justice including theory of mind and situational involvement level from two key aspects of cognitive and emotional processing. Finally, the paper calls for future research to focus on the specific content, exploring the developmental characteristics, influencing factors and internal mechanism of young children's distributive justice based on the principle of equity.
The reactive attachment disorder in children is a psycho-social disorder. This disorder is found not only in the institution, but also in the normal families. Moreover, its etiology might be associated with early attachment relationships, the genetic gene and individual’s cognitive processing ability. So far diagnosis of the reactive attachment disorder is mainly based on the DSM-Ⅳ,DSM-5 and the RDC-PA, and its assessment tool is the assessment package. Yet, the intervention of the reactive attachment disorder is still in the exploratory stage. Future research could focus on the improvement of the diagnostic standard and assessment tools, efficacy of various therapies and exploration the domestic characteristics of reactive attachment disorder. Especially, attention should also pay to its underlying neural mechanisms.
Emotional leadership refers to a leadership style that the leaders use emotional contagion and strategies to manage members’ positive and negative emotion, create a suitable organization emotional climate and lead members to strive for common goals based on their own emotional competencies. At present, most studies use emotional intelligence scale to measure emotional leadership and lack a standardized measurement tool. The development of emotional leadership research is divided into three stages: leaders’ emotional competency focused research, emotional contagion focused research, and emotional leadership focused research. Based on the research contents, we propose a multi-level integration model. Gene, personality and emotional trait can predict emotional leadership. Right frontal lobe and emotional leadership are reciprocal causation. Emotional leadership has a significant positive influence on leadership effectiveness at both organizational level and individual level through direct or indirect routes. Conceptualization, measurement, moderators, biology basis, multi-level study and cross-cultural comparison should get more attention in the future researches.
Human irrationality is seen as the main reason for economic fluctuations by economist Keynes, while mood is one of the key factors leading to irrational behavior. This paper thus aims to examine whether mood can correlate to, even predict stock market fluctuations. Firstly, authors try to explain how the mood of decision-makers and social mood influence financial decision-making by the views of psychology and physiology. Secondly, authors broadly divided the studies on the relationship between mood and stock market from the perspectives of investors’ moods and social mood. Studies from the perspective of investors’ mood mainly construct mood indicators through subjective surveys and objective market indicators. In recent years, however, the social mood studies, especially those based on the Internet and information technology, infuse vigor into the study on the relationship between mood and stock market. The relationship between mood and stock market is far from conclusive, and the internal mechanisms on how mood influences stock market should be explored further. What’s more, information technology and the Internet can play a more and more significant role in the future studies on exploring the relationship between mood and stock market.
Experiential purchase refers to the purchase aiming to get life experience, while material purchase is defined as the purchase made to acquire material possession. These two types of purchase influence individuals’ happiness to different extents, such that compared with material purchase, experiential purchase is more likely to make people happy. This difference is out of five potential reasons: unlike material, experience will become better and better as time goes by; there is a stronger relationship between experience (vs. material) and self; experience is less likely to involve in social comparison than material; experience can fulfill individuals’ basic psychological needs, especially the relatedness needs; experience is easier to be shared than material. Despite increasing attention to these two types of purchase, there still are some under-researched topics for future research: a) the long-term impact of different purchase types on individuals’ hedonic well-being and eudaimonia, as well as the applicable conditions of “experience recommendation”; b) improving the extant research paradigms, such as retrospection and imagination, in order to increase the ecological validity of the study; c) conducting the indigenous studies on these two types of purchase and their relationships with happiness under the Chinese context.
Bandura’s self-efficacy theory is a hot topic in contemporary psychology. As the specific self-efficacy in social domain, social self-efficacy reaches the concerns of researchers increasingly, which is one of the important mental factors that can affect the quality of individuals’ interpersonal interaction. This paper reviewed the theoretical and empirical studies firstly, and then analyzed the concept of social self-efficacy (SSE), which was different with correlated variables like social self-esteem, social assertiveness, and social confidence, and its multiple structure probably in the perspective of distinct cultural self or context. Next, we discussed the relationships between SSE and its correlated variables related to personal trait, emotion, attitude, and behavior. The mechanism of SSE, which were its predictive effect on depression, social anxiety, life satisfaction, social adjustment and internet addiction, its mediating role in personality, sex role, attachment, goal orientation and online interactive communication’s mechanism, and its moderating role in stress and injustice’s negative effect, was explored as well. Finally, we pointed out that the further research on social self-efficacy should focus on confirming its construct and dimension, developing its measurement, and reinforcing the researches on its causes, effects and system models, especially under the organizational and cross-cultural context.
After reviewing the effect of individual characteristics on social network, we found that little research has been conducted on: (1) the underlying mechanism of individual characteristics on social network, the moderation effect of context variables and the interaction effect of individual characteristics on social network; (2) the dynamic and covariant relationship between individual characteristics and social network; (3) the unique individual characteristics in Chinese context, especially characteristics about Chinese personalities and “Quan-Zi”. Due to the importance of localized personality theory and social network research, future research should focus on localization and covariant relationship between individual characteristics and social network.
Cultural differences are hardly concerned in the field of belief in a just world. However, this topic also has theoretical significance and practical values. In this paper, the cultural differences between levels, functions, and measurements of belief in a just word are described and its causes are also analyzed. The factors that influence cultural differences of belief in a just world include sociocultural factors, self-concept, cognitive styles and unfair social reality. Moreover, this paper discusses the approaches which can improve the accuracy of cross-cultural comparison and the mechanism of how culture influences this belief. According to the current situation, further research is expected to focus on how culture influences functions of the belief in a just world, as well as carries forward the localization studies of the belief.
Studies on why poverty impedes decision performance consist of three psychological perspectives. Theory of attention proposes that scarcity directs one’s limited attention to the scarce resources and thus neglects other dimensions; theory of willpower argues the depletion of willpower during the process of resisting temptations from goods or entertainments leads to the failure of self-control; theory of cognitive control contends that poor people tends to make financial decisions with more difficulties and thus more resources are consumed than making other determinations. Depletion of these limited psychological resources impedes the poor’s cognitive performance and leads to irrational behaviors. Further researches should clarify the differences among the three models, explore if the consequences of poverty are reversible, and verify the existing results among different cultures.
Similar to social attitude, stereotype and schemata, unconscious goal is a kind of representation in individuals' brain which reflects the satisfactions to and results of behaviors, including goal setting, context and means of goal pursuit. The unconscious goals can be activated by stimuli coming from the environment, and thereafter affect human's behavior without the participation of consciousness. The definition of unconscious goal priming is different from priming due to other psychological representations. Unconscious goal priming is able to induce motivational behavior and the effect of priming cue does not fade over time. The independent variables of unconscious goal priming are related to the subject’s psychological states and the influence from others. The dependent variables of unconscious goal priming are related to the performances of tasks and the social relationships. The “perception-behavior model”, “unconscious behavior choice model”, “evaluation preparing model” and “affect factors model” explain the psychological mechanism of unconscious goal priming from the perspectives of “unconscious” and “goal”. Unconscious goal priming can be applied to a wide range of fields such as business, education and health care. In order to advance the theory and application of unconscious goal priming, the researches related to its neural mechanism should be emphasized.