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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 21 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Editor-In-Chief Invited
    Optimistic Intelligence Quotient: Playing A More Important Role in Human Development than IQ and EQ
    REN Jun;PENG Nianqiang;LUO Jing
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 571-580.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00571
    Abstract   PDF (270KB) ( 3617 )
    Optimistic Intelligence Quotient or Optimistic Intelligence is the ability of optimism, which includes not only the level of a person’s optimism, but also a person’s ability of acquiring the positive compositions from his negative experiences that he had as well as the ability of influencing or affecting the people around. ‘Duchenne Smile’ is a main form of expression of high OQ. The relevant research about psychology in the past proves that high OQ not only is beneficial to the social development of a person, gaining a stable happy marriage, the improvement of a person’s physical health, the improvement of academic performance, decreasing the occurrence of bad things, but also benefits a person’s pursuit of social support and interaction. All these research results show that OQ is likely to be an aspect playing a more important role in destiny than IQ and EQ.
    Conceptual Framework
    The Role and Mechanism of Mirror Neuro System in the Forming Process of Drug Cue-induced Craving
    ZENG Hong;YE Haosheng;YANG Wendeng
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 581-588.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00581
    Abstract   PDF (239KB) ( 864 )
    Earlier image research on the craving of drug dependence, focused on the prefrontal cortex and reward circuits. The Mirror Neuron System (MNS) was recently discovered, located in the action planning regions of the brain and is known to be involved in the evolution and development of multiple psychological abilities in humans. MNS helps with understanding and analysis of the objective and nature of the observing action and then forms embody emotion and cognition. The most recent research study found that smoking cues activate the action planning regions in the smoker’s brains, which (are known to) overlap the MNS area in humans. The drug dependent individual can form a direct craving through the functioning of, simulation and understanding of MNS. Our current study focus on exploring the mechanism of MNS involved in the forming process of cue-induced craving. The result may offer another target for developing a reliable biomarker of dependence, which could help us to better understand the neuro-biological basis of the cue-induced craving-forming process
    Research Methods
    Review of Eye-movement Measures in Reading Research
    YAN Guoli;XIONG Jianping;ZANG Chuanli;YU Lili;CUI Lei;BAI Xuejun
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 589-605.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00589
    Abstract   PDF (310KB) ( 3506 )
    Saccade and fixation are the elementary ocularmotor activities during reading. The eye-movement measures in reading research can be classified into two different categories. One category is temporal dimension measure related to the time course of eye movements and it includes the measures in area of interest of character or word (such as single fixation duration, first fixation duration, second fixation duration, gaze duration, regression time and total fixation duration and so on.) and the measures in area of interest of phrase or sentence (such as first-pass reading time, forward reading time, second-pass reading time, regression path reading time, re-reading time and so on.). The other category is spatial dimension measure related to the location of eye movement and it includes saccade amplitude, landing position, number of fixations, skipping rate, refixation rate and regression count. Finally, when using the eye movement measures we should pay attention to the classification of oculomotor measures, the cutoff criterion of raw data, the psychological interpretation of the measures and so on.
    Process Tracing Technologies in Decision Making: Introduction and Prospect
    YU Wen;YAN Gonggu;HUANG Zhihua
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 606-614.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00606
    Abstract   PDF (239KB) ( 1200 )
    With in-depth exploration of core issues and the development of information technology, process information has been receiving more and more attention in decision making researches in last 50 years. Process technologies mainly include Mouselab, Eye Track, and Decision Moving Window (DMW). Mouselab and Eye Track have been used in varieties of decision tasks to test prevailing decision-making theories. DMW is developed recently and combines the advantages of both Mouselab and Eye Tracking. Its scope of application needs to be extended in more researches. In future studies, the comprehensive use of different technologies will help avoid the defect of single technology, separate the impact of the research technology from people’s behavior and improve the validity of studies.
