ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (8): 821-836.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00821

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童视觉同时性加工技能子成分的发展及其与阅读的关系

李杰, 杨悦, 赵婧()   

  1. 首都师范大学心理学院, 北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-09 发布日期:2021-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵婧 E-mail:conanzj@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    *国家自然科学基金(31871117)

The development of visual simultaneous processing skill subcomponents of Chinese children with developmental dyslexia and the relationship with reading

LI Jie, YANG Yue, ZHAO Jing()   

  1. School of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2020-08-09 Published:2021-06-25
  • Contact: ZHAO Jing E-mail:conanzj@126.com

摘要:

通过分别以高频汉字(实验1)和图形非言语材料(实验2)为刺激的两个联合视觉注意任务, 并采用基于Budensen视觉注意理论的参数估计方法, 系统地探查小学三~六年级汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的视觉同时性加工技能缺陷的内在机制。以43名汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童和46名生理年龄匹配典型发展儿童为被试, 每类被试均被分为小学中年级组(三、四年级)和高年级组(五、六年级)。两个实验均发现不同年级组的阅读障碍儿童在知觉加工速度参数上显著小于控制组儿童。在空间注意分布权重参数上, 实验1的结果显示, 不同于控制组儿童向左侧化发展的注意分布模式, 两个年级组的阅读障碍儿童均表现为无偏的注意分布; 而实验2未发现显著组别差异。且这两种同时性加工子技能分别与不同水平的汉语阅读技能密切相关。结果表明, 汉语阅读障碍儿童在同时加工多个视觉刺激时存在持续的知觉加工速度缓慢的问题, 在同时加工言语类刺激时还表现出异常的空间注意分布模式。本研究有助于从基础认知层面揭示汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的缺陷机理, 为进一步设计相关的提高阅读效率的干预方案提供理论依据。

关键词: 汉语发展性阅读障碍, 视觉同时性加工技能, 视觉注意理论, 知觉加工速度, 选择性空间注意分布

Abstract:

Chinese children with developmental dyslexia (DD) have been found to show a deficit in processing multi-elements in a variety of visual tasks parallelly. Nevertheless, the potential mechanisms of this visual simultaneous processing deficit and its relation to the reading ability still remain unclear. The ability of simultaneously processes multi-character strings is restricted by different cognitive components, including perceptual processing speed, visual short-term memory capacity, selective spatial attention distribution pattern, and the ability to inhibit distractors. Therefore, this article attempted to explore the potential mechanisms underlying the visual simultaneous processing in Chinese children with DD in the framework of the theory of visual attention (TVA). Two experiments are conducted to investigate the fundamental cognitive components regarding the visual simultaneous processing skill, with further examining the relationship between these components and the Chinese reading ability from developmental perspective.
43 Chinese children with DD and 46 chronological-age matched children with normal reading ability are recruited, and the two groups respectively include students from high and low grades in primary schools for the purpose of probing into the developmental changes in these TVA-based components of the visual simultaneous processing. The two experiments separately utilize high-frequency Chinese characters as verbal materials and the symbols as nonverbal materials. A modified combined theory of visual attention (CombiTVA) paradigm is employed to collect participants’ performances during the multi-element processing. Based on the response accuracy in each level of CombiTVA task, the four parameters including processing speed (C), visual short-term memory storage (K), attentional weight (ω), and irrelevant inhibition (α) are estimated through TVA model.
We first compare the four TVA parameters between groups and grades, and then conduct hierarchical regression analyses to examine the contributions of possible impaired TVA parameters of reading difficulty. The results of the two experiments illustrate that the DDs from high and low grades both exhibit reduced perceptual processing speed comparing to the controls during processing multiple elements in parallel, with a trend of developmental decrease in this component deficit. Moreover, significant differences in the selective spatial attention distribution pattern between dyslexic and normal readers are only present in Experiment 1 with Chinese characters as the stimuli rather than in Experiment 2 with the nonverbal symbols as the stimuli. In details, during multi-processing of Chinese characters, a balanced pattern in attentional distribution is observed in DDs from both two grade groups; while the attentional weight of normal readers develops from right-lateralized to balanced patterns. Further hierarchical regression analyses reveals that the impaired components of visual simultaneous processing are separately associated with different levels of Chinese reading, the component of perceptual processing speed independently and effectively accounts for the variance of the sentence reading performance regardless of material properties, while the component of selective spatial attention distribution pattern is related to the single-character reading speed. These findings unfold the modulation of language specificity of Chinese to the cognitive deficits of DDs to some extent.
This research is helpful to deepen our understanding of the internal mechanism of the visual simultaneous processing deficit in Chinese dyslexic children, and contribute to designing relevant intervention targeting visual simultaneous processing skills to improve reading efficiency in the dyslexics.

Key words: Chinese developmental dyslexia, visual simultaneous processing skill, theory of visual attention, perceptual processing speed, selective spatial attention distribution pattern

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