ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (9): 965-974.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00965

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

内隐知识具有抽象性吗?——来自内隐序列学习迁移的证据 *

戴惠1, 朱传林2, 刘电芝2()   

  1. 1 南京工业大学学生事务部, 南京 210000
    2 苏州大学教育学院, 苏州 215000
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-02 发布日期:2018-07-27 出版日期:2018-09-15
  • 基金资助:

Is implicit knowledge abstract? Evidence from implicit sequence learning transfer

DAI Hui1, ZHU Chuanlin2, LIU Dianzhi2()   

  1. 1 Student Affairs Office, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210000, China
    2 School of Education, Soochow University, Suzhou 215000, China
  • Received:2017-06-02 Online:2018-07-27 Published:2018-09-15


内隐知识是否具有抽象和概括性, 已有研究有着不同的争议, 而迁移是检验习得知识是否具有抽象性的有效手段。探索RSI从0 ms至1000 ms中5种条件下内隐序列学习的迁移差异, 并试图证实随着RSI的变化, 迁移发生从无到有的变化, 以迁移来证明内隐知识的抽象性。结果发现:随着RSI的增加, 迁移出现了从无到有的质变, 证明了内隐知识可具有抽象性; 内隐序列学习效应和转移组段的新异刺激效应共同促进了迁移的产生, 纯粹的内隐序列学习是产生迁移的必要非充分条件, 转移组段(新异刺激)则加速促进了内隐知识的学习; 本实验条件下产生的不可知但可迁移的内隐知识具有边缘意识特点。

关键词: 内隐知识, 序列学习, 迁移, RSI, 边缘意识


Studies have shown that whether implicit knowledge is abstract is still under dispute, and transfer is an effective way to test this. The present study was designed to investigate transfer of implicit sequence knowledge under five different RSI conditions, to explore the status of consciousness underlying transfer, and then to prove the abstractness of implicit knowledge.
Ninety volunteers (college students) were randomly assigned to five experimental groups. Twelve randomly selected college students were assigned to the control group. A classic implicit sequence learning task was adopted. Participants were required to press a key corresponding to the spatial location of the dark dot as quickly and accurately as possible. Each experimental group completed this task under one of five RSI conditions (0 ms, 250 ms, 500 ms, 750 ms, and 1000 ms). The task included a training and a transfer phase. In both phases, the spatial location arrangement for the sequence of dots followed the second-order conditional rule, but differed slightly. The control group did not undergo the training phase and were tested directly during the transfer phase, with the procedure being similar to that of its matched experimental group. Pure and novelty-influenced learning magnitude, two different indexes of implicit learning magnitude, were adopted. Similarly, two different indexes of implicit transfer magnitude, pure and novelty-influenced, were adopted.
The results showed: (1) By using a transfer design changed first-order structure, we found that the migration occurs with the increase of RSI, which proves that the implicit knowledge is abstract. (2) Implicit sequence learning is a necessary condition for migration learning. The novelty stimulus promotes implicit learning and transfer, and the effect is more obvious when RSI is small. (3) Moreover, in this study, a special type of fringe consciousness was found (RSI = 500 ms, 750 ms, 1000 ms), in which people can transfer knowledge that has cognitive flexibility and availability, but they cannot orally report the specific rules.
By using a transfer design changed first-order structure, this study proves that implicit knowledge is abstract under the fringe consciousness. Additionally, the effects of RSI、implicit sequence learning, and stimulus novelty on implicit learning and transfer were proved. This study provides abundant first-hand information to the field of implicit learning.

Key words: implicit knowledge, implicit sequence learning, transfer, RSI, fringe consciousness