ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

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Editor-In-Chief Invited
 Expectation Discrepancy: Risk Communication Barriers in Disaster XIE Xiaofei;HU Tianyi;LIN Jing;LU Xi 2013, 21 (5):  761-774.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00761 Abstract ( 875 )   PDF (310KB) ( 2202 )   Expectation discrepancy effect refers to a kind of interpersonal conflict resulting from a discrepancy of expectations between multiple sides within the same situation. Expectation discrepancy contains two components: dimension and degree. With its inevitability and imperceptibility, expectation discrepancy could be strengthened in groups. In disaster situations, it is likely to form a vicious cycle between expectation discrepancy and risk communication barriers. Factors such as the roles of individuals, perception of information, and existing knowledge would affect the dimension component, while factors such as psychological entitlement, and trust would affect the degree dimension. Both of the two dimensions lead to risk communication barriers. Breaking up mindsets could effectively reduce expectation discrepancy and start a positive cycle of risk communication, which is of great importance in disaster management.
Conceptual Framework
 The Mechanisms of Green Consumption Based on the Dilemma between Short-term Individual and Long-term Social Interests DU Weiqiang;CAO Huarui 2013, 21 (5):  775-784.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00775 Abstract ( 709 )   PDF (209KB) ( 1337 )   Environmental degradation and the enormous impact of consumption on the environment make customers’ green consumption significant and important for the future. Companies want to be able to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of green consumption, which can boost green demand. While green marketing research mainly focuses on companies, the research on customers is limited. Little green consumption research pays attention to the customers’ dilemma between short-term individual interests and long-term social interests during the consumption of green products, so does the research on the mechanisms of green consumption. This study attempts to focus on the dilemma, applying theories of self-control, altruistic behavior and self-construction, as well as using experimental methods to investigate how the three factors (individual, cultural and situational) influence "concerns about the long-term interests" and "concerns about the social interests", thus affecting green consumption from customers' perspective. The study is also on the boundary conditions of and conflict between these two mechanisms and the reconciliation of self-construction to the dilemma.
Regular Articles
 Emotional Attention Bias Under Inhibition Paradigm BAI Xuejun;JIA Liping;WANG Jingxin 2013, 21 (5):  785-791.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00785 Abstract ( 745 )   PDF (233KB) ( 1992 )   Compared with neutral stimuli, emotional stimuli usually results in faster and more attention and presents a cognitive processing priority. In the studies of investigating the relation of attention and emotion, emotional materials are observed to attract attention or occupy attentional resource, thereby cause attention bias. Moderate bias for emotional information is of great value for the individual’s social life. The current study reviews four types of theories about emotional attention bias which refers to components of selective attention account, schema theory, attentional resource theory and the PDP model, emphasizing on the emotional attention bias under inhibitory paradigm separately with the normal individuals and the special ones. Furthermore, we points out the possibility of adopting new technology such as ERPs and fMRI to study the connection between emotion and attention for the different groups of participants in the future.
 The Cognitive Mechanism of Collaborative Inhibition LIU Xiping;ZHANG Huan;TANG Weihai;FENG Hong 2013, 21 (5):  792-799.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00792 Abstract ( 483 )   PDF (146KB) ( 1256 )   null
 Neural Mechanisms of the Belief-bias Effect Based on Dual Process Theories LUO Junlong;ZHANG Entao;YUE Caizhen;TANG Xiaochen;ZHONG Jun;ZHANG Qinglin 2013, 21 (5):  800-807.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00800 Abstract ( 530 )   PDF (207KB) ( 1205 )   null
 Cognitive Mechanism and Neural Mechanism of Developmental Prosopagnosia RAN Guangming;ZHAO Le;CHEN Xu;DING Yi;PAN Yangu;LIU Yan;ZHOU Wenqian 2013, 21 (5):  808-816.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00808 Abstract ( 511 )   PDF (222KB) ( 1178 )   Developmental prosopagnosia is characterized by severely impaired face recognition, which has no intellectual deterioration, affective disorder, difficulty of object recognition, history of brain damage. The cognitive mechanism involving in developmental prosopagnosia includes the face-specific mechanisms, the disorder of configural processing, the face detection, the face memory deficits and the facial identity recognition. The neural network of developmental prosopagnosia involves the core network and the extended network. The core network associates with facial selective responses and memory representation, while the extended network is responsible for the facial knowledge representation and the facial memory. The future research should develop the extended network and cognitive mechanism, focus on the association of face detection with developmental prosopagnosia, inspect the genetic mechanisms of it, and enhance the developmental study and rehabilitation work of it.