    Regular Articles
    Semantic Satiation and Its Cognitive Mechanism
    JIA Jianrong;ZHANG Dexuan
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 615-625.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00615
    Abstract   PDF (238KB) ( 1703 )
    When we look at a word or a character for a relative long period, or read a word repeatedly, we will have a special experience that the meaning of word is lost or the word seems strange. About 100 years ago, psychologists noticed this phenomenon, and named it as semantic satiation. Since then, a variety of methods has been developed to measure or evaluate the semantic satiation. However, these different methods failed to converge on a coherence conclusion what the semantic satiation is. At the same time, researchers proposed three possible accounts that the semantic satiation may occur in the stages of the perceptual representation, semantic processing, or the association between the lexical item and meaning. Each of accounts was supported by some studies. Additionally, this review also introduced a similar phenomenon named orthographic satiation occurring in ideograph like Chinese characters. In recent years, the development of experimental paradigms of cognitive psychology and neuroscience technology make it possible to make a progress on semantic satiation study, and reveal its neural mechanism.
    The Influencing Factors of Subliminal Semantic Priming Effects
    WU Shanshan;TAN Jinfeng;WANG Lijun;CHEN Antao
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 626-636.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00626
    Abstract   PDF (170KB) ( 1195 )
    The subliminal semantic priming effects refer to the facilitated processing of target words when they proceeded by a semantically and associatively related prime word, even when the primes were presented subliminally. Subliminal semantic priming has its instability and is easily affected by various types of factors. The influencing factors include external and internal factors. The external factors are task, stimuli materials, procedure and so on. The internal factors are attention, task set, intentions and expectations. Firstly, the histories of subliminal semantic priming studies were reviewed and the paradigm and methods for testing awareness were introduced briefly. Then, the article focused on discussing and summering its influencing factors. Further research could be explored from optimizing paradigms, enhancing the study of brain mechanism and developing the theories.
    The Causes of Spatial Bias: Theoretical Elucidation and Prospect for a New Understanding
    LI Heng
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 637-642.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00637
    Abstract   PDF (142KB) ( 863 )
    People often exhibit a directional preference when they pay attention to the stimulus. This preference has been called the spatial bias effect. Two views have been put forward to account for the causes of spatial bias: the brain hypothesis and the cultural hypothesis. The brain hypothesis holds that the asymmetry of the brain accounts for spatial bias. The cultural hypothesis suggests that factors such as reading and writing habits are the main causes of spatial bias. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper proposes that the two views have advantages and disadvantages in explanatory power. By combining the two views, a brain-culture hypothesis is proposed that may better elucidate the spatial bias phenomenon.
    Music and Emotional Induced Model
    MA Xie;BA Xuejun;TAO Yun
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 643-652.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00643
    Abstract   PDF (252KB) ( 2373 )
    Researches on the relationship between music and emotions is in behavior level to cognition and neuroscience mechanism stage. Cue concordance mode, Expectancy model, Synchronization theory and Multiple-mechanism model respectively from the acoustic cues in music, the listener subject, the interacting between composer and listener and the integrated perspective explain the process of musical inducement of emotions, but three fundamental questions remain.: (1) whether emotions are influenced by music directly or must linked with cognitive? (2) whether the process is domain–specific or domain–general? (3) whether multiple or single mechanisms account for connections between music and emotion ? This paper puts forward some solutions, inconcluding unification concept, use multi-index measurements and think mechanism relations, It also illustrates the field empirical research trend.
    The Psychological Mechanism of Affective Adaptation: AREA Model
    FAN Fuxia;LV Houchao
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 653-663.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00653
    Abstract   PDF (173KB) ( 1422 )
    Affective adaptation is the psychological processes that cause an affective response to weaken after one or more exposures to a stimulus. In those theories that illustrate the psychology mechanism and procedure of affective adaptation, AREA model is the most influential theory. The AREA model holds that people attend to self-relevant, unexplained events, react emotionally to these events, explain or reach an understanding of the events, and thereby adapt to the events, then attend less and have weaker emotional reactions to them. Lots of empirical studies concerning negative events and positive events supported the AREA model. The development of this field needs to deeply investigate the variables that facilitate or impede affective adaptation, cross-cultural research, the precision of the temporal localization of the adaptation trajectory and happiness interventions.
