ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (9): 975-984.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00975

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

反应手的不同状态对联合任务中观察学习的影响 *

宋晓蕾1(), 李洋洋2, 杨倩1, 游旭群1()   

  1. 1 陕西师范大学心理学院; 陕西省行为与认知神经科学重点实验室, 西安 710062
    2 河南警察学院; 郑州 450046
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-19 出版日期:2018-09-15 发布日期:2018-07-27
  • 基金资助:

The influence of different status of the observer’s responding hands on observational learning in the joint task

SONG Xiaolei1(), LI Yangyang2, YANG Qian1, YOU Xuqun1()   

  1. 1 School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Behavior and Cognitive Neuroscience, Xi’an 710062, China;
    2 Henan Police College, Zhengzhou 450046, China
  • Received:2017-06-19 Online:2018-09-15 Published:2018-07-27


采用社会学习迁移范式, 通过三个实验来揭示联合任务中反应手的不同状态对观察学习的影响。实验1首先考察自然状态下联合Simon任务中观察学习的存在; 实验2探讨视野范围之内的反应手状态改变(双手运动能力受限)对观察学习的影响; 实验3则进一步探讨视野范围之外的反应手状态改变对观察学习的影响。结果发现, 在联合任务中, 观察者仅观察行动者的动作及其结果, 即可获得与实际练习相类似的学习效果; 观察者反应手不同状态改变因导致身体的潜在运动能力受限而影响观察学习的产生, 说明个体身体形式的改变会对其认知过程产生影响, 上述结果为具身认知理论在动作模仿领域的研究提供了进一步的实证支持。

关键词: 联合Simon任务, 观察学习, 社会学习迁移效应, 具身认知


Observational learning, which refers to improving performance by observation without physical practice, is one of the most important human capacities. Although a large amount of studies have shown that observational and physical practice can both acquire a comparable motor learning in individual context, and the status of the responding hands play a crucial role in this process, few researches focused on observational learning in joint context. Hence we presented three experiments that adopted a joint Simon task to explore the conditions under which observational learning occurred by assessing whether it is affected by the status of the observer’s responding hands.
By adopting a modified version of the social transfer of learning paradigm, three behavioral experiments were conducted to explore the emergence of observational learning under joint task and the influence of status of body-parts (response hands) on observational learning. The aim of experiment 1 was to investigate whether observational learning took place in joint context. In Experiment 2, the status of the observer’s hands were changed in observational learning. It should be noted that during practice phase, observers positioned their hands constrained on the knee in front of them. In Experiment 3, the possible influence of view range furtherly on observational learning was clarified by manipulating the view range and status of the observer’s hands. Specifically, the observer was asked to constrain his hands behind the back in practice phase.
The results above demonstrated that either the observer or the actor in switch condition showed a significant joint Simon effect, while both of them didn’t show this effect in non-switch condition. Contrast to the condition in which the observer’s hands were free, the joint Simon effect increased in constrained condition when the observer’s hands were within his sight. Meanwhile, the same effect was also present when the observer’s hands constrained behind the back as compared to in front of them.
It can be concluded that both observational learning and physical keypress practice in joint context could transfer into comparable motor learning which has an effect on the subsequent joint task. Moreover, the occurrence of observational learning depends on the potential motor abilities of the observer, which suggests that changes in body status affect the observer’s cognitive performance in subsequent joint task whether in or out of his sight. All of above provide empirical research for embodied cognition.

Key words: joint Simon task, observational learning, social transfer of learning effect, embodied cognition