Using running working memory task combined with ERPs techniques and adopted different populations to investigate the plasticity of working memory updating function. It found that working memory updating ability has plasticity. In details, individuals’ working memory updating task scores could increase through updating training. The results suggested that training firstly enhanced participants’ recognition ability at the perceptual stage and then strengthened their capacity to inhibit irrelevant information and attended to the current target stimuli, which in turn improved the updating ability in working memory representation. Through working memory updating training, individuals’ could improve its cognitive functions, but compared to which that in the recession stage of working memory ability, this kind of transfer effect could be more apparent on individuals’ in the development stage of working memory ability.
The essential characteristic of servant leadership is serving first, which transcends any other leadership behaviors of organizational benefits first. However, the relevant research in Chinese organizational context is not enough. This research explored the construct of servant leadership and developed a measure of servant leadership in Chinese context with qualitative method and quantitative method. This research also examined the effectiveness of servant leadership with the techniques of structural equation model and hierarchical regression analysis dealing with the longitudinal data from paired supervisor-subordinate. Three studies were included: (1) The construct and measurement of servant leadership; (2) the longitudinal research of the effectiveness of servant leadership based on the perspective of comparing leadership behaviors; and (3) the longitudinal research of the effectiveness of servant leadership based on the perspective of influencing mechanism. The results are helpful to clarify the connotation and dimensions of servant leadership, recognize and measure servant leadership behavior, and examine the effectiveness of servant leadership. The results also compare the effects of servant leadership on team’s and employee’s performance with the ones of paternalistic leadership and transformational leadership, and reveal the mediating mechanism between servant leadership and team’s and employee’s performance.
Working Memory is widely discussed in competitive sports, especially in basketball, soccer and volleyball. The relationship between working memory and decision making, working memory and performance-inhibiting under pressure, and the affect of sport injury on working memory are discussed in this paper. The effect working memory work on decision making is investigated by decision making paradigm after grouping the participants by working memory capacity measurement, such as Automatic OSPAN and counting span task. Performance-inhibiting consequences of stereotype threat emerges for anxiety risen by negative social stereotype, which depletes limited cognitive resources and reduce the capacity of working memory. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is used to evaluate the cognitive changes while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) observe the vividness of different brain regions during n-back test after sport-related concussions. Future researchers should focus on the function of working memory in cognitive process and transfer and explore special paradigm and measurement for sport.
The ERP components related to facial expression processing include P1 (80~120 ms), N170 (120~200 ms), EPN (Early Posterior Negativity, 200~300 ms) and LPP (Late Positive Potential, after 300 ms). These components represent different stage of facial expression process and thus have different mental meaning. P1 is sensitive to threaten-related face, such as fear, disgust and anger, reflects a quick and automatic detection to threatened stimuli. N170 implicates the automatic process to code the structure of expression. EPN reflects the selective attention to emotion information. This competent is also automatic in some conditions and can be modulated by emotional expression of different kinds and emotional scene. LPP that is affected by attention control represents the higher cognitive process. Future research should extend the understanding of these ERP components by exploring: (1) Whether P1 is affected by the extent of threat. (2) The impact of top-down factors on N170. (3) Whether the facial expression stimulus that can elicit EPN, but not N170 be treated as general emotional stimulus. (4) Whether the LPP also reflects certain level of automaticity. (5) Whether processing different type of expression (e.g. fear and disgust) is dissociative in ERPs?
The attentional blink (AB) effect refers to the phenomenon of when participants exhibit an impaired ability to report a second target (T2) which appears within the time window of 200~500 ms after a first target (T1) within a stream of distractors. Recently, there has been a growing interest in investigating individual differences in the AB effect. The present paper firstly reviews recent studies which have explored individual differences in the AB effect from the cognitive, emotional, and personality perspectives. These differences have mainly been found to be embodied in working memory, the ability to inhibit distractors, dispositional focus, and personality. Recently, the individual differences in the AB effect have been highlighted in both clinical research and in terms of practical applications. Finally, we propose a new direction for research into the underlying of neural mechanism in the individual differences and the practical application.
