The description invariance principle, which is one of the axioms of normative economic theory, requires that equivalent descriptions of a problem yield the same preference ordering. However, several studies have revealed that people often violate the invariance principle in real world decision-making. This action is known as preference-framing effects in decision-making. We reviewed new findings on the framing effect in the field of risky and intertemporal decision-making. We presented the framing effect research with a verbal as well as graphical frame. We also introduced compensatory models (e.g., prospect theory) and non-compensatory models (e.g., equate-to-differentiate model) as the psychological mechanism. This review encourages future researchers to extend the study of framing effects.
Scholarly works have generally considered organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) as a kind of individual behavior that is discretionary. However, with the advent of "bei" phenomenon (e.g., involuntary donation and compulsory overtime) in organizations, a growing body of research suggests that compulsory OCB is still prevalent in workgroups. More importantly, such behaviors can hurt labor relations and threaten organizational harmony. However, empirical research exploring the related field is relatively limited. As such, in the present article, we will take Chinese employees’ compulsory OCB as the research object and explore its formation mechanisms. In particular, based on trait activation theory, coercive persuasion theory, and self-determination theory, we aim to construct a multi-level formation model of employees' compulsory OCB from the levels of employee, leader, and organization. In practice, the research project is conducive to local enterprises to build a good and harmonious labor relation. In theory, the research results may contribute new knowledge to the field of OCB and promote the study and application of OCB theory in China.
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the culture differences of violent video games on aggressive cognition for children and adolescents. Twenty four researches were identified with a total sample size of 2449 participants. The results showed that: (1) The average effect size of violent video game exposure was 0.23. The effect size for children and adolescents approached to middle level. This suggested that exposure to violence video games in a causal risk factor for increased aggressive cognition. (2) Moderator analysis found that average effect size of western culture was bigger than eastern culture. Culture actually was an important moderator variable for effect of violent video game, collectivistic values, high moral discipline showed lower levels of aggression than individualism culture. (3) Average effect size of primary school students was bigger than the other. Violent video game probably had most powerful influence to primary school students. (4)There was no significant difference among different measuring methods.
Inhibitory control, which refers to the ability to successfully suppress dominant behavior and irrelevant stimuli, is an important mechanism in the cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies suggested that the age-related declines in inhibitory control associated with the cortical shrinkage and loss of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. What’s more, age-related increases in PFC activation to functional compensation have been found in functional neuroimaging studies. Meanwhile, genetics studies show that cognitive aging was marked by heterogeneity. The effect of common genetic variants contributed to the observed increase in heterogeneity in normal aging. Imaging genetics, which combines imaging and genetics advantages, should be used to explore the inhibitory control and aging under the framework of Genes-Brain-Behavior.
Social anxiety disorder is one of the most common and intractable mental disorders. Numerous studies have found that attention bias training can be an effective treatment for patients or normal people with social anxiety. According to self-report, structured interview and physiological records, researchers found that individuals with social anxiety change attention bias, physiological arousal and cranial nerve activity, in addition, their social anxiety symptoms are relieved after attention bias training. Intervention mechanism of attention bias training towards social anxiety is probable because training enhances individual attentional disengagement ability from the threatening stimulation. Future research further clarify intervention effect and mechanism of attention bias training towards social anxiety, and broaden the evaluation means of attention bias training effect as well as explore its long-term effects and the role in other mental illnesses.
Psychopathy, characterized by egocentricity, deceptiveness, impulsiveness, lack of empathy and lack of guilt, was defined as a personality disorder with a cluster of interpersonal, affective, behavioral and antisocial traits. Previous studies on psychopathy with particular emphasis on the physiological mechanisms have shown that psychopathy was highly hereditary. However, more and more studies highlighted the effect of family factors on the psychopathy. These factors mainly include: prenatal risk factors, broken family, poor parenting, unsafe parent-child attachment and childhood abuse. Future researches should focus on exploring the mechanisms of familial factors on subtypes of psychopathy, finding protective environmental factors that inhibit psychopathic expression and developing the biopsychosocial model of psychopathy, etc.
Work passion plays an important role in workplace and individual life, and receives increasing concern. However, theoretical understanding, systematic reviews, and integrative models of research on work passion are lacking. In this article, we reviewed the existing research on work passion and presented a theoretical model systematically. The concept of work passion can be understood in three aspects according to different levels of specificity in study scope: in general level, in organizational field, and in specific entrepreneurial work context. This term includes three factors: affect, cognition and intention. Four main models related to work passion were discussed: the Dualistic Model of Passion, Conceptual Model of Employee Work Passion, Conceptual Model of the Experience of Entrepreneurial Passion, and Conceptual model of passion contagion. The empirical studies explore the work passion in source, outcomes, and influence mechanism. At last, we built on extant models and fragmented work to propose an integrative model of work passion, which could provide a systematic idea to work passion study.
Swift trust is a new field about trust research that suits temporary organizations characterized as swiftly formed, short-termed and complex. The concentration of swift trust on recognition, action and roles rather than on personalities, interpersonal forms and feelings in dyadic networking as traditional trust does is helpful to manage the issues of vulnerability, uncertainty, risk and expectations of temporary organizations. The article summarized the antecedents of swift trust which includes trust disposition, category and prototype, and role after introducing the concepts and measuring instruments of swift trust. Then the influences of swift trust on both the temporary team and the temporary system levels were analyzed. Future studies should make further researches on the affective factors, the measuring instruments and dimensions, the reciprocal effects between swift trust and leadership, the distrust in swift trust, and the dynamic development of swift trust.
