ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (9): 1048-1058.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.01048

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


张云运(), 张其文, 张李斌(), 任萍, 秦幸娜, 常睿生   

  1. 中国基础教育质量监测协同创新中心, 北京师范大学, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-09 发布日期:2022-07-21 出版日期:2022-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 张云运,张李斌;
  • 基金资助:

The covariant relationship between adolescent friendship networks and bullying: A longitudinal social network analysis

ZHANG Yunyun(), ZHANG Qiwen, ZHANG Libin(), REN Ping, QIN Xingna, CHANG Ruisheng   

  1. Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment for Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2020-09-09 Online:2022-07-21 Published:2022-09-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Yunyun,ZHANG Libin;


欺凌是一种涉及多类行为和多主体互动的群体过程, 但是已有研究很少在同伴的群体互动和关系变化过程中研究欺凌相关行为的发展。尤其是受欺凌作为一种被动承受而非主动选择的行为结果, 对其在同伴情境中的变化过程研究更为有限。本研究从青少年的友谊网络与其受欺凌的共变关系入手, 采用纵向社会网络分析法, 对来自26个班1406名学生进行为期1年的3个时间点(七年级末、八年级上学期末、八年级下学期末)的追踪研究, 结果发现:(1)受欺凌影响群体内友谊关系的建立:受欺凌水平高的青少年更难以与同伴建立朋友关系(同伴回避效应), 且更倾向于选择同样受欺凌水平高的个体作为朋友(同伴选择效应); (2)友谊关系影响受欺凌水平的变化:在群体中拥有更多朋友关系的青少年, 其受欺凌水平会逐渐降低(同伴保护效应); 但另一方面, 拥有高受欺凌水平朋友的青少年, 自己的受欺凌水平会随着时间呈增高趋势(同伴影响效应); (3)随着时间的发展, 女生的受欺凌水平比男生更容易降低(性别影响效应)。研究结果揭示了友谊网络和受欺凌的共变关系, 为校园欺凌群体干预提供启示。

关键词: 受欺凌, 友谊网络, 选择效应, 影响效应, 纵向社会网络分析


Bullying is a group process that involves multiple behaviors and multiagent interactions. However, few studies have focused on the development of bullying-related behaviors in the context of peer group interaction and relationship change, particularly in friendship networks. Although social support theory suggests that positive friendships act as a buffer, previous research has found that victims have difficulty making friends. Furthermore, recent research on friendship networks has indicated that the potential buffering role of friends may depend on the extent to which friends engage in certain behaviors. It is thus crucial to determine how victims shape their friendship networks and the protection mechanisms or detrimental effects associated with victims that such networks can trigger. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the selection and influence effects of victimization in dynamic classroom friendship networks using a sample of Chinese adolescents. We expected that (1) while peers tend to avoid selecting victims as friends (H1a: peer avoidance effect), victims tend to select other victimized youth as friends (H1b: peer selection effects), and that (2) the more friends that an adolescent has, the less he or she is victimized (H2a: peer protective effect), whereas one's victimization increases as a result of one’s friends being victimized (H2b: peer influence effect).
A total of 1406 eighth-grade students in public middle schools from Central China were recruited to participate in three assessments, with an interval of six months. Peer nomination was applied to evaluate friendship and victimization, with a maximum of five nominations allowed from classmates who fit the description. Capitalizing on longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) to disentangle selection and influence processes, this study focuses on the role of friendship in adolescents’ peer victimization after controlling for structural characteristics of the network (e.g., transitivity and reciprocity) in friendship network dynamics.
It was found that (1) while peers avoided selecting victims as friends (peer avoidance effect), victims tended to select other victims as friends (peer selection effect); (2) whether peers nominated others as friends was not influenced by their level of victimization; (3) having more friends decreased one’s level of victimization (peer protection effect), while being friends with a victim increased one’s possibility of being victimized over time (peer influence effect); (4) the higher the victimization level of an adolescent was, the higher his or her victimization level gradually rose over time (enhanced effect of victimization); and (5) the level of victimization decreased over time among girls compared to that of boys. These results revealed the peer selection and influence effects on the covariation of friendship networks and victimization among Chinese adolescents and demonstrated the peer “contagion” that is associated with victimization, which provides insights for interventions for school bullying.

Key words: victimization, adolescent friendship network, selection effect, influence effect, longitudinal social network analysis