Stimulus associated with reward could capture attention, which was called value-driven attention capture (Anderson, 2013). Reward can facilitate attention selection when it was associated with target; while it would slow down target selection when associated with distractor. Reward exerts great impact on attention deployment by unique cognitive mechanism which can be modulated by various factors such as monetary prediction, capacity of visual working memory, personal characteristics and the salience of stimulus. Future studies should try to apply research findings of value-driven attention capture to the intervention of attention dysfunction.
Exposure therapy is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy used for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Using the cognitive behavioral therapy, the fear memory can be extinguished if the subjects are repeatedly exposed to a conditioned stimulus in absence of an unconditioned stimulus. However, the fear memory is not completely erased and tends to relapse in some conditions. Fear renewal is a typical model of fear relapse, which is induced when subjects are exposed to contexts outside of the extinction training. The hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala are critical brain regions involved in fear renewal and the connections and circuitries between these brain areas are also crucial physiological bases for fear renewal. The hippocampus regulates the amygdala activity by its direct projection to the basal amygdala or by its indirect projection via the prelimbic cortex in the renewal.
Mast cells (MCs) are well studied for their roles in allergic and inflammatory disorders. MCs are also identified in the central nervous system (CNS), but have not been examined much. In recent years, growing evidence has shown that central MCs can modulate brain function and behavior in an endogenous homeostatic way. On the one hand, MCs exert protective effects on the development of related brain regions, the maintenance of neuronal activity, and various behaviors like motivation behavior, emotionality and cognition. The changes in the number and activity of central MCs under stressful conditions have relations with different limbs of stress response of brain and behavior. On the other hand, the hypo-activity or hyper-activity of MCs in immunity-related diseases or MCs transgenic animals both promote deleterious outcomes in brain function and behavior, which may be involved in the pathological process of some neuroimmune disorders. Anatomical and functional studies in vitro indicate that there exist bidirectional interactions between MCs and neural cells, including neurons and glial cells. Firstly, MCs and nerves are apposed with spatial gaps of 20 nm or less, an intimate interaction resembling synaptic junctions. Secondly, MCs and nerves also share common activating signals and receptors. On the one hand, MCs contain a variety of biologically active substances, which regulate the activity of the surrounding brain tissues when released through degranulation upon mast cell activation. On the other hand, there exist different kinds of receptors on mast cell membrane, through which MCs can be affected by neurological and immune signaling molecules in the brain. However, the current findings about the crosstalk between mast cell and the CNS are mainly based on studies in vitro. Until now, we know little about how bidirectional communication between mast cell and the CNS regulate brain and behavior in vivo, and its relationship with pathological processes in some immune related psychosomatic diseases. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neurobiology of brain mast cell, which might open new perspectives for the development of therapeutic targets in some neuropsychological diseases.
Threat sensitivity is a survival skill developed from the human adaptation process. There are two approaches in threat sensitivity literatures. Physiological approach holds a reinforcement sensitivity perspective that defines threat sensitivity as the sensitivity of behavioral inhibition system, which is measured by the physical, emotional and behavioral responses to threats. Cognitive approach, based on cognitive style theory, defines threat vigilance as the sensitivity bias to threat in the information process. Threat sensitivity is measured by the expectation and detection level before and after the presence of threat. Future research should be engaged in integrating the definition further, verifying the relationship among the measurement indexes, extending research methods to test different kinds of threat sensitivity.