Meta-stereotype refers to a person’s beliefs regarding the stereotype that out-group members hold about his or her own group. As intergroup meta-perception, the content and valence of meta-stereotype can reflect intergroup relations to a certain extent. In recent years, more and more researches had demonstrated that meta-stereotype exerted stronger influence on intergroup relation than other-stereotype. Meta-stereotype activation is more complicated and leads to a series of effects on people’s feeling, thought and behavior. Future research should further explore the following issues: researchers should pay more attention to mental mechanism of meta-stereotype impacts on intergroup relations; explore the strategies that meta-stereotype may improve intergroup relations, different groups in the Chinese cultural context should also be taken into consideration in the research.
The framing effect in the public decision-making refers to a phenomenon that people`s decision-making behaviors are influenced by the description of options among media coverage and leader’s statements and then demonstrate different preferences for decision-making. At present, the prospect theory, query theory and fuzzy- trace theory are three theoretical models to explain this phenomenon in the context of the public decision-making. Evidences show that the framing effect in the public decision-making may be influenced by some factors, such as value orientation, levels of knowledge, interpersonal communication, emotions and characters of framing. Further researches for the framing effect in the public decision-making are expected to explore its theoretical explanation and neural mechanism, conduct cross-cultural researches, and investigate its research paradigm and coping strategies.
Choice blindness refers to a person’s failure to detect a mismatch between one’s intentions and the outcome of one’s choice in decision-making task, without their notice. Memory representation theory mainly encodes why people can not find the change of choices, and preference theory focuses on analyzing the reversal of people’s preference. Afterwards, we introduce influential factors of the choice blindness, including similarities and false feedback. Future researches of choice blindness are expected to the deeper understanding of its original roots and psychological mechanism, expand of influential factors and exploration of application.
Loss aversion refers to a phenomenon that the disutility of a loss is larger than the utility of an equivalent gain. Its origin can be explained from the aspects of neuroeconomics and evolutionary psychology. The brain mechanisms of loss aversion are divided into two systems—the subjective value evaluation system mainly including striatum and prefrontal cortex, which is associated with the assessment of subjective value; the emotional arousal system mainly including amygdala and insula, which is related to negative emotions like disgust. Under the framework of evolutionary psychology, the present paper reviews the researches of animal behavioral decision-making to explore the evolutionary history of loss aversion, and then summarizes its evolutionary explanations based on related evolutionary theories. Finally, the deficiencies existing in current research and the directions for future research are discussed.
Mobile phone use while driving is one of the most important contributors to driver distraction, and as a significant body of recent research have revealed that this behavior can cause impairments to driving performance. In China, as in many other countries, mobile phone use while driving is illegal. But then, there is an increasing evidence of widespread actual mobile use behaviors while driving. Therefore, when a driver knows the behavior of use mobiles while driving is a risky behavior, and he has to use a mobile phone while driving, then how do they modulate their behaviors accordingly? The fundamental question regarding the effect of competing activities on driver performance or driving safety is whether and how drivers compensatory for any decrease or riskiness in attention to driving task (i.e., self-regulate) to maintain adequate safety margins. Surprisingly, little research has directly addressed this problem. According to current literatures, the following perspectives are used to review this very important issue: (1) mobile phone use while driving and risk perception, (2) the self-regulations uses in the condition of driving, and (3) with use of Theory of Planned Behavior and Compensatory Healthy Beliefs Model, how to predict mobile phone use and corresponding compensatory behaviors.
Manned spaceflight operates under extreme environmental conditions. Isolation, monotony, a heavy workload and weightlessness in space influence each individual mental experience, including the emotional state, cognitive ability and the mental health of astronauts. Meanwhile, interpersonal interactions among astronauts or between astronauts and mission control personnel will also have an effect. The current review analyzes many psychological studies conducted on real space missions, analogue and simulation experiments. The results from such studies have had a significant effect on selection and training, as well as with in-flight support and post-flight readjustment of astronauts. In considering the long-term manned space station project and lunar exploration program of China, future studies need to focus on mental issues in long-duration spaceflight, the characteristics of human interactions within Chinese culture, and finally the use of measurement methods for behavioral observation and expression identification.
Item response theory (IRT) models are widely applied psychometric models. They can predict responses based on characteristics of items and participants. But the validity in all applications of IRT is dependent on the extent to which the selected model accurately reflects the data at hand (goodness of fit). Only when the IRT model fits the data well, can the advantages and functions of IRT emerge (Orlando & Thissen, 2000). Selection of the wrong model would lead to relatively large error in parameter estimation, test equating, the analysis of differential item functioning and so on, which would result in adverse effect (Kang, Cohen & Sung, 2009). Therefore, it is required to evaluate model-data fit before applying IRT (McKinley & Mills, 1985). Common fit statistics in the field of IRT can be expounded and compared from test fit and item fit, which is very important in the field of psychological and educational measurement and also easily neglected in test analysis process. It has not been found yet that there are any similar published articles. Directions of future research for model-data fit could emphasize simulation and empirical study of this issue. And common fit statistics in the field of cognitive diagnosis could be investigated.