ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (3): 312-320.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00312

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

自我信息对知觉选择中整体优先性的调控作用

刘明慧;张明;隋洁   

  1. (1东北师范大学心理学院, 长春 130024) (2苏州大学心理学系, 苏州 215123) (3清华大学心理学系, 北京 100084)
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-13 出版日期:2014-03-25 发布日期:2014-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 张明;隋洁
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(31371017, 31371025)资助。

Self-related Information Modulates Global Advantage Effect in Visual Selection

LIU Minghui;ZHANG Ming;SUI Jie   

  1. (1 Department of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China) (3 Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China)
  • Received:2013-08-13 Online:2014-03-25 Published:2014-03-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Ming;SUI Jie

摘要:

已有研究表明个人重要信息调控高级认知加工过程, 如面孔识别、记忆、思维等。本研究的三项实验系统地测量了个人重要信息对知觉选择的影响。采用最近发展的自我连接学习范式, 让中性几何图形与不同人(自我、朋友、陌生人)建立联系; 图形-标签连接完成后, 以复合图形(局部小图形组成整体大图形)作为实验刺激, 被试完成整体/局部图形判断任务, 通过评估个体对具有不同社会意义图形(目标vs.分心物水平)的感知差异, 测量个人重要信息对知觉选择的调控作用。结果发现, 与他人相关图形相比, 自我相关图形作为分心物调控整体优先效应, 这种效应一致地发生在整体和局部水平上, 并且不受注意任务的影响。这些结果提示社会信息对认知的调控作用发生在视觉选择水平上。

关键词: 自我突显, 视觉选择, 注意, 整体优先效应, 自我连接学习

Abstract:

It has been well documented that that personal significance modulates the high-level cognitive processes, including face recognition, memory and thinking. How personal significance (i.e., the self) modulates the visual selection remains poorly understood, however. Here by combining recent developed self-associative learning approach and a global-local task, this article present the evidence that self-salience impacted on visual selection–eliminating the effect of global advantage. The pattern consistently occurred in both divided and focused attention tasks. In contrast, this was not the case for friend-associations. The present study report 3 experiments to test how the self-salience modulated the selection of attention. It first developed a baseline experiment showing a global advantage effect in Experiment 1; 24 participants participated in Experiment 1 and carried out two tasks – a self-associative learning task following by a global-local task. In the self-associative learning task, three geometric shapes were randomly assigned to three persons (self, friend, and a stranger). Having formed a personal association, participants performed the global-local task where they were presented compound shapes (e.g. a global circle formed by local squares, self – square, stranger – circle, local self forming global stranger) and had to identify the shape-associated person (self vs. friend). Targets randomly appeared at either the global or local level. Reaction time and accuracy performance were measured and analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with Social Relevance (self vs. friend) and Attention Level (global vs. local). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that the stranger-related shapes were targets while the self- and friend-related shapes had to be ignored. There were 20 participants in Experiment 2. Different from Experiments 1 and 2 where the divided attention task was employed, Experiment 3 used a focus attention task where participants were instructed to complete either a local or global task in different blocks. There were three within-subjects factors with 2 (Social Relevance: self vs. friend) × 2 (Saliency Level: global saliency vs. local saliency) × 2 (Attention Level: global vs. local). 24 participants participated in Experiment 3. The results in Experiment 1 showed a reliable self-advantage effect where faster responses to global than local level targets occurred in both the self- and friend-related target conditions. In contrast, the global advantage to targets (stranger-shapes) was eliminated in the presence of self-related distractors while the effect survived in the presence of friend-related distractors in Experiment 2. The interference effect of self-salience was verified in Experiment 3where the focused rather than divided attention task (in Experiment 2) was used. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that compared with friend-related information, the self as distractors affected the global advantage effect, and the effect appeared at both global and local levels unanimously and cannot be influenced by task. The data indicate that self-saliency can modulate basic visual selection.

Key words: self-salience, visual selective, attention, global advantage effect, self-associate learning