ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (9): 1206-1218.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01206

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 我会在谁面前舍弃利益? ——博弈对象的能力与社会距离对名利 博弈倾向的影响

谈晨皓1;  王 沛1;  崔诣晨1,2   

  1.  (1上海师范大学教育学院心理系, 上海 200234) (2南京林业大学思想政治理论教学研究部, 南京 210037)
  • 收稿日期:2014-03-27 出版日期:2017-09-25 发布日期:2017-07-16
  • 通讯作者: 王沛, E-mail: wangpei1970@163.com E-mail:E-mail: wangpei1970@163.com
  • 基金资助:
     2012年国家社科基金重点项目“中国人自我与人际认知的特征:心理与脑科学的整合研究” (12AZD117)资助。

 Should I sacrifice my profit before his eyes? Partner’s ability and social distance affecting the tendency of reputation-profit game

TAN Chenhao1;  WANG Pei1; CUI Yichen1,2   

  1.  (1 Department of Psychology, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China) (2 Institute of Ideological and Political Education, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China)
  • Received:2014-03-27 Online:2017-09-25 Published:2017-07-16
  • Contact: WANG Pei, E-mail: wangpei1970@163.com E-mail:E-mail: wangpei1970@163.com
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  通过构造虚拟的捐献情境及贸易情境, 结合博弈任务, 以大学生为被试探讨了名利博弈对象的能力和社会距离对名利博弈中博弈者的博弈行为倾向的影响。结果表明, 在捐献情境下, 被试在高能力的名利博弈对象面前比在低能力的名利博弈对象面前更倾向于做出接近自己半数报酬的捐献行为, 牺牲利益以获取好名声。在贸易情境下存在名利博弈对象的能力与社会距离的交互作用, 被试仅在面对低能力的名利博弈对象时会考虑社会距离因素, 在社会距离近的名利博弈对象面前比在社会距离远的名利博弈对象面前提出更低的售价, 牺牲自己的利益以获得好名声。研究结果初步证实名利博弈对象能力与社会距离对名利博弈具有重要影响以及个体在名利博弈中具有策略性。

关键词:  名利博弈, 能力, 社会距离, 社会身份

Abstract:  Previous studies have shown that when individuals must make a choice between reputation and profit (reputation-profit game), individuals usually tend to get a reputation from the sacrifice of profit. According to competitive altruism theory, the reason why people cooperate to get a reputation at the cost of profit is to compete against others to get some valuable opportunities in the future with the help of the reputation. Based on this perspective, ability and social distance of the game partner (only receives information about reputation) which decide the upper limit of profit and the belief of whether the partner would afford such a chance would affect the tendency of reputation-profit game. To demonstrate these two factors and reveal the nature of reputation obtaining behavior, in this research, we hypothesized that ability and social distance of the partner would affect the preference between reputation and profit, when faced with a partner whose ability is strong or social distance is close, individual would prefer reputation than profit, and there would be an interaction between ability and social distance. A condition about contribution was set up in Experiment 1. 40 undergraduate students participated in this experiment. They were told that they would attend in an online activity. First, participants took part in a series of dummy prisoner dilemma game and won some money (100 tokens). Second, they were told that they would play a game (trust game) with another student in the future, and the importance of reputation was introduced (all participants were trustee). After that, participants were told that there were some public accounts which need their contribution, and they could make virtual contribution to each account and only one would be chosen as the real. Before the contribution, they were told that the contribution would be seen by a student who would be the trustee. Ability (truster’s principal: high/low) and social distance (schoolmate/students from other schools) were manipulated as independent variables, and contribution was used as dependent variable. A condition about bargain was set up in Experiment 2. 55 undergraduate students participated in this experiment. The background was just like experiment 1. First, participants were told that they will perform as suppliers in an online task whose task was pricing the materials they sold. They were told their profit would be calculated respectively in each zone, and only one would be selected as the final result. Second, participants were told if the price they set was higher than the “real value”, there would be 50% chance of being confiscated half of earnings in this turn. Then they were learned that there would be two times of bargain in each zone, and buyers would chat about each supplier soon after the first bargain. Before the pricing tasks, participants were informed that the number of suppliers was greater than the number of players in each zone; each player had the right to choose a supplier to buy material in the second bargain. Ability (player’s demand: high/low/none) and social distance (schoolmate/ students from other schools) were manipulated as independent variables, and participant’s pricing result was used as dependent variable. The results of Experiment 1 showed that participants donated more money when his donation was seen by a student whose ability was high. This finding demonstrated that the higher the ability is the more reputation individual wants. And the results of Experiment 2 showed that there was an interaction between ability and social distance. Only when partner’s ability of the future mission was low, participants preferred to propose a lower price before the partner whose social distance is close in order to gain reputation from the sacrifice of profit. This finding showed only when ability is low, then individuals would take social distance into account, and they tend to acquire a good reputation before a partner whose social distance is close. All the findings supported our hypothesis that ability and social distance are the core factors which affect the tendency of reputation-profit game. These results verified the tactical of individual’s choice in reputation- profit game.

Key words:  reputation-profit game, ability, social distance, social identity

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