    Three Components of Attentional Bias in Social Anxiety Disorder
    LIU Jingyi;HUANG Xiting;YANG Shuai
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 664-670.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00664
    Abstract   PDF (202KB) ( 1536 )
    social anxiety disorder is the obvious and continuous fear of one or more social situations and manifests itself as the attentional bias to social stimuli, which includes facilitated attention, difficulty in disengaging, attentional avoidance, the three components that interact with each other and sustain the development of social anxiety. Currently, several paradigms involving dot-probe task, spatial cueing task and visual search task, combined with the eye scanning technique, are used to study attentional bias in social anxiety disorder. However, question remains about the relationship, time course and transition of the three components and calls for further research.
    Infant’s Understanding of Actions: Retrospect and Prospect
    CHEN Yaping;LI Xiaodong
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 671-678.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00671
    Abstract   PDF (157KB) ( 1069 )
    Understanding the intention of actions of others is very important for an infant. Infants can adjust their behavior for a better social interaction based on the intention of action. Infant’s inference of the action is critical for they react appropriately in a social context, and it can also predict the theory of mind and language understanding when they get older. But how infant get this ability? Empiricism believed that infant learned it from their own experience, while Teleology proposed that it was an innate ability. Both theories got some evidence and no consistent conclusions yet. This kind of research does inspire embodied cognition and the Mind-Body relationship.
    Thinking and Acting in Anticipation: A Review of Research on Proactive Behavior
    Chia Huei WU;Sharon K. PARKER
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 679-700.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00679
    Abstract   PDF (228KB) ( 3385 )
    Being proactive involves self-initiated, future-focused, and change-orientated behaviors. Such proactivity has been recognized as a positive way of behaving that can lead to the increased performance and effectiveness of individuals and organizations, especially when employees operate in contexts of unpredictable and changing demands. Because of its well-documented benefits, the antecedents and mechanisms of proactive behavior have been widely examined in an effort to identify how to promote such behavior in organizations. In this article, the authors first review various ways of conceptualizing proactivity, which includes an individual differences perspective, a behavior perspective, and a process perspective. A behavior perspective is mainly adopted in this article as this perspective is dominant in literature. Next, three mechanisms representing “can do”, “reason to” and “energized to” processes that can trigger proactive behavior are introduced. A review on antecedents of proactive behavior, including dispositional factors, situational factors and their interactions, is followed. The authors also summarize consequences that proactive behavior can bring, including job attitudes and performance. In addition to providing reviews, as the second part, the authors introduce their recent research that considers expanded dispositional predictors of proactive behavior (i.e., need for cognition, attachment style) as well as how these predictors interact with the situation. To conclude, the authors summarize what is well established in the literature, as well as what warrants further inquiry.
    Towards a Model of Opportunity Recognition and Development Strategy for Entrepreneurial Talents: A Constructivist Perspective
    LING Bin;WANG Zhongming
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 701-710.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00701
    Abstract   PDF (196KB) ( 938 )
    Opportunity recognition and development for entrepreneurial talents have increasingly drawn much more attention from scholars and become an important strategy in human resource management. This field mainly adopts two different perspectives of opportunity recognition and exploitation strategy. In this paper we have proposed a model of opportunity recognition for entrepreneurial talents on the basis of a constructivist perspective, which aims to explore how entrepreneurial talents’ opportunities are produced and developed. We consider that these talents construct the meaning of an opportunity in a recognition-selection-exploitation process from their environment, so that this process becomes a key mechanism. All three processes of opportunity- recognition, selection and exploitation are also affected by each other and they jointly construct the opportunity recognition and development model for entrepreneurial talents. Future research should pay more attention on constructing mechanism, process integration and serial decisions of entrepreneurial opportunity.