 Fear of Pain: Effects on Pain Perception and Hypothesized Cognitive Mechanisms LYU Zhenyong;JI Xiaolei;HUANG Li;Todd JACKSON;CHEN Hong 2013, 21 (5):  817-826.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00817 Abstract ( 647 )   PDF (287KB) ( 1598 )   Fear of pain refers to fear triggered by noxious stimuli appraised as potential threats to physical integrity. This paper reviews research on its' effects on pain perception, attention towards pain, avoidance behavior and placebo analgesia. In addition, leading explanations of fear of pain are outlined: the activity avoidance model, the fear-avoidance model and the interceptive fear conditioning model. Finally, select future research directions are discussed, particularly exploration of cognitive mechanism underlying fear of pain via applications of research methods from cognitive neurosciences.
 Two Approaches of Behavioral Genetic Research of Personality WANG Shenlian;GUO Benyu 2013, 21 (5):  827-836.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00827 Abstract ( 591 )   PDF (175KB) ( 1481 )   With the decline of behaviorism and the development of biological technology, the behavioral genetic research of personality, which had been once disfavored for quite a long time, has been becoming more and more popular in recent years. It has been moved to the molecular genetic approach from the quantitative genetic approach. The quantitative genetic approach advocates estimating the contribution rate of heredity to the variance of personality phenotype in a population by means of some designs such as twin study and adoption study. It has done many researches on personality trait, personality disorder, attitude and preference, and so on. The molecular genetic approach aims to identify specific genes and examine the effects of them on personality phenotypes at the DNA level. It has mainly investigated the associations of genes from three specific neurotransmitter pathways (dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline) with personality. In the future, we should add identifying directly the specific genotype into quantitative genetic designs, pay attention to the effective integration of multi-disciplines and multi-paradigms, and expand the study of positive personality traits of healthy people. Moreover, we should explore further the deep mechanism of gene’s action on personality and emphasize the intervention research on personality at the level of molecular medicine.
 The Social Cognitive Process of Word Learning in Infants JING Wei;FANG Junming 2013, 21 (5):  837-846.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00837 Abstract ( 591 )   PDF (165KB) ( 1382 )   Associative theory, constraints theory and social-pragmatic theory are three basic theories about how infants learn new words. We outline social-pragmatic evidence with respect to four questions：1) What kinds of social cognitive processes are involved in infants word learning? 2) How does social-pragmatic theory refute the challenges from associative theory and constraints theory? 3) How is the weight of social cognitive process in infants word-learning relative to associative learning or lexical constraint mechanism? 4) What difficulties do children with autism encounter in word-learning task via social cues? Current evidence strongly indicates that social cognitive processes play a basic role in infants word-learning. Finally, some suggestions on future research are proposed.
 The New Development of Life-Span Theory of Control: Regulatory Models and Control Strategies TANG Rongmin;LV Houchao 2013, 21 (5):  847-856.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00847 Abstract ( 560 )   PDF (229KB) ( 1291 )   Life-span theory of control is deemed to interpreting life-span development preferably, which proposes a central feature of adaptive capacity is the regulation of motivation. The theory can promote individual development, and to make them to be optimization. Moreover, the life course is viewed as being organized around a sequential series of goal-oriented action cycles that involve goal selection, goal engagement, and disengagement from goals. Basing on the previous point and reviewing the basic content of life-span theory of control, the paper presents a comprehensive explanation for regulatory models of life-span development and adaptive function of control strategies, which mainly summarizes the relative theoretical views. The future studies should consider the application of this theory from cross-cultural situation, further validation in meeting three requirements of adaptive goals selection and discussion the related researches of successful aging.
