ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (5): 812-830.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00812

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


蒋旭婷, 吴小玥, 范雪灵(), 贺伟   

  1. 南京大学商学院, 南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2021-06-01 发布日期:2023-02-14 出版日期:2023-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 范雪灵, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

Effects of coworker anger expression on leader emergence: The mediating roles of perceived warmth and competence and the compensating effect of anger apology

JIANG Xuting, WU Xiaoyue, FAN Xueling(), HE Wei   

  1. Business School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2021-06-01 Online:2023-02-14 Published:2023-05-25


基于刻板印象内容模型和内隐领导理论, 本研究探讨了员工的愤怒表达类型对其领导力涌现的影响及其作用机制, 并提出愤怒表达之后的弥补策略, 从而把愤怒表达对领导力的影响从纵向领导力拓展至横向领导力。研究1 (N = 279)采用情景实验法, 设计2 (愤怒表达类型:合理愤怒表达vs.越轨愤怒表达) × 2 (愤怒道歉:是vs.否)和抑制愤怒5个情景; 研究2 (N = 200)采用关键事件法, 调查真实的员工发怒事件。研究3 (N = 354)通过3 (愤怒表达类型:间接愤怒vs.合理愤怒表达vs.越轨愤怒表达) × 2 (愤怒原因:利他vs.自利)和暗自愤怒7个情景的情景实验重复验证了研究2的结论, 并探讨了研究1和2结论不一致可能的原因, 但未发现愤怒原因的调节作用; 研究4开发了愤怒表达类型的测量量表, 并通过问卷方式采集西方样本, 除重复验证前3个研究的结论外, 亦发现了合理愤怒表达相比于抑制愤怒的间接愤怒对能力感知的正向作用。通过4个研究得出结论:合理愤怒表达与越轨愤怒表达相比更有利于同事对表达者温暖和能力的感知进而更利于表达者的领导力涌现; 而与抑制愤怒相比, 得出的发现较为复杂。最后, 愤怒道歉会通过增加温暖感知而促进领导力涌现。

关键词: 员工愤怒表达, 领导力涌现, 能力感知, 温暖感知, 愤怒道歉


Although previous research has paid much attention to examining whether leader anger expression is effective in enhancing leadership effectiveness, the social consequences of employee anger expression are underexamined. Integrating the stereotype content model with implicit leadership theory, we propose that appropriate anger expression, compared with suppressed anger, has ambivalent effects on leader emergence by increasing coworkers’ perceived competence of the expresser while decreasing coworkers’ perceived warmth of the expresser. In addition, appropriate anger expression, compared with deviant anger expression, is theorized to positively affect leader emergence by increasing coworkers’ perceived competence and warmth of the expresser. We further propose that apology after anger expression (anger apology) is likely to benefit leader emergence by repairing coworkers’ perceived warmth of the expresser.

We conducted two online scenario-based experiments (Study 1 and 3) and two field surveys (Study 2 and 4) to test our research hypotheses. In Study 1, we employed a two (type of anger expression: expressed vs. deviant) by two (anger apology: yes vs. no) between-subjects experimental design, with a silent anger condition (i.e., no anger expression and thus no anger apology) as the control group. The sample consisted of 279 full-time Chinese employees recruited via an online survey panel ( To replicate the findings in Study 1, we conducted a critical incident technique study (Study 2), with a sample of 200 full-time employees recruited via the same panel used in Study 1. Participants were asked to recall and describe a workplace incident of coworker anger expression and then to evaluate their perceptions of competence, warmth, and the likelihood of leader emergence of the expresser. To reconcile some controversial findings in the two studies, we conducted Study 3 (a sample of 354 full-time employees recruited online) to provide a more nuanced examination of the effects of different types of anger expression. Specifically, we employed a three (type of anger expression: muted anger, appropriate anger expression vs. deviant anger expression) by two (anger account: other-orientation vs. self-interest) between-subjects experimental design with an additional condition of silent anger. To further replicate our findings and enhance the external validity, we conducted a field study (Study 4) by collecting two-wave data from 248 full-time employees from a Western online survey panel (

In total, empirical results from four studies suggested that, compared with deviant anger expression, appropriate anger expression positively affects the likelihood of the expresser’s leader emergence by enhancing observers’ perceived competence and warmth of the expresser. However, the effects of appropriate anger expression, compared with anger suppression, were found to be contingent upon the type of anger suppression (silent vs. muted anger) and the cultural context (Chinese samples in Studies 1-3 vs. Western sample in Study 4).Moreover, anger apology was demonstrated as an effective relationship repair strategy that can increase observer perceived leader emergence of the anger expresser. These findings contribute to anger expression literature by shifting the focus from how leader anger expression affects leadership effectiveness to the social consequences of employees’ anger expression on leader emergence. Additionally, we contribute to implicit leadership theory and the dual threshold model of anger by testing and extending their core theoretical arguments in the context of coworker anger expression in the workplace. Finally, we develop a new construct of anger apology and examine its compensating effects for anger expression, providing new avenues for future research on the social functions of anger expression.

Key words: anger expression, leader emergence, perceived competence, perceived warmth, anger apology