ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 170-175.

• • 上一篇    下一篇

样例和练习在促进解题迁移能力中的作用

张春莉   

  1. 北京师范大学教科所 北京100875
  • 出版日期:2001-04-25 发布日期:2001-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 张春莉

EFFECTS OF WORKED EXAMPLES AND EXERCISE TIME ON PROBLEM-SOLVING TRANSFER

Zhang Chunli (Institute for Education Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)   

  • Online:2001-04-25 Published:2001-04-25

摘要: 通过一个2 × 2 × 2的因素实验,对96名初一学生在解题迁移能力中受样例和练习的影响进行了研究。结果表明,结合样例进行的练习促进了技能的熟练和解题能力的迁移;练习本身并不总能保证促进技能的熟练和解题能力的迁移,它至少要受三方面因素的影响:第一,与在练习中是否有来自外部的指导和反馈有关;第二,与练习的任务性质有关;第三,与参与练习的个体智力和认知水平有关。

关键词: 迁移, 样例, 练习, 产生式

Abstract: Mathematical problem solving as a complex cognitive function requires the interplay of a number of effect factors. That involves: first, mathematical problem solving is a cognitive function, which means, from the point of view of the information-processing system, it can' t be studied by simple S-R theory. On the contrary, it is the product of an information-processing system, which can be represented as R = f (S × M), where M represents mental representation. Second, the information-processing of mathematical problem solving is effected by a number of factors. Third, procedure knowledge as well as declarative knowledge determines what interpretation will be given of the context of the problem. Finally, Each effect factor such as worked examples and Exercise time interactively develops the ability of problem solving. However, phychologists seldom understand the respective contribution of each effect factor and their interaction, So we carried Out an experiment in which we used mathematical problem to investigate the effects of worked examples and exercise time on skill learning and transfer. The subjects were 96 seventh grade students from a junior middle school. There were eight groups of 12 subjects each. They were part of a complete factorial experimental design based on the three independent variables of ability (high vs. low), practice( short vs. long exercise time), and teaching method (worked examples vs. conventional problem solving during acquisition). The experiment concludes four phases: acquisition phase, similar test phase, transfer test and post-test phase. The results indicated that errors on each phase problems were almost significantly lower for each of the worked-example groups over the equivalent conventional-problem groups; But the differences between the long exercise time groups and the short exercise time groups varied according to the ability of the subjects, the teaching method and the type of errors. Based on the results, we can conclude that subjects trained with worked examples were better able to solve both similar and transfer problems than those subjects trained without worked examples. Exercise time did not ensure to facilitate the skill acquisition and transfer. There were at least three factors effecting its efficiency: guide or feedback; the nature of the task; the IQ and cognitive ability of the subjects.

Key words: transfer, worked examples, exercises, product