Delay discounting means that compared with current or recent benefits (or losses), people tend to give future benefits (or losses) less weight, and choose current or recent benefits (or losses). Why are people impulsive? Why do people exhibit the behavior of delay discounting? How can we make people “visionary” and avoid “short-sighted”? All of the problems need to be solved for the research of delay discounting. In recent years, using the behavioral, ERP, and fMRI technologies, we systematically invest cognitive mechanisms, neural basis, and influencing factors of delay discounting behavior from the trait and state delay discounting perspectives. On the one hand, from the trait delay discounting perspective, we examined the neural dissociation between subjective valuation and self-control, the neural prediction between immediate reward option and delayed reward option, and the neural difference of delay discounting behavior for actors and thinkers. On the other hand, from the state delay discounting perspective, we exploited that how framing effects affect individual delay discounting behavior, how wealth and poor cues affect individual delay discounting behavior, and how the emotion of episodic prospection affect individual delay discounting behavior. Our research found that the neural basis of delay discounting included the valuation network and self-control network, and that the modulation of self-control network to valuation network could predict individual delay discounting rate, integrating the different neural theories of delay discounting. In addition, framing effect, wealth and poor cues, and emotion of episodic prospection could affect individual delay discounting behavior. Thus, it is possible to shape individual delay discounting behavior. Our work will provide the theory and practice guidance for the development of behavioral decision making and psychiatry of China.
Prior studies indicated a prevalence of affective disturbances during adolescence and various affective disturbances influence adolescents' physical- mental health profoundly. By literature analysis, this study proposes that the prevalence of affective disturbances in adolescents is closely linked with their emotion coping style, and that cognitive training may decrease adolescents' susceptibility to affective disturbances, consequently to enhance their psychological wellbeing. To test these hypotheses, using behavioral/physiological methods, EEG/ERP, and fMRI measures, this project plans to conduct the following four studies:1) neural mechanisms underlying the impact of pubertal development on adolescents' susceptibility to negative emotions; 2) the interactive influences of cognitive coping style and pubertal status on adolescents' susceptibility to negative emotions;3)how cognitive trainings (attention, interpretation or acceptance training) dampen healthy adolescents' susceptibility to negative emotions and neural plasticity mechanisms;4)how cognitive trainings modify the anxious/ depressive adolescents' emotion coping styles, clinical symptoms and the neural underpinnings of these influences. The ultimate goal of this series of studies is to unravel cognitive-neural mechanisms of adolescents' vulnerability to affective disturbances, to find and cultivate healthy coping styles, and to lay theoretic and practical bases for clinical treatment of affective disturbances.
Improper corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities can cause consumer’s perceived corporate hypocrisy, which will bring extremely negative influences to enterprises. The concept of hypocrisy has just been introduced into Marketing, and needs exact definition and a scientific scale. We focuse on Chinese culture, and will conduct series of studies in order to, (1) explores the connotation of the concept of corporate hypocrisy and differentiate it with the relative conceptions; (2) reveal the structure of the construct, develop its scale and take strict reliability and validity examinations; (3) explore its cause and effect, especially its influence on three levels of consumer’s attitude and behaviors.
Due to the dramatic social change, Chinese older people may have experienced increasing loneliness in recent decades. Wecomprehensively reviewed 25 studies using cross-temporal meta-analysis which were published from 1995 to 2011 and involved 13,280 old people. Results showed that (1) a positive relationship between loneliness and the year was found with 0.95 SD increased from 1995 to 2011; (2) loneliness scores for married and non-married groups had been increasing significantly,also to male and female groups; (3) the difference was significant betweennon-married and married people, but no difference was found between males and females.
A growing body of research has demonstrated consistent links between moral disengagement and aggressive behavior. Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of moral disengagement on aggressive behavior. The studies were searched from 1996 to 2013, which were written in Chinese and English. A total of 41 relevant studies met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. All studies included 44 independent samples and 24536 participants. Pearson’s r was used as the effect size metric. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) Version 2 program was used to analyze the data. Moderator analyses were also conducted. The meta-analytic findings indicated a positive overall effect (r = 0.35, 95% CI [0.30, 0.39]), supporting the hypothesis that moral disengagement is a significant correlate of aggressive behavior. Furthermore, the results of the moderator analyses indicated that cultural differences, data features, the moral disengagement measure used, type of aggression, and age grades all moderated the positive relationship between moral disengagement and aggressive behavior. In addition, the correlation between moral disengagement and aggressive behavior was larger in Chinese culture as compared to western culture. Finally, implications for aggression are suggested.
