ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (10): 1239-1247.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01239

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

认知重评阻断条件化恐惧记忆的习得与表达 ——对恐惧反应的长程抑制作用

安献丽;陈四光   

  1. (扬州大学教育科学学院, 扬州 225002)
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-15 出版日期:2016-10-25 发布日期:2016-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 安献丽, E-mail: anxl79@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(31400879)、教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(13YJC190001)资助

Inhibitory effects of reappraisal on conditioned fear acquisition and expression: Long-term influences measured by a spontaneous recovery test

AN Xianli; CHEN Siguang   

  1. (School of Educational Science, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, China)
  • Received:2015-04-15 Online:2016-10-25 Published:2016-10-25
  • Contact: AN Xianli, E-mail: anxl79@163.com

摘要:

情绪调节是人类特有的、并能有效控制个体情绪反应的行为方式, 认知重评是其中最有效的调节策略之一。恐惧记忆是参与情绪障碍形成的重要病理机制, 且已习得的恐惧反应难消退、易复发。为了考察认知重评能否起到长久抑制恐惧反应的效应, 本研究利用条件化恐惧范式, 第一天进行条件化恐惧习得训练, 并在习得后间隔24 h及31天进行恐惧记忆的表达及自发恢复测试。实验1中, 随机将被试分为两组, 要求其在恐惧习得过程中进行认知重评或自然感受; 在实验2, 同样随机将被试分为两组, 但要求其在恐惧记忆表达过程中进行认知重评或自然感受。结果发现, 习得阶段进行认知重评显著降低了恐惧记忆的习得、表达及自发恢复过程中的SCR水平。同样, 表达阶段进行认知重评也降低了此阶段的恐惧水平, 且显著抑制了恐惧记忆的自发恢复。结果提示, 在面对应激时, 个体如果能够成功地利用想象进行认知重评, 就有可能避免应激事件对个体的心理或精神造成伤害。

关键词: 认知重评, 习得, 表达, 自发恢复, 条件化恐惧

Abstract:

Fear is an emotional response that rapidly serves humans and animals by preparing them for threats and danger. However, excessive fear is a hallmark of various debilitating anxiety disorders. Ways in which to erase or decrease fear have recently gained considerable fundamental and applied research interest. Unfortunately, numerous prior experiments have found that an acquired fear is difficult to disrupt and always eventually recovers with the passage of time following intervention in the absence of any further training. In recent years, because of the fact that humans voluntarily monitor and regulate their emotional states during stressful situations, interest in modulating the fear response through emotional regulation has rapidly increased. Emotional regulation strategies, such as cognitive reappraisal, have been shown to effectively decrease subjective ratings of emotion, heart rate, and skin conductance responses (SCRs) to negative emotional stimuli. Cognitive reappraisal also robustly reduces the conditioned fear response. However, the long-term effects of reappraisal on the fear response are unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive reappraisal on human fear acquisition and fear expression.We also evaluated whether reappraisal can inhibit conditioned fear in the long term by testing spontaneous fear recovery. In experiment 1, a sample of 30 right-handed college students (15 males and 15 females) underwent training using a partial reinforcement fear conditioning paradigm.The paradigm consisted of three stages: acquisition (day1), expression test (day2), and spontaneous recovery test (day32). One day1, the participants were randomly divided into two groups and instructed to perform reappraisal or attend to the stimulus when it was presented. For cognitive reappraisal training in the reappraisal group,the participants were taught to regulate their fear responses to the aversive stimulus. Fear acquisition training followed reappraisal training 5 min later, in which the participants learned that one colored square (e.g., blue, conditioned stimulus [CS+]) predicted a loud white noise (unconditioned stimulus [US]) and another colored square (e.g., yellow, [CS−]) was presented alone. In the acquisition process, the participants in the reappraisal group had to use the newly acquired regulation skills, and the participants in the attend group were asked to view the stimulus and attend to their natural feelings when the CS was presented. The next day, fear expression was tested by presenting the CS without the US. Thirty days later, a spontaneous fear recovery test was conducted similarly to the fear expression test. Experiment 2 included 28 participants (13 males and 15 females). The design of this experiment was the same as experiment 1, with the exception of the stage that reappraisal involved. In experiment 2, reappraisal was conducted in the fear expression test stage on day 2. In all stages of the two experiments, differential SCRs to the CS+ minus SCRs to the CS− served as an index of conditioned fear levels and were acquired from the participant’s middle phalanges of the second and third fingers on the left hand using the BIOPAC Systems skin conductance module. In experiment 1, reappraisal effectively decreased SCRs during fear acquisition with the CS+ relative to the CS−. Consistent with fear acquisition, 24h and 30 days later, the reappraisal group also exhibited significant lower conditioned fear levels in the fear expression and spontaneous fear recovery tests. In experiment 2, the reappraisal and attend groups exhibited equivalent levels of conditioned fear on day 1. However, reappraisal significantly decreased levels of conditioned fear in test 1. More importantly, compared with the attend group, reappraisal successfully inhibited the spontaneous recovery of conditioned fear 30 days later. The present results support the critical contribution of cognitive reappraisal in fear conditioning and in fear expression tests with regard to inhibiting the conditioned fear response. Importantly, these inhibitory effects lasted for at least 1 month. These parallel results suggest that cognitive reappraisal may be able to disrupt memory formation during conditioning or erase conditioned fear memory that is already consolidated. Our results are consistent with clinical findings, in which emotional cognitive reappraisal interventions are an effective treatment for patients with anxiety or depression disorders. Therefore, the use of cognitive reappraisal may be an effective tool for suppressing fear responses to traumatic events and prevent the development of stress-related psychological illness.

Key words: cognitive reappraisal, acquisition, expression, spontaneous recovery, fear conditioning