 Control or Fit: Two Orientations of Secondary Control Research YANG Shenlong;GUO YongYu;LI Jing;BAI Jie 2013, 21 (5):  857-866.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00857 Abstract ( 384 )   PDF (225KB) ( 1101 )   Secondary control is a kind of coping strategies when we are faced with threats to our motivation for perceived control. It was first defined as an attempt to fit in with the world and to “flow with the current”. During its development, however, different explanations arose, leading to the so-called divergence of control-focus versus fit-focus orientation. The control-focus and fit-focus hold different views on the relationship between secondary control and primary control, the relationship between secondary control and perceived control, and cultural influences in secondary control. Recently Compensatory Control Model and the researches on health offer possibility to integrate the two orientations conceptually and functionally. Future research should be engaged in integrating the definition further, extending our research fields, as well as exploring its influential factors by an increasing use of experimental methods.
 The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect in the Development of Academic Self-Concept LI Zhenxing;LI Yujiao;WANG Huan;ZOU Wenqian;GUO Cheng 2013, 21 (5):  867-878.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00867 Abstract ( 783 )   PDF (222KB) ( 2111 )   The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect (BFLPE) refers to the phenomenon that students in higher-level classes or schools tend to have lower academic self-concepts, compared to their peers with the same academic level but attending lower-level classes or schools. This is analogous to the saying that better to be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion. The present study analyzed the literature on BFLPE and summarized findings in this domain, which provided valuable implications for the problem of grouping ability and school choosing in the education practice in China. This study also offered directions for future research, including strengthening statistical methods, the cultural difference in BFLPE, its specification of contexts and age, as well as its external validity, et al.
 Does Standers-by Always See More Than Gamesters?A Review on the Self-other Decision Making Differences LIU Cuicui;CHEN Bin;LIU Leixin;YUAN Xianxue;WANG Zuojun 2013, 21 (5):  879-885.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00879 Abstract ( 794 )   PDF (209KB) ( 2202 )   Numerous studies have examined the differences between the conditions of giving advice to others, making decisions for others, and making decisions for oneself. An important reason for researchers to examine the differences between the three conditions, arguable, is to determine which one is more likely leading to rational or optimized choice. The research in the literature, on one hand, revealed that people experience choice overload, display omission bias and confirmatory bias when they make decisions for themselves, but do not show these decision biases when they make decisions on behalf of others or give advice for others. Some research, on the other hand, has demonstrated that more compromise effect and predecisional distortion were displayed when people make decisions on behalf of others than make decisions for themselves. These results suggest that standers-by does not always see more than gamesters. Construction level theory, regulatory focus theory and emotional factors were proposed to explain the differences between decision making for oneself or for others. We suggest future research examine and explain the differences between decision making for oneself and for others in a more integrated way and focus on examining the mechanism of self-other decision making by employing methods such as eye tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging to provide a much richer description of the decision process.
 Ratio Bias in Behavioral Decision MENG Zhenzhen;XU Fuming;KONG Shixiao;LI Haijun;XIANG Peng 2013, 21 (5):  886-892.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00886 Abstract ( 516 )   PDF (144KB) ( 1383 )   The Ratio bias occurs when people judge an unlikely event as less likely or more surprising when its probability is presented in the form of equivalent ratios of small than of larger numbers. This phenomenon is universal in peoples daily decision-making, especially in managerial and medical decisions. The paper introduces two psychological mechanisms of the ratio bias, including norm theory and cognitive-experiential self-theory. We then discuss the factors that affect the ratio bias, including metacognitive skills, numeracy, cognitive perspective, and task characters, ect. We outline several issues that deserve further investigations.
 Application of Intuition to Military Decision Making SUN Huiming;FU Xiaolan 2013, 21 (5):  893-904.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00893 Abstract ( 550 )   PDF (254KB) ( 1626 )   Intuitive decision-making is an unconcisous process based on decision-makers’ experiences. The characteristics of volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity in the modern war require commanders to utilize their intuition in the battlefield to make quick decisions. On the influences of dual-processing decision theory and of recognition-primed decision model, the U.S. Army began to emphasize the role of intuition in operation plan productions in the late 1980s. Specifically, Army institutions actively explored methods to cultivate commanders’ intuition. Meanwhile, concepts of intuitive decision-making were gradually reflected in the U.S. Army doctrines. Existing results from U.S Army not only revealed the inner psychological mechanism of intuition decision making based on experiences, but also enlightened us to cultivate excellent commander suitable for the future war.
