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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Conceptual Framework
    Neural mechanisms and digital promotion of executive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment
    LIU Hai-ning, DONG Xian-ling, LIU Hai-hon, LIU Yan-li, LI Xian-wen
    2024, 32 (6):  873-885.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00873
    Abstract ( 694 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a clinical prodromal stage, has a high probability of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, new methods for the early identification and intervention are urgently required. Executive function deficits are characteristic of the initial stage of aMCI and may cause or aggravate memory symptoms, thereby increasing the risk of AD. Therefore, considering executive function as the entry point, it is possible to identify new targets for the early identification and intervention in aMCI. However, the neuropathological mechanisms underlying executive function in patients with aMCI remain unclear. The three subcomponents of inhibition, updating, and switching show both structural identity and specificity. To overcome the limitations of previous studies that viewed executive function as a whole or as separate elements, this study aims to focus on the overall structure of executive function and propose a hypothesis regarding the relationship between executive function and memory impairment in older patients with aMCI. It is also speculated that training the inhibitory subcomponents involving a larger range of frontoparietal control networks may be more helpful in attenuating or delaying memory impairment in patients with aMCI. Therefore, this study will follow the path of "assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of cranial nerves - identification of characteristic targets - targeted digital intervention" for executive function in patients with aMCI, and will conduct verification by combining behavioral and ERP technology with deep learning and longitudinal intervention.
    Study 1 will use high temporal resolution electroencephalography (EEG) technology as the main research method and adopt a two-factor mixed design; aMCI group vs. cognitively normal older individual group, and two stimulation types. By comparing the performance of Go/No-go, N-back, and set-switching tasks between the aMCI and normal cognitive older individual groups, the time-domain, time-frequency, and dynamic brain network characteristics of the patients with aMCI in the three executive function subcomponents of inhibition, updating, and switching will be systematically examined. Using this method, the neural mechanisms of these executive function subcomponents in patients with aMCI can be revealed, providing a new perspective for understanding their roles in memory impairment.
    Study 2 will use deep learning to integrate the advantages of EEG temporal and spatial multidimensional data to construct a three-dimensional convolutional neural network classification model for the three executive function subcomponents of inhibition, updating, and switching in patients with aMCI. The focus is to examine the convolutional neural network classification model constructed based on the EEG characteristics of inhibitory function, which is a potential common cognitive process of different executive function subcomponents, namely the G factor. This study will analyze spatiotemporal features by extracting frequency-domain features, multi-layer convolution, and pooling layers from EEG data as inputs to the classifier. Through feature combination cluster analysis and 5-fold cross-validation, a model for aMCI inhibition, updating, and switching will be constructed, and cross-classification and cross-population validation conducted to evaluate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the model. It aims to more accurately identify and differentiate different executive function deficits in patients with aMCI and provide a new theoretical and practical basis for the early identification and treatment of aMCI.
    To explore effective intervention strategies, this study also includes an analysis of the training effects and neural basis of different targeted digital interventions in patients with aMCI. Study 3 will adopt a 4 (inhibition group/refresh group/switching group/active control group) × 3 (measurement time: pretest/post-test 1/post-test 2) two-factor mixed design. The inhibition group, refresh group and switching group will use the difficulty-adaptive targeted digital interventions of "Whacking a Mole,” "Picturesque,” and "Dual Purpose,” respectively, while the active control group will only use processing speed training. Participants will be trained three times a week for 30 min each time, and post-tests will be conducted at weeks four and eight to examine intervention, transfer, and dose effects, as well as changes in corresponding neuroelectrophysiological indicators and dynamic brain network connections. The focus is on whether digital interventions targeting the inhibitory domain can improve episodic memory in patients with aMCI better than refreshing and switching targeted digital interventions.
    This study aims to clarify that inhibition is a new cognitive target for executive function impairment and intervention in aMCI from a computational cognitive neural perspective, thereby providing an evidence-based basis for the early identification of aMCI and the formulation of precise diagnosis and treatment plans.

