ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (11): 1301-1312.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01301

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

震后儿童创伤后应激障碍的症状网络演化

梁一鸣, 郑昊, 刘正奎()   

  1. 中国科学院心理研究所心理健康重点实验室, 北京 100101;中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-29 出版日期:2020-11-25 发布日期:2020-09-22
  • 通讯作者: 刘正奎 E-mail:liuzk@psych.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 中国科学院科技扶贫项目(KFJ-FP-201906);中国科学院“率先行动”计划特色研究所项目(TSS-2015-06)

Changes in the network of posttraumatic stress disorder among children after the Wenchuan earthquake: A four-year longitudinal study

LIANG Yiming, ZHENG Hao, LIU Zhengkui()   

  1. CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-02-29 Online:2020-11-25 Published:2020-09-22
  • Contact: LIU Zhengkui E-mail:liuzk@psych.ac.cn

摘要:

本研究借助网络分析方法,探讨儿童创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)症状的演化规律。以经历汶川地震的197名儿童为研究对象,在灾后4、29、40和52个月对其PTSD症状进行了历时4年的追踪测量。网络分析结果显示,闪回的中心性一直较高,而其他高中心性的症状随时间的推移发生了变化:侵入性想法和创伤线索引发生理性反应的中心性随时间推移呈上升趋势,线索引发情感反应和未来无望的中心性随时间推移呈下降趋势。本研究拓宽了学界对儿童PTSD症状学的认识, 并为建立灾后阶段性干预模式提供启示。

关键词: 创伤后应激障碍, 网络分析, 纵向研究, 发展差异, 症状学

Abstract:

Previous studies have found temporal differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development. Clinical workers and researchers have also demonstrated that symptoms of PTSD differ by stage after traumatic events. Recently, the symptom network perspective has contributed substantially to the development of psychopathology due to its important advantage in understanding the role of psychological symptoms in mental disorders. An increasing number of analyses adopting the network approach to study PTSD symptoms have also provided novel insights into PTSD symptomatology. However, changes in children's long-term PTSD symptomatology are poorly understood. The current study aims to identify changes in the network of PTSD symptoms among children through the network approach.
A four-year longitudinal study was conducted from 4 months after the Wenchuan earthquake. Four assessments were conducted at four (T1;September 2008), 29 (T2; October 2010), 40 (T3; September 2011) and 52 (T4; September 2012) months following the earthquake. Ultimately, 197 children completed assessments at each time point. The children were in grades four and six at T1 and attended two primary schools located in Beichuan County. Symptoms of PTSD were assessed by the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index based on the DSM-IV. Network analysis was implemented with the qgraph package in R following the standard guidelines by Epskamp and Fried.
Flashbacks exhibited relatively high centrality at all time points, while other symptoms with high centrality varied across time points. Emotional cue reactivity exhibited high centrality at 4 months, and its centrality decreased over time. Foreshortened future exhibited high centrality at 4, 29 and 40 months, but its centrality decreased to a low level at 52 months. Intrusive thoughts exhibited low centrality at 4 months, but the centrality of this symptom increased to a high level at 29 months. Physiological cue reactivity exhibited low centrality at 4 months, and its centrality increased over time. These findings indicated the distinct temporal variability in the centrality of some PTSD symptoms. The global connectivity of the network increased from 4 to 40 months and then decreased at 52 months.
The current study enhanced the knowledge of child PTSD symptomatology. Flashbacks might play a key role in the evolution of PTSD symptoms. In addition, different core symptoms might contribute to early and chronic PTSD structures. Emotional cue reactivity and foreshortened future might play key roles in early PTSD structures and then recover in later stages following disasters. Physiological cue reactivity and intrusive thoughts might be core symptoms in chronic PTSD structures. The phenomenon of the increased connectivity of the PTSD symptom network at 40 months may be one reason why previous trauma leads to vulnerability to PTSD. Overall, our study highlighted temporal differences in PTSD symptoms. Different core symptoms in early and chronic PTSD structures should be treated as targets at different stages following disasters in clinical practice.

Key words: posttraumatic stress symptoms, network approach, longitudinal study, developmental difference, symptomatology

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