Bandura’s self-efficacy theory is a hot topic in contemporary psychology. As the specific self-efficacy in social domain, social self-efficacy reaches the concerns of researchers increasingly, which is one of the important mental factors that can affect the quality of individuals’ interpersonal interaction. This paper reviewed the theoretical and empirical studies firstly, and then analyzed the concept of social self-efficacy (SSE), which was different with correlated variables like social self-esteem, social assertiveness, and social confidence, and its multiple structure probably in the perspective of distinct cultural self or context. Next, we discussed the relationships between SSE and its correlated variables related to personal trait, emotion, attitude, and behavior. The mechanism of SSE, which were its predictive effect on depression, social anxiety, life satisfaction, social adjustment and internet addiction, its mediating role in personality, sex role, attachment, goal orientation and online interactive communication’s mechanism, and its moderating role in stress and injustice’s negative effect, was explored as well. Finally, we pointed out that the further research on social self-efficacy should focus on confirming its construct and dimension, developing its measurement, and reinforcing the researches on its causes, effects and system models, especially under the organizational and cross-cultural context.