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    The effect of virtual communication styles on leadership emergence
    TANG Yipeng, FAN Wei, ZHANG Xiao, WANG Shuhong, XIONG Shankuo, PU Xiaoping
    2024, 32 (6):  886-907.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00886
    Abstract ( 716 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    With the digitalization and flattening of management in organizations, leadership emergence has gradually become a critical force supporting organizational operations. Exploring the mechanisms of leadership emergence within online work teams has become an urgent necessity in current management practices. Existing research extensively investigates leadership emergence mechanisms in traditional contexts, exploring which personality traits contribute to leadership emergence from trait perspective. However, the spatial and temporal dispersion and technology-dependent of online work situations make it difficult for individual trait factors to exert their influence, virtual communication style becomes the most likely feature to influence leadership emergence in online working situations. This study therefore analyzes the mechanism of leadership emergence in online work teams from the perspective of virtual communication styles. This study first explores the characteristics of virtual communication with leadership connotation through implicit leadership theory, describes the key features of virtual communication style in identity system, channel system and interaction system according to the three systematic constructs of communication style, and attempts to build a more systematic and complete theoretical framework through four closely related studies with progressive content.
    First, based on the framework of implicit leadership theory, this study proposes that the virtual communication style with leadership connotation refers to the characteristics of the leader prototype in online interaction. The three-system theoretical framework of communication style points out that communication style presents different characteristics in identity system, channel system and interaction system. Therefore, this study proposes that virtual communication style with leadership connotations is a multidimensional conceptualization that presents key features in the identity system, channel system, and interaction system of communication. In order to further verify the leadership connotation contained in these virtual communication styles, this study further proposes that team members can use these virtual communication styles to enhance their social status facilitate relationship building. In addition, this study suggests that the effects of virtual communication are largely influenced by offline interactions, and suggests that the level of underlying trust in a work team and the matching of a team member's virtual and face-to-face communication styles affect the status and leadership emergence of that member by influencing the expectations of other team members towards that member.
    Second, based on the theory of leader identity construction, this study explores how employees establish their leader identity in virtual communication. The establishment of a leader's identity occurs through the interpersonal process of a potential leader's assertion of his or her leader identity and the recognition of his or her leader identity by potential followers. This study suggests that employees may allow other team members to identify more with their leadership identity through a virtual communication style with leadership connotations and gain more recognition when making leader identity declarations.
    Third, this study adopts a pattern-oriented approach to explore the impact of employees' virtual communication channel choice patterns on leadership emergence. In the online work context, employees can use a variety of channels and ways to communicate virtually, such as adding friends, building group chats, voice messages, and video conferencing. This study concludes that there are qualitative and quantitative differences in an employee's virtual communication channel choice patterns. The virtual communication channel choice patterns presented by this member when communicating with different objects have quantitative differences and qualitative similarities, and the virtual communication channel choice pattern will affect the member's task leadership behavior and social leadership behavior, shaping other members' perceptions of that member and influencing the process of his or her leadership emergence.
    Fourth, this study uses a social network perspective to analyze the impact of virtual communication styles on leadership emergence. There are two analytical perspectives of social network modeling, static and dynamic; the static theoretical perspective focuses on analyzing the structural characteristics of the social network and the position of the individual within the network, while the dynamic perspective attempts to explore the changes that occur in the social network. On the static side, virtual communication styles may influence the structural characteristics of team members' social networks and thus affect leadership emergence, which is moderated by the activeness of virtual communication. On the dynamic side, the social network perspective suggests that the process of leadership emergence is viewed as a process of leadership ties building and disappearing, and that virtual communication styles (including: virtual communication initiation, activation, and silence, etc.) are likely to influence changes in leadership ties, and then affect the dynamic process of leadership emergence between initiators and participants.
    This study contributes to the literature on leadership emergence by constructing a new and systematic theoretical framework to understand the impact of virtual communication styles on leadership emergence. It also provides a scientific basis for enterprises to make good use of digital media to effectively manage communication.