Mindfulness is a new concept emerged in the field of contemporary clinical health psychology. Although its application in the field has made remarkable achievements, research on its theories has to be strengthened. After systematically sorted and evaluated the three-stage evolutionary process of the conceptualization as well as four orientations of measurements, it was found there are two big problems in its theoretical researches. For the one, the current Chinese definitions about the concept are not clear enough, which can refer to a kind of activity (meditation), psychological state, psychological process, or even personality trait; for the other, there exist diverse measurements, which are state-oriented, ability-oriented, cognition-oriented and trait-orientated. The core cause is how to understand mindfulness. Based on analysis of current problems and previous empirical studies, the article argues that future research can take reference to “Values In Action Classification”, from the trait orientation, employing the Combined Etic–Emic Approach, digging out its essential connotations, highlighting the basic characteristic of individual experience at the moment in the naming and measurement aspects.
For decades, the researches on guilt have attracted significant attention, most of which were focused on the children development and mental health. While in recent years, the focus has been turned to the moral dimension of guilt, concerning more about the moral values of emotions in interpersonal relationship and social events. Guilt, a moral emotion, develops with moral consciousness and plays an important role in maintaining and reconstructing social relations and the development of emotions. From the perspective of morality, this review gives detailed discussions on the definition, generation mechanism, behavioral response and prosocial impacts of guilt. It is hoped that this study can provide some new insights into domestic studies in this field.
Base rate neglect refers to a phenomenon of bias in judgment and making decision, which results from ignoring the statistical proportion of base rate information in the judgment of related events, and only focusing on the present case information. The psychological mechanisms for this phenomenon mainly include dual-process theory and linear integration theory. There are also many factors that affect the base rate neglect, such as information characteristics, cognitive ability and so on. As to future directions, future researches are expected to deep analysis on the mechanism of the dual-process theory and put forward new perspectives based on the fuzzy trace theory, as well as promote its application on the group and public domain.
The present study focused on individuals’ behavior on Facebook, the most popular social network service worldwide, and reviewed relevant research from the perspective of psychology about the motivations driving individuals to use Facebook, the categories of individuals’ behavior on Facebook, the antecedents and outcomes of individuals’ use of Facebook. Subsequent research should pay attention to the multiple methods of measuring individuals’ behavior on Facebook, the representative sampling, the interaction between online and offline social network, the predictive effects of specific trait variables and the dynamic function of Facebook.
Integrating moderation and mediation models has been a popular topic of study in social science methodology. A moderated mediation model is a combination of both moderation and mediation models. When a mediation effect is moderated by a moderator, the effect is termed moderated mediation and the model is a moderated mediation model. There are three common types of moderated mediation models: first-stage moderated mediation, second-stage moderated mediation, and dual-stage moderated mediation. Three methods of testing moderated mediation models are based on the Bootstrap asymmetric confidence interval and the Bayesian asymmetric credible interval. These methods include a subgroup approach, difference approach, and products of coefficients approach. The products of coefficients approach is recommended to analyze first-stage or second-stage moderated mediation models. The difference approach is recommended to analyze dual-stage moderated mediation models. A simulation study found that the Bayesian credible interval without informative prior yielded higher power than the Bootstrap percentile confidence interval, and comparable power to the Bootstrap bias-corrected confidence interval. In the present study, we used an example to illustrate how to conduct the proposed procedure by using MPLUS and WinBUGS software. MPLUS and WinBUGS programs are provided in the appendix to facilitate the implementation of the Bootstrap method to analyze moderated mediation effects. The programs can be managed easily by empirical researchers. To explore the present situation and problems of using three moderated mediation analysis methods in psychological researches in China, this article reviewed 12 studies published in Chinese psychological journals, retrieved from the CNKI database, since 2009 to 2014.
In the context of scaling with Item Response Theory, the choice of parameter calibration methods is an essential factor that can affect the results of vertical scaling. Existing research has obtained consistent results on the relative performance of some calibration methods and has proposed many new calibration methods to obtain better scaling results. In addition to further exploration in existing framework to form a comprehensive research system, future research should investigate the performance of the calibration methods with related disciplines on the basis of a deep understanding of the nature of achievement growth, as well as examine the best match of particular calibration methods and particular research conditions and scaling situations.