ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (12): 1793-1804 .doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01793

• 论文 •    下一篇

高低情感开放性者概率内隐序列学习进程差异

张剑心;武燕;陈心韵;刘电芝   

  1. (苏州大学教育学院, 苏州 215123)
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-27 出版日期:2014-12-25 发布日期:2014-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘电芝, E-mail: liudzh@suda.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金面上项目(31271084)、全国教育科学“十一五”规划重点课题(DBA090293)资助。

Probabilistic Implict Sequence Learning Differences between Individuals with High vs. Low Openness /Feeling

ZHANG Jianxin; WU Yan; CHEN Xinyun; LIU Dianzhi   

  1. (School of Education, Soochow University, Soochow 215123, China)
  • Received:2013-07-27 Online:2014-12-25 Published:2014-12-25
  • Contact: LIU Dianzhi, E-mail: liudzh@suda.edu.cn

摘要:

大五人格情感开放性子量表(openness/feeling)能否预测内隐序列学习的问题存在争议。本研究采用概率性内隐序列学习范式, 比较高低情感开放性者在各反应刺激间隔(response stimulus interval, 即RSI)的差异。发现:(1) RSI = 0 ms和250 ms, 高分组在转移组块后习得高概率序列, RSI = 500 ms及以上在其之前习得; 所有RSI点低分组都在其之前习得。每个RSI点只有高分组习得低概率序列。证明随RSI增加两者内隐进程有本质差异, openness/feeling子量表可预测内隐序列学习个体差异。(2)低概率序列可作为测量概率性内隐序列学习及个体差异的新指标, 经典转移组块、再认、生成任务的测量效果却十分有限。

关键词: 概率性内隐序列学习, openness/feeling子量表, 高低情感开放性者, 高低概率序列, 内隐序列学习进程

Abstract:

Norman, Price and Duff (2006) found that scores on the openness/feeling scale of NEO-PI-R could predict performance on deterministic implicit sequence learning. In another study, no such correlation was identified in complex probabilistic implicit sequence learning (Norman, Price, Duff, & Mentzoni, 2007). However, Kaufman, et al. (2010) found that performance on probabilistic implicit sequence learning was significantly related to the openness scale (i.e., it includes four dimensions of aesthetics, imagination, feeling and plot) of NEO-PI-R. The researchers concluded that implicit learning might be relate to experience openness rather than to feeling openness. In the present study, by adopting Norman, et al.’ experimental design (2007), but with fewer blocks (11 blocks) and more response stimulus intervals (5 RSIs), it was found that scores on the openness/feeling scale could predict performance on probabilistic implicit sequence learning. Specifically, individuals with high vs. low openness/feeling tend to show significant differences in implicit gradient process. In Experiment 1, a complex probabilistic implicit sequence learning procedure (Norman, et al., 2007) was used. There were two sequences in the training stage. One was probable sequence (SOC1 or SOC2) with a probability of 0.88, The other was improbable sequence (SOC2 or SOC1) with the probability of 0.12. For the experimental group, a 2 (high vs. low openness/feeling group) × 2 (probable vs. improbable sequence) × 11 (block) mixed design was used. The procedure for the experimental group was consisted of a training phase, a recognition phase, and a generation test phase (the generation test includes both a contain task and a rotation task). Each openness/feeling group was consisted of 38 subjects. For the control group, a 2 (high vs. low openness/feeling group) × 11 (block) mixed design was used. The control group was asked to study a random sequence and received only a training phase. In experiment 2, a 2 (high vs. low openness/feeling group) × 4 (RSI: 0 ms, 250 ms, 750 ms, 1000 ms) × 2 (probable vs. improbable sequence) × 11 (block) mixed design was used. Numbers of subjects for each openness/feeling group were around 20. The experimental process was the same as the experiment 1. No significant reaction time decrement was found in the control group in experiment 1. Therefore, reaction time decrement was used as an indicator of implicit learning for the experimental group. It was found that, when RSI was 500 ms, both high and low openness/feeling groups could learn probable sequence, but only high openness/feeling group eventually acquired improbable sequence. In experiment 2, When RSI was smaller than 500ms, high openness/feeling group failed to acquire either probable or improbable sequence before transfer block 9, but acquire both after transfer block 9. When RSI was greater than or equal to 500ms, high openness/feeling group acquired probable sequence before transfer block 9 and improbable sequence after transfer block 9. In contrast, low openness/feeling group could acquire probable sequence before transfer block 9 in all RSIs, but failed to learn improbable sequence regardless of RSI setting. Different from previous researchs, significant block reaction time differences (i.e., between transfer block 9 and block 8, as well as between transfer block 9 and block 10) used as the amount of implicit learning in previous researchs were not detected for the high and low openness/feeling groups in all RSIs, except for low openness/feeling group in RSI -0 ms. And surprisingly, in all RSIs, participants’ scores for recognition, contain task and rotation tasks were at or below the random level. Low openness/feeling group performed significantly better than high openness/feeling group in recognition task when RSI was 750 ms and rotation task when RSI was 500 ms. Results from the two experiments proved that scores on the openness/feeling scale of NEO-PI-R can predict individual differences in probabilistic implicit sequence learning. Essential differences between high and low openness/feeling groups exist in implicit acquisition process of probable and improbable sequences along with the increase of the RSI. High openness/feeling group could learn probable and improbable sequences by using collateral elaboration, but low openness/feeling group could only learn probable sequence. For studying implicit learning and individual differences in probabilistic implicit sequence learning, improbable sequence leaning can be a sensitive measure, while other measures such as transfer block, recognition task, and generation task are limited in terms of their predictability because of the interference of improbable sequence learning.

Key words: probabilistic implicit sequence learning, openness/feeling scale, individuals with high vs. low openness/feeling, probable and improbable sequence, implicit learning process