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    The driving mechanism and its function mechanism of gratitude-focused human resource management practices
    CHEN Silu, ZHANG Guanglei, LIU Wenxing, TIAN Yuan
    2024, 32 (6):  908-927.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00908
    Abstract ( 325 )   HTML ( 8 )  
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    Previous research on gratitude expressions has focused on the impact of the recipient's attitudes and behaviors on the giver, but there is a lack of academic understanding of what factors lead organizations to adopt gratitude-focused human resource management practices and how effectively such management practices are implemented. Given this, this paper focuses on the core concept of gratitude-focused human resource management practices, aiming to clearly identify the antecedents of the formation of gratitude-focused human resource management practices and to reveal the mechanisms and boundary conditions of gratitude-focused human resource management practices. To achieve the above research objectives, the theoretical model to be constructed in this study adopts an integrated multilevel research perspective, starting from three levels: organizational, departmental and individual, to construct and test the model of the driving mechanism of gratitude-focused human resource management practices, and to examine the downward influence among multiple levels, which consists of the following four research components: Study 1 focuses on the driving mechanism of gratitude-focused human resource management practices, Study 2 focuses on the impact mechanism of gratitude-focused human resource management practices at the organizational level, and Studies 3 and 4 attempt to construct a multilevel trickle-down model of gratitude-focused human resource management practices from the organizational, departmental and individual levels. There are three innovations in this paper: first, the previous “economic exchange” perspective of human resource management system emphasizes more on the employment relationship between the organization and the employees, and ignores the positive impact of high-quality interpersonal relationships in the "social exchange" of the workplace. Focusing on the human resource management practices from the perspective of organizational gratitude can help enterprises build a harmonious organization-employee relationship. Second, academic research on organizational gratitude has focused more on the mechanisms of its influence in organizations and less on the driving mechanisms of gratitude practices. This study infers that the key drivers of gratitude-focused human resource management practice are the result of a combination of executive characteristics (human capital value orientation) and situational characteristics (environment uncertainty, organizational structure). Finally, compared to fluctuating individual gratitude expression behaviors, gratitude-focused human resource management practices are relatively stable and more conducive for employees to attribute to the organization and thus build a positive relationship with the organization. In view of this, this study examines the downward influence process of organization-department-individual and proposes a theoretical model that attempts to integrate gratitude-focused human resource management practices at the organizational level, leader gratitude expressions at the departmental level, and employee perceptions and behaviors at the individual level, thus providing a more comprehensive theoretical understanding of the influence effects of gratitude-focused human resource management practices.

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    Regular Articles
    “A continuous process” and “three stages”: An analysis of the etiology of emotional dysregulation in depressed adolescents
    ZHAN Ziwei, WANG Mengmeng, SUO Tao, JIANG Yanju
    2024, 32 (6):  928-938.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00928
    Abstract ( 840 )   HTML ( 14 )  
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    Currently, the prevalence of depression is increasing among children and adolescents, thereby raising concerns about emotional dysregulation in this population. The core symptoms of depression primarily manifest as low mood and anhedonia, indicating that individuals with depression exhibit deficiencies in regulating both negative and positive emotions, resulting in poor regulation efficacy. Emotional regulation ability serves as a pivotal factor for maintaining emotional stability and can assist adolescents in effectively managing their emotional states. Understanding the dynamic nature of emotion regulation and its multi-stage processing is crucial for comprehensively elucidating the characteristics and underlying causes of emotional dysregulation among depressed adolescents.
    Previous research on the emotion regulation of depressed adolescents has primarily focused on specific characteristics at a particular stage, such as the selection and frequency of regulatory strategies. However, this approach not only overlooks the dynamic nature and process of emotion regulation but also fails to comprehensively capture the entirety of emotional regulation in depressed adolescents. Therefore, this article aims to examine differences in the complete process of emotional regulation between depressed adolescents and their healthy counterparts from an extended process model (EPM) perspective. The findings reveal that depressed adolescents exhibit deficiencies across all three stages of emotional regulation.
    The present paper introduces several significant innovations:
    (1) The Emotion Processing Model (EPM) posits that each stage of emotion regulation is associated with distinct decision points, implying the presence of potential critical junctures for emotion regulation failure in each stage. Any failure at any stage will consequently impact subsequent stages and the overall regulation process. Consequently, deficits in early emotional cognitive processing and strategy selection among depressed adolescents are likely responsible for their poor regulatory outcomes during the subsequent phase of strategy implementation. However, there remains a dearth of research investigating the dynamic effects of depression on the continuous process of emotion regulation. In terms of understanding emotion regulation, the Drift Diffusion Model (DDM) effectively captures both the dynamics and integrity inherent to this regulatory process, as well as its continuity across stages. Therefore, incorporating DDM into research can aid in reconstructing individuals' emotional regulation processes. Furthermore, this approach can be extended to studying emotional dysregulation among depressed adolescents, enabling us to propose more targeted intervention methods by exploring specific characteristics within each stage of emotional regulation.
