ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (10): 1247-1255.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01247

• •    下一篇

 知觉表征精度对工作记忆中抑制干扰能力的影响

 刘志英; 库逸轩   

  1.  (华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院, 上海 200062)
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-10 出版日期:2017-10-25 发布日期:2017-08-13
  • 通讯作者: 库逸轩, E-mail: yxku@psy.ecnu.edu.cn E-mail: E-mail: yxku@psy.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
     上海市浦江人才计划(16PJC022), 上海市自然科学基金(15ZR1410600)。

 Perceiving better, inhibiting better: Effects of perceptual precision on distractor-inhibition processes during working memory

 LIU Zhiying; KU Yixuan   

  1.  (The School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China)
  • Received:2016-10-10 Online:2017-10-25 Published:2017-08-13
  • Contact: KU Yixuan, E-mail: yxku@psy.ecnu.edu.cn E-mail: E-mail: yxku@psy.ecnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  工作记忆的容量十分有限, 需要选择性地抑制与目标无关信息的干扰, 工作记忆容量高的个体, 其抑制干扰的能力也更强。本研究采用带有不同形状干扰刺激的色块颜色回忆任务考察干扰对工作记忆容量和表征精度的影响, 结果发现, 当负荷超出工作记忆容量范围时, 干扰减少了记忆所能表征客体的个数; 当负荷在工作记忆容量范围内时, 干扰降低了记忆中表征客体的精度。更进一步, 研究采用独立的知觉任务来测量知觉表征的精度, 并探讨作为信息加工的初始阶段的知觉表征如何影响工作记忆加工过程中抑制干扰的能力。将实验中收集的48名有效被试按照知觉表征精度的高低平均分为两组, 结果发现上述干扰效应主要表现在知觉表征精度较低的组中, 并且该组中知觉表征精度越高的个体, 其工作记忆抑制干扰的能力也越强。本研究为实践中通过知觉训练来提升工作记忆的抑制干扰能力提供了理论指导。

关键词:  视知觉, 工作记忆, 表征精度, 选择性注意

Abstract:  Working memory (WM) is the memory system to store and process information shortly for the goal-directed behavior. The resource of WM is extremely limited. It is necessary to selectively maintain relevant information and inhibit interference from distracting information. Previous studies have found that individuals with high WM capacity would be able to suppress interference more efficiently. However, it’s still unknown whether the precision of WM representation will be influenced by distractors in a similar way as WM capacity. Perceptual representation as the first stage of information processing, its precision will highly influence the quality of information stored in WM. Here, we adopted an independent perceptual task and a variant version of color recall task to examine (1) the effect of interference on WM capacity as well as precision and (2) whether the precision of perceptual representation would influence the ability to inhibit interference during WM processing. Fifty-three undergraduate students participated in the experiment. In the first perceptual task, participants reported the color of a cued item while the item remained presented until a response was made. Afterwards, color recall tasks were operated including a ‘distractor-present’ and a ‘distractor-absent’ condition. Each condition contained three levels of WM load: low (2 targets), medium (4 targets) and high (6 targets). In ‘distractor-present’ condition, target items were presented along with two more distracting colored stimuli with a different shape. Participants were asked to remember only the color of the target items and report the remembered color of a cued item by clicking on a color wheel. From the distribution of errors between the reported color value and the original color value, we could obtain measures for both capacity and precision via standard mixture model used by Zhang and Luck, 2008. To explore the effects of distractor on WM capacity and precision and whether these influence will vary with WM load, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on WM capacity and precision. For WM capacity, main effects of distractors, WM load and their interaction were significant. WM capacity decreased with increasing WM load. And WM capacity in ‘distractor-absent’ condition was significantly higher than performance in ‘distractor-present’ condition. Interaction of distractor and WM load mainly reflected that distractors decreased WM capacity under the medium and high loads. For WM precision, main effect of load was significant and distractor affected precision on low load condition. When all participants were divided into two groups according to their performance in the perceptual task, the distractor effect only existed in the group with lower perceptual precision. Pearson correlation analysis further revealed that perceptual precision could predict the ability to inhibit distractors, in either WM capacity or precision. The quality of the perceptual representation in the lower group negatively correlated with the distractor effect in WM capacity while the perceptual precision in the higher group negatively correlated with the distractor effect for WM precision. The present study has shown that interference influenced the quantity and quality of WM representations differently under certain WM load. And individuals with lower perceptual quality would be more susceptible to interference. These findings imply that the performance and the ability to suppress distraction during WM may be enhanced via training of perceptual precision.

Key words:  visual perception, working memory, representation precision, selective attention

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