 Why Do Not Employees Voice: A Chinese Culture Perspective CHEN Wenping;DUAN Jinyun;TIAN Xiaoming 2013, 21 (5):  905-913.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00905 Abstract ( 812 )   PDF (242KB) ( 2561 )   In the Chinese cultural context, employees often turn a blind eye to organizational problems. Based on the perspective of the Chinese culture, we analyzed this situation and concluded that: Zhongyong thinking style is negatively related to self-centered voice; Face consciousness and favor perception, which can make employees pay more attention to their own and others face maintenance, often render employees keeping silent. In addition, collectivism characteristic, which relates to organization harmonious, is not conducive to the occurrence of voice behavior; Power distance inhibits the expression of voice; Long-term concepts may also suppress employee voice. Future studies should further clarify the impact of specific cultural factors on voice behavior and its mechanisms in Chinese context.
 How Do Consumers Understand and Evaluate Convergent Products? An Analysis Based on Product Features and Individual Characteristics ZHANG Hongxia;ZHANG Xuan;CHANG Ju-Hui;JIANG Haitao 2013, 21 (5):  914-921.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00914 Abstract ( 481 )   PDF (219KB) ( 1035 )   Convergent products, such as the Smartphone, can be defined as a platform which integrates functions from different categories. Due to the development of electronic technology and the drive of consumer needs, convergence has gradually become the main pattern of high-tech products. When facing various convergent products, how consumers make evaluations is an important research question. Through the process of literature review, we intensively discuss the mechanism of how consumers evaluate convergent products and investigate the factors that influence this process from two aspects: product features of convergent products and individual characteristics of consumers. In this research, we propose a new theoretical framework including 11 propositions, by integrating variables of base-product characteristics, features of additional functions, relations between base-product and additional functions, consumers’ previous experience, cognitive resource, and construal level. This framework provides theoretical basis for future research in this field.
 The Connotation, Mechanism and Effects of Self-Brand Connections WANG Caiyu 2013, 21 (5):  922-933.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00922 Abstract ( 918 )   PDF (283KB) ( 3006 )   Self-brand Connections (SBC) measure the extent to which consumers have incorporated brands into their individual or social self-concept. There are two types of mechanisms that explain the formation of brand connections. In the viewpoint of consumers’ identity, consumers construct individual, social or national brand connections according to different aspects of identity. From the perspective of brand communication, the formation of brand connections consisted of three stages. The effects of self-brand connections are that brand connections have active, positive influence on the consumer-brand relationship, but this effect realized will be affected by many factors. Future studies should focus on cultural psychology, ego psychology of self-brand connections and the mechanism of our country consumers how to form national brand connections.
Research Methods
 Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM): An Integration of EFA and CFA MAI Yujao;WEN Zhonglin 2013, 21 (5):  934-939.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00934 Abstract ( 1184 )   PDF (185KB) ( 5092 )   Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) is an approach in which an exploratory factor analysis measurement model with rotations is a part of an SEM. As a kind of advanced statistical methods, ESEM integrates the functions and advantages of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, two kinds of factor analysis methods. Using ESEM, researchers can flexibly explore the factor structure, systematically test the factor model, and provide more suitable measurement model for analyzing the relationship of latent variables. ESEM has been applied in the researches of some disciplines in social science. It is a method deserved of recommendation for factor analysis. Some issues on ESEM, such as the choice of rotation criterion and the methods for estimating test reliability, require to be addressed in the future.
 The Contributing Components Analysis on the Predictive Validity of the Structured Interview XU Changjiang;LIANG Chongli;LIU Zhengguang 2013, 21 (5):  940-950.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00940 Abstract ( 519 )   PDF (215KB) ( 1654 )   The structured interview which is mainly composed of the situational interview and the behavioral interview, has been widely verified to be effective in predicting employees’ performance, but its construct validity has not been clearly verified. The components of the interview structure, the applicants’ impression management behavior, motivation, cognitive ability and psychological merits have positively contributed for the structured interview in predicting performance. The analysis on the components contributing to the predictive validity of the structured interview helps understanding the construct validity of the constructed interview. The future’s orientations of the research are necessary to concern about whether interpersonal skill is measured by the structured interview, and to estimate the respective ratio of interpersonal skills, motivation and cognitive abilities in the constructs.