    (2) A review of previous studies reveals a contentious debate regarding the efficacy of directive cognitive reappraisal strategies in enhancing emotion regulation abilities among depressed adolescents, potentially attributed to variations in the severity of depressive symptoms examined across different studies. Consequently, future research should comprehensively investigate the characteristics associated with varying levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents.
    (3) From the perspective of dual emotions in depression, the emotional dysregulation exhibited by depressed adolescents is primarily characterized by two aspects. Specifically, the abnormal emotional reactivity of depressed adolescents demonstrates dual characteristics: persistent low mood and anhedonia, with the latter corresponding to their impaired ability to enhance and regulate positive emotions. Given the limited research on positive emotion regulation in depressed adolescents that fails to fully elucidate whether and how it is influenced by the preceding phases mentioned above, as well as considering the significant role of positive emotion in individual mental health and social functioning, future studies on emotional dysregulation among depressed adolescents should also emphasize attention towards positive emotion regulation. This will enable a more comprehensive understanding of emotional regulation characteristics in depressed adolescents and facilitate exploration for optimal intervention strategies.
    (4) Although the results cannot be effectively compared due to variations in depression levels among the subjects in each study, it can be generally inferred that providing guidance to depressed individuals on effective emotion regulation strategies and their implementation methods may enable them to utilize cognitive reappraisal strategies for regulating negative emotions to a certain extent. Therefore, future research could explore the impact of directive interventions incorporating cognitive reappraisal strategies on adolescent emotion regulation, thereby offering novel insights for optimizing future interventions.

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    Have gender stereotypes changed or not changed? Evidence from contents, methods, and consequences
    WANG Zhen, GUAN Jian
    2024, 32 (6):  939-950.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00939
    Abstract ( 894 )   HTML ( 28 )  
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    Stereotypes have been defined as beliefs about the characteristics, attributes, and behaviors of people classified into social categories. Stereotypes are traditionally perceived as resistant to change. However, they may be changed under contexts of the impacts of societal changes on human culture and psychology. Given that gender stereotypes are expected to be more unshakable than other stereotypes (e.g., race stereotypes), it implies that there is a potential for changing other stereotypes, provided that gender stereotypes can be changed. Therefore, this article reviewed changes in gender stereotypes from their contents, methods, and consequences.
    According to the social role theory, gender stereotypes are built on social roles. Therefore, gender stereotypes are expected to change with the changes in the roles of men and women. Considerable studies have found that gender stereotypes have changed. Specifically, some studies have shown that women are perceived to increase their masculine characteristics (e.g., agency) over time, while men are not perceived to increase feminine characteristics (e.g., communion). Differently, others have indicated that both women and men are perceived to increase in counterstereotypical traits over time. However, in contrast to these findings depicting changes in gender stereotypes, several studies did not find significant changes, and they believed that gender stereotypes persist over time. One of the possible reasons for these conflicting findings is that different methods have been used in previous studies.
    The research methods of gender stereotype changes can be divided into traditional methods and new techniques. The traditional methods usually involve the past-present-future rating paradigm, cross-sequential design, and cross-temporal meta-analysis. Word embedding, as a new technique, has become increasingly important in recent years. All research methods have their relative advantages and disadvantages.
    The consequences of gender stereotype changes can be categorized into positive and negative outcomes. In terms of positive outcomes, gender stereotype changes increase the possibility of men being involved in more household labor, which may result in better relationship quality for the couple. Besides, the new male role in parental care for children generates many benefits, such as better academic performance, higher levels of self-esteem, and fewer behavioral problems in children. Additionally, gender stereotype changes can promote women’s economic independence and reduce the gender gap. However, there are also negative outcomes with the changes in gender stereotypes. Specifically, these changes intensify low fertility rates and birth rates. Notably, even if gender stereotypes towards targets become more and more positive over time, targets may not treat the stereotypes as compliments. On the contrary, they may perceive the stereotypes as a form of gender prejudice, eventually impairing interpersonal and intergroup relationships.
    Further research on gender stereotype changes can be discussed from the following aspects: first, it is important for researchers to conduct studies with diverse research methods in the future. Second, future research should pay attention to not treating gender stereotypes as a single construct. Instead, they should be investigated through the perspective of classification (e.g., descriptive and prescriptive gender stereotypes). Third, given that stereotypical gender characteristics seem to interact with each other to build gender stereotypes, future research should examine gender stereotype changes by treating gender stereotypes as a complex system from a network approach. Last, we should not ignore cultural impacts on gender stereotype changes. Given that China has undergone more unprecedented societal transformations than Western countries over the past decades, the social roles in China have undergone tremendous changes. Therefore, it is indispensable to investigate gender stereotype changes in China. Furthermore, not only the gender stereotype changes, future studies need to explore changes in stereotypes about other categories, such as race, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, classes, and religion.