    From Organizational Commitment to Organizational Loyalty: The Concept and Structures of Chinese Organizational Loyalty
    HUANGFU Gang1; JIANG DingYu2; ZHANG Gangying3
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 711-720.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00711
    Abstract   PDF (232KB) ( 1285 )
    The paper reviewed and analyzed research on western organizational loyalty: from studies on organizational commitment to organizational citizenship behaviors, it shows that the concept of western organizational loyalty was deeply influnced by western social culture. Although studies on organizational citizenship behavior were developed from organizational commitment, however, the research on organizational loyalty separated attitudes from behaviors. Loyalty in China has a long historical and cultural tradition. Recent research found that Chinese organizational loyalty has unique culture meaning, but current studies have some limitations. It is necessary to further investigate Chinese organizational loyalty, and it is also meaningful to develop and construct organizational behavior theory that explains Chinese culture context.
    Occupational Information Network: Framework、Features and Applications
    CHEN Dusheng;WANG Zhongming
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 721-731.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00721
    Abstract   PDF (362KB) ( 998 )
    Traditional job analysis methods have relatively obvious disadvantages like inadaptation to environmental change and cost inefficiency. The development of Occupational Information Network (O*NET) is deemed to solve these aforementioned problems. The key framework of O*NET, known as content model, incorporates the work and worker information together. The main features of O*NET contain unit reduction, cost effectiveness and timeliness, hierarchically nested model, cross-occupation descriptors. The paper argues that O*NET plays an important role in individual development and organizational management. Recent research progress on O*NET is summarized in two fields: job analysis and occupational classification. Future research in Chinese context is suggested to explore further in different areas.
    The Effect of Group Distinctiveness on Intergroup Bias
    HUANG Yin;KOU Yu
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 732-739.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00732
    Abstract   PDF (138KB) ( 1270 )
    Group distinctiveness has an influence on group identity. Both high and low group distinctiveness would underlie intergroup bias in certain conditions which are labeled as “ reflective distinctiveness hypothesis” and “ reactive distinctiveness hypothesis”. Research on moderators indicate that when group members are highly identified with in-group, low group distinctiveness inclines to lead to intergroup bias. Conversely, when group members are lowly identified with in-group or when superordinate categories are available and salient, high group distinctiveness tends to arouse intergroup bias. Research on the effect of motivation demonstrate that instrumental and identity motivation were found to drive these two processes respectively in the condition with intergroup competitive goal. Furthermore, research focused on cognitive and emotional mediation effect show that group-level anxiety and complexity of social identity would significantly mediate the effect of low group distinctiveness on intergroup bias.
    On Greed: the Attitude, Motivation and Decision-Making
    WANG Xue;WU Song;SUN Jiaqing;FENG Ziqi;JIN Shenghua
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 740-750.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00740
    Abstract   PDF (240KB) ( 1909 )
    As one of the important attributes of human being, greed has been widely discussed in academic fields such as philosophy and economics. In the present paper, we first summarized the characteristics of greed, put forth its definition and focused on the greed for material. Then, the mechanism of how situational factors influence individual’s attitude to greed and how the greed motivation affects individual’s behavior were expounded. As the process of deciding whether to conduct greedy behavior, greed decision-making is influenced by self-consciousness and emotions. The Greed Decision-making Process Model (GDMPM), integrating both controlling and automatic processes, helps interpreting the interaction of self-interest and socio-morality. Though relatively innovative, GDMPM is still to be improved. The directions for further researches were proposed ultimately.
    Promoting Pro-environmental Behaviors in Perspective of Psychology: The Focus Theory of Normative Conduct
    WEI Qingwang;SUN Jianmin
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (4): 751-760.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00751
    Abstract   PDF (204KB) ( 1399 )
    The influence of social norms on individual behaviors is usually underestimated. On the basis of dividing social norms into descriptive norms and injunctive norms and defining the role of focus of attention, the focus theory of normative conduct puts new emphasis on the important role of social norms. According to focus theory of normative conduct, different social norms have different functions, and to properly adopt relative social norms information to intervene environmental behaviors could promote such behaviors as littering reducing, recycling promoting, energy improving, resource conservation and protection, etc. Based on environmental protection, the authors summarized notable problems during taking such scientific and low-cost measures. Finally, the authors discussed the applicability of the focus theory of normative conduct and the measures derived from it on environmental protection in China from two aspects including cultural difference and social characters of China at this stage.
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