From perspectives of time perception and motivation, Socioemotional Selectivity Theory postulated that older adults’ processing of emotional stimuli is positively affected. In comparison with young adults, older adults tend to prefer positive stimuli and avoid negative stimuli. Nevertheless, results of current empirical studies with regards to this positivity effect were inconsistent. Previous literatures on positivity effect showed concerns for four methodological issues. This included 1) the inconsistence between studies regarding the between-group differences (e.g., between two or three groups), 2) the cross-cultural generalizability of the results, and considered that 3) the multiplicity of emotional stimuli, categorization, and mode of presentation were the main reasons for the differences among previous literature, and future research on the positivity effect would require differentiation of the constructs of “emotional bias” and “emotional effect”. Future research on positivity effect can be improved through expanding the age range of participants, validating results based on cross-cultural and cross-region comparison, and improving the ecological validity of stimuli.
As an electrophysiological technique, electroencephalograph (EEG) time-frequency analysis can reveal event-related oscillatory activities by measuring power changes for different frequency bands at each electrode. In the area of sentence processing, using this technique, a large number of recent studies have associated syntactic and semantic processes with power changes at different bands (θ, a, b, or γ). In addition, different types of syntactic (e.g., grammatical gender or number) and semantic processing (semantic integration or prediction) have been linked to oscillatory activities at different bands. Future studies should examine not only oscillatory activities underlying other types of syntactic processing such as tense and word order processing, which haven’t been investigated so far, but also oscillatory activities involved in the interaction between syntactic and semantic processes. Moreover, further studies should use a variety of methods for analyzing EEG power changes, in a variety of languages, in order to test whether EEG power changes to syntactic and semantic processes are modulated by methodological and linguistic variation.
People often find themselves in a situation something seems a bit familiar to them, yet they fail to recall the related experience that happened in their lives before.. One theoretical explanation for the feelings of familiarity is that they result from a weaker form of the same process that produces recognition that occurs in the presence of recall (single-process models, SPM). An alternative theoretical explanation is that the feelings of familiarity result from the familiarity-based recognition that operates independently to the recollection-based recognition (dual-process theories, DPT). In the laboratory, the primary method of assessing the independence of recollection and familiarity is to look for dissociations between the two. In this article, attempt is made to tease apart the studies of recognition without cued recall paradigm (RWCRP). The results indicate that familiarity is more sensitive to some special conceptual and global-feature perceptual processes than recollection, thus rejecting the claim of SPM in showing that recollection and familiarity are preferentially sensitive to conceptual and partial-feature perceptual manipulations, respectively. And the behavioral and neuropsychological dissociations between recollection and familiarity are also observed by RWCR studies, which provide some support for this claim of DPT in showing that recollection and familiarity are mutually independent. Finally, the future research is put forward as to that the underlying processing mechanism of familiarity could be studied and Chinese words could be examined using RWCR method due to the difference between English and Chinese.
attentional bias towards threat is a common phenomenon in anxious as well as healthy individuals. There are two potential cognitive mechanisms of attentional bias. The facilitated attentional orienting is known as threat stimuli are detected faster than neutral stimuli. The impaired attentional disengagement is defined as harder to disengage attention from threat stimuli compare to neutral stimuli. The amygdala- anterior cingulate cortex network is the potential neural base of facilitated attentional orienting, while the orbitofrontal cortex is the key area of attentional disengagement. The properties of threat stimuli and characteristic of participants are main factors which affect attentional bias. The future studies should focus on the relationship between attentional orienting and attentional disengagement as well as the neural base of attentional bias.