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    Routes to ascend the social hierarchy and related evolutions: Implications from comparative studies
    ZHENG Minglu, LIU Linshu, YE Haosheng
    2024, 32 (6):  951-964.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00951
    Abstract ( 394 )   HTML ( 7 )  
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    Across species, social hierarchies are often determined by dominance relations. In humans, where there are pluralistic value axes, social hierarchies are multidimensional systems and individuals can attain status in mainly three ways.
    The dominance route exhibits the broadest range of existence and serves as the primary mechanism through which nearly all social animals enhance their hierarchical status. It employs aggression and intimidation to establish a competitive advantage by instilling fear in opponents. In this system hierarchical competition is essentially a zero-sum game, where one individual's gain comes at the expense of another's loss. The intense intrasexual competition among males for mating opportunities may be the principal evolutionary driver behind the dominance route, leading to continuous amplification of male body size as they vie for superiority, resulting in sexual size dimorphism between males and females. Neuroscience research shows that the medial prefrontal cortex may function as the decision-making center of the dominance behavior, while the amygdala potentially acts as an emotional hub which is involved in the formation of fear conditioning through observation.
    By contrast, the competence route, resembles a "free trade" system, wherein individuals attain status by eliciting admiration from others through their knowledge and skills. These knowledge and skills are considered as valuable "information goods" in social communication. Group members willingly exchange their deference for the opportunity of close proximity to learning models, resulting in a mutually beneficial outcome. The competence route emerges due to the evolution of cultural learning driven by the increasing sophistication of foraging techniques. Cultural learning is a form of "high-fidelity" social learning that enables information to be transmitted "losslessly" within a group. Imitation and its neural basis, mirror neurons, which are required in cultural learning, have been observed in various non-human primates, indicating that the competence route is not exclusive to humans. But due to neurological limitations, complex movements cannot be propagated in them. In addition, although non-human animals teach (another form of cultural learning), their teaching interactions often occur between parents and children, with information being transmitted vertically rather than obliquely, as is the case with humans. Therefore, it is only human pedagogy that is based on the competence route.
    Diverging from the above two paths, however, the virtue route characterized by psychological altruism is thought to be unique to human-being. While animals exhibit biological altruism (including kin altruism and reciprocal altruism), only humans possess psychological altruism, a subjective desire to benefit others. Costly altruistic behaviors serve as effective means to genuinely signal underlying desirable traits, thereby triggering emotions known as “elevation” from observers. This judgement of altruistic intention is based on an intricate theory of mind. Non-human primates, including chimpanzees, have a basic theory of mind function, but are unable to infer other individuals' beliefs about the external world. They are also better at using theory of mind in the field of competition, so they may not understand the goodwill of their peers or the intention of reciprocal cooperation. Such self-sacrificing behavior that benefits others at one's own expense cannot be attributed to natural selection. The group must give the altruists social value (high status) through cultural selection, so that the altruistic behavior can be popularized and transferred from generation to generation. This process is called cultural group selection. In this way, the allocation of respect to altruists could foster prosocial norms within the group and offer a solution to the large-scale collective action problem.
    In sum, the three routes are different in the scope of existence, behavioral pattern and outcome, evolutionary cause and emotional medium. Future research could further clarify the relationship between sexual selection patterns and dominance levels in different species. Multi-discipline studies may also be adopted to explore the human environment in which the competence route has evolved, as well as the biological basis of the virtue route.

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    Cumulative cultural evolution theory from a psychological perspective: Theoretical development and integration of schools
    YANG Lei, CHEN Weiyang, ZHU Qiujin, ZHONG Nian
    2024, 32 (6):  965-980.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00965
    Abstract ( 530 )   HTML ( 5 )  
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    Cumulative Cultural Evolution (CCE), a significant aspect of cultural evolution, examines the accumulation of material and social culture over time and its impact on individual behavior and social structures. CCE encompasses adaptive changes in complexity, efficiency, etc., during the cultural transmission and modification process over generations. Initially conceptualized to elucidate the distinctiveness of human cultures, CCE theory has expanded to include certain non-human cultural accumulation phenomena as research progressed. This broadening of scope illustrates the advancement and growing inclusivity of CCE theory.
