ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (7): 725-735.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00725

• 研究报告 •    下一篇


赵佳旭, 鲍敏()   

  1. 中国科学院行为科学重点实验室, 中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100101
    中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2021-09-15 发布日期:2022-05-16 出版日期:2022-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 鲍敏
  • 基金资助:

A method for studying unconscious motion processing based on the camouflage principle

ZHAO Jiaxu, BAO Min()   

  1. CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-09-15 Online:2022-05-16 Published:2022-07-25
  • Contact: BAO Min


研究提出一种新的连续闪烁抑制(CFS)范式, 利用透明度混合(alpha blending)原理, 使目标刺激的颜色与相应位置的掩蔽刺激的颜色时刻保持一致。研究随机招募了8名被试, 向其优势眼呈现Mondrian图像序列, 非优势眼呈现固定速率运动的多个正方形。结果表明目标为多运动点动态刺激时, 该范式依然具备掩蔽作用, 且当目标刺激与相应位置的掩蔽刺激的颜色完全一致时, 掩蔽效果最好, 证明这种新范式比传统CFS范式对动态刺激的掩蔽作用更好。相比以往修改CFS掩蔽刺激的思路, 该范式为研究无意识视觉运动加工提供了新方法, 且适用性更广。

关键词: 连续闪烁抑制, 无意识加工, 运动, 伪装, 透明度混合


Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is one of the common methods to study unconscious visual processing. In the regular CFS paradigms used in previous studies, dynamic or high contrast image sequences (such as the Mondrian pattern sequences) are presented to one eye as masks. Meanwhile, a static or lower contrast target is presented to the opposite eye, which can be rendered invisible by the masks for a short period of time. The present study was designed to explore whether the CFS can effectively block the conscious processing of multiple moving targets. Inspired by the camouflage of chameleons in the nature, we proposed a novel CFS paradigm (which we call the “chameleon” paradigm). By using the alpha blending algorithm, we ensured the color of the targets to be consistent with the corresponding regions of the CFS masks at any moment. We then tested whether the “chameleon” paradigm can obscure the targets’ motion information from awareness more effectively than the regular CFS paradigm.

We randomly recruited eight participants. Their dominant eyes were presented with the regular CFS masks, meanwhile the nondominant eyes were presented with ten spatially non-overlapping squares as the targets which moved either upwards or downwards at a constant velocity. Each square had one second of lifetime. Thus, for each square, after every one second of movement, its position was reset, and then it continued to move in the same direction at the same speed. In each trial, the target squares were presented for ten seconds (refreshing their positions ten times) at most. By manipulating the degree of color consistency between the targets and the masks, a total of four experimental conditions were included, with a “chameleon” condition and three control conditions. Participants were instructed to report the moving direction of the targets on seeing the targets by pressing a corresponding button. The program recorded both the response accuracy and the response time since the start of a trial (i.e. the time required for the targets to break into awareness, aka the breakthrough time). We also calculated the percentage of trials where the targets broke into awareness, which was called the breakthrough rate.

The results showed that the “chameleon” paradigm allowed the CFS masks to efficiently block the conscious processing of multiple moving targets. Specifically, as compared to the three control conditions with less degree of color consistency between the targets and the CFS masks, the breakthrough rate was significantly lower under the “chameleon” condition where the color of the targets was fully consistent with the CFS masks. No significant differences were found for the breakthrough rate between the three control conditions. Moreover, according to the grand average data, in the “chameleon” condition the moving targets could break into awareness within 10 s in only about 25% of the trials. For the three control conditions, this probability increased to more than 80%, suggesting an overwhelming advantage of the “chameleon” paradigm in rendering multiple moving targets invisible.

Another advantage of the “chameleon” paradigm is that it does not require the CFS masks to contain any motion information resembling the targets, thereby it ensures that the measurement of unconscious visual motion processing is exclusively from the target. Compared with the idea of modifying CFS masks in the literature, our method is believed to have broader applicability. Therefore, we recommend the “chameleon” paradigm a useful tool for future investigations of unconscious visual motion information processing.

Key words: continuous flash suppression, unconscious processing, motion, camouflage, alpha blending