With the development of cognitive neuroscience and technology, it became a newly research hotspot that investigate the developmental cognitive neural mechanisms of adolescents’ risky decision making. From the perspective of dual systems model (Social Affective Neural Network System and Cognitive Control Neural Network System), we expounded the changes of brain structures and functions which are associated with adolescents’ risky decision making, and focused on analyzing the latest studies of adolescents’ brain functional connectivity and brain networks. Then we discussed the main theoretical models of cognitive neural mechanisms on adolescents’ risky decision making: the dual systems model and the triadic model. Future directions should emphasize the examination, integration and innovation of the neural system models, and deeply explore the effects and neural mechanisms of Social Referencing Systems (such as peer influence, subculture) on adolescents’ risky decision making from the perspective of social cognitive neuroscience, as well as how to prevent and intervene adolescents’ high risky behaviors from the level of cognitive neuroscience.
Peer attachment is an important developmental task during adolescence. IPPA, PIML and the newly developed AFAS are existing instruments that specifically measure attachment related aspects of peer relationships in adolescence. Adolescent-parent attachment and adolescent’s own gender are two factors that could predict the development of adolescent peer attachment. Other factors such as sexual orientation and the gender of the peer could also influence adolescent’s choice of the peer attachment figure. However, the correlation between age and peer attachment is still unclear. Secure attachment indicates high quality of peer relationship and promotes adolescents’ social development. Future researches should focus on improving research methods, changing entry points, and diversifying research directions.
Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is a disturbance in which, following the death of a person close to the bereaved, there is persistent and pervasive yearning or longing for the deceased that extends beyond 6 months after the loss and that is sufficiently severe to cause significant impairment in the person’s functioning. This kind of pathological grief reactions didn’t draw clinical psychologists’ attention until recent two decades. We begin with the development of PGD, as well as discussions on diagnosis of Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder (PCBRD). By distinguishing PGD from normal grief, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, researcher developed distinct diagnostic criteria, assessment, and epidemiology for PGD. We then review both theoretical and empirical studies on pathological mechanism, aiming at integrating intervention suggestions. Finally, we outline directions for further studies on cross-cultural validation of diagnostic criteria, theories and research of mechanism.
Courage is a kind of psychological quality which is characterized by persistence gumption and breakthrough when people face difficulties. Previous studies investigated the definition, theory, measurement, factors and function of courage in depth. Operational definition of courage based on specific needs, effective measuring tools related to theories, cognitive neural mechanisms of courage, correlated factors and their interactions of courage should be explored in future studies.
Moral self-regulation is individual does or does not engage moral behavior (immoral behavior), according to the moral self. Moral self falls into temporary moral self (moral self-perception) and stable moral self (moral identity). The negative feedback mechanism of moral self-regulation is that people keep the dynamic of moral behavior according to moral self-perception, and it includes two kinds of phenomena: moral cleansing effect and moral licensing effect. The positive feedback mechanism of moral self-regulation is that people maintain the consistency of moral behavior according to moral identity. Construal level theory not only integrates the positive feedback mechanism with the negative feedback mechanism, but also integrates two moral behaviors. Future research should explore the influence of public-self and individual differences on two moral self-regulation mechanisms.
The linguistic bias can be defined as a systematic asymmetry in word choice as a function of the social category to which the target belong. Researches of linguistic bias mainly focus on linguistic intergroup bias (LIB), linguistic expectancy bias (LEB) and negation bias (NB). The theoretical explanations of linguistic bias include motivation mechanism and cognition mechanism. Cognition and stereotypes of communicator, mood, traits of personality, group identity, communicative purposes and other factors affect the linguistic bias in interpersonal communication. Expanding the researches of psychological mechanisms, types and applied researches, innovating the research methods, and making more localization studies in the Chinese context are the future research directions of linguistic bias.
As part of the primitive, intuitive mode of human thought, sympathetic magical thinking (SMT) is a cognitive process based on the law of sympathetic magic which contains two basic laws, the law of similarity and the law of contagion. The law of similarity holds that “like causes like” and “appearance equals reality”. In other words, things that resemble one another at a superficial level are perceived to share fundamental properties. The law of contagion holds that physical contact between the source and the recipient results in the transfer of “essence” from the source to the recipient and that the source and recipient can influence each other even after they disconnect. Note that the effect of contagion can be either positive or negative. The effects of SMT have been supported in some areas such as food disgust and consumer shopping. The future research on SMT should focus on areas other than food disgust and consumer shopping, strategies to mitigate the effects of SMT, and the information processing of SMT.