    By sorting out the history of the development of CCE theory, this paper contributes to a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of CCE. Initially, CCE was likened to the “ratcheting effect”, using a ratchet with an irreversible direction to describe the phenomenon of cultural modifications gradually accumulating over time. This framework led to defining core criteria for CCE. With the rise of cognitive science, the importance of individual cognitive factors has been increasingly emphasized. The “mountaineering effect” was introduced to suggest that CCE's direction is not fixed but diverse. Consequently, the core criteria based on the “mountaineering effect” have been developed.
    There are two main schools of interpretation in CCE: the California School and the Paris School. Both agree that human cultural achievements across ecological niches stem from the accumulation of cultural learning over time. However, they diverge in their explanations of the process's nature and the directional stability of CCE. The California School focuses on cultural preservation, emphasizing the fidelity of cultural products and the social learning mechanisms facilitating this. In contrast, the Paris School emphasizes cultural change, the biased transformation of cultural products during transmission, and the psychological and ecological factors influencing this process. This paper integrates both views into a model that has two main components: First, it highlights how selected cultural information is faithfully transmitted through intergenerational social learning, leading to the stability of cultural traits. Second, it suggests how cultural information converges in one direction through constant modification and reconstruction and ultimately contributes to the stability of cultural traits as well.
    As an interdisciplinary field, the evolution of CCE in conceptualization and interpretative frameworks underscores the significant role of cognitive factors. Recognizing CCE as an extensive dynamic process covering millennia, conducting scientific research on such a macroscopic issue from a micro-empirical perspective inevitably requires ongoing modifications and refinements. Future research could enhance CCE theory by exploring three key areas.
    Firstly, from the perspective of theoretical development, although the core criteria have been the standard of measurement in many empirical studies since their introduction, CCE should be developed at a collective level, which cannot be reached by any individual, no matter how much effort they put into it. Only very few empirical studies have identified the criterion of “exceeds individuals’ discoveries”. Therefore, the criterion of “exceeds individuals’ discoveries” should be taken into account and considered as part of the conceptual content in subsequent studies.
    Second, from the perspective of integrating schools of interpretation, although CCE is a process that combines both perspectives of the California School and the Paris School, there is not enough empirical evidence to support the integration of schools in a targeted way. Future research could quantitatively measure the "changes" in the evolution of sociocultural products to provide more relevant empirical evidence. In addition, with the rise of artificial intelligence, the relationship between social learning and the CCE of robots has received attention. Future research can rely on the vigorous development of various machine learning algorithms within computational cognitive science to explore and clarify the intrinsic mechanisms of CCE across multiple generations and thus provide practical and powerful supporting evidence for genre integration.
    Finally, from a psychological perspective, future research could investigate additional psychological biases, such as exploratory and prosocial preferences, and how they influence CCE, as well as the boundary conditions under which psychological biases operate. Moreover, with the advancement of artificial intelligence (AI), machines are increasingly integrating into daily life, sometimes even substituting humans in decision-making and tasks. It’s important to note that human and AI decision-making can conflict. While AI promotes innovation, it might also skew perceptions with misinformation. Thus, future studies should examine the dual impacts of human-AI interaction on CCE, focusing on cognitive factors.

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    The interpersonal effects and mechanisms of workplace mindfulness
    LIU Xia, WEI Wu
    2024, 32 (6):  981-994.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00981
    Abstract ( 545 )   HTML ( 20 )  
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    The vast majority of research on workplace mindfulness to date has focused on its intrapersonal effects, such as improving stress management, cognitive resource recovery, emotion regulation, well-being, and job performance at work. However, this predominant focus on intrapersonal effects has limited our knowledge of how mindfulness is related to interpersonal interactions, which are common in the workplace. Researchers have increasingly emphasized the fact that mindfulness can also benefit interpersonal processes and outcomes in the workplace; thus, it is necessary to develop an integrated overview of the interpersonal effects of workplace mindfulness with the goal of identifying valuable opportunities for the theoretical development and practical application of workplace mindfulness in the interpersonal domain.
    In this paper, we review evidence concerning the interpersonal mechanisms and outcomes associated with workplace mindfulness, thereby making novel contributions to the mindfulness literature. To begin, we summarize the conceptual development trends of workplace mindfulness with the goal of addressing the concerns expressed by scholars regarding the clarity of this notion in terms of conceptualization, measurement, and application in the workplace. We propose that the conceptual development trends of workplace mindfulness can be categorized into outcome-oriented and process-oriented trends. While the former category focuses on the congruence between concepts and measurements in the work context, thereby promoting beneficial outcomes, the latter category emphasizes the process mechanism of workplace mindfulness during interpersonal interactions. By presenting the conceptual foundations and trends associated with this topic, our review work can provide effective guidance for future research and interpersonal applications at work.
    Next, we organize the findings concerning the interpersonal outcomes of workplace mindfulness into quality-related outcomes and function-related outcomes. Quality-related outcomes refer to feelings and perceptions of interaction quality or relationship quality that emerge during the interpersonal interaction process, primarily including relationship quality, interaction quality, and relationship satisfaction. Function-related outcomes refer to the behavioral responses that emerge during the interpersonal process, such as cooperation, conflict, citizenship behavior, and deviant behavior. With regard to the outcome-oriented trend, workplace mindfulness can be connected to both quality-related and function-related outcomes, whereas with respect to the process-oriented trend, workplace mindfulness pertains primarily to quality-related outcomes.
    Then, we propose that connections are the core links underlying the interpersonal effects of workplace mindfulness since mindful people can consciously invest in and allocate attention to interpersonal interactive processes in real time, thereby establishing positive connections between themselves and others with the goal of promoting interdependent work. In this context, four types of interpersonal connections are identified that can interpret the relationships between workplace mindfulness and interpersonal outcomes: (1) intellectual connections that capture information through open attention to the task of coordinating interdependent work during interactions; (2) emotional connections that reduce the self-inference of both internal and external emotional experiences and strengthen connections with others in terms of belonging, support, and care; (3) resource connections that promote resource accumulation and mitigate resource loss during interactions; and (4) exchange connections that direct the flow of resources and influence people’s willingness to engage in value exchange. We further contend that intellectual and emotional connections could play dominant roles in this context by enhancing these interaction patterns and that resource and exchange connections could play supporting roles in this process by reflecting the psychological experience. Moreover, given that organizational work depends on interactions, connections, and communication among subjects at multiple levels, such as employees, leaders, and groups, our research framework distinguishes among the different interpersonal connection mechanisms of employee mindfulness, leader mindfulness, and team mindfulness, thereby enriching the integrated perspective of the literature on workplace mindfulness and interpersonal relationships.
    Overall, by explaining how workplace mindfulness influences the connections and outcomes of interpersonal interactions, our work advances beyond extant reviews of the literature on mindfulness, which has focused predominantly on the cognitive functions of workplace mindfulness, thereby opening up promising opportunities for future research. First, future research could investigate the potential interpersonal processes and mechanisms associated with workplace mindfulness in the contexts of digitalization and artificial intelligence; second, scholars could enrich cross-cutting knowledge in the field of telecommuting and workplace mindfulness; and third, it is necessary to establish organizational cultures based on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) and to improve stigma management by focusing on the integration of mindfulness into leadership and employee management practices.

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    Professional design, user design, or AI design? The psychological mechanism of the source of design effect
    WU Bo, ZHANG Aojie, CAO Fei
    2024, 32 (6):  995-1009.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00995
    Abstract ( 401 )   HTML ( 13 )  
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    To gain or maintain competitive advantage, firms often promote their product design, which serves as a major aspect of product design communication. Currently, there are three major design sources: professional designers, users, and AI. The source of product design may influence consumer product purchase intentions and corporate attitudes.
    The source of design effect is defined as the manner in which the source information of a firm’s product design influences consumer product preferences and corporate attitudes. Despite its importance, research on the source of design effect is still in its early stages. The concept has yet to be systematically elaborated in existing literature, which renders it hard to delve into the source of design effect. In addition, previous studies on the source of design effect suffer from certain issues. These include inconsistent manipulations, inconsistent comparisons among different sources, and scattered mechanisms and boundary conditions. These issues impede a comprehensive understanding of the current research in this domain.
    Based on the above limitations, the study conducts a comprehensive review of the literature on the source of design effect. After an in-depth review, the study explores the meaning, mechanisms and boundary conditions of the source of design effect. Firstly, to explain the meaning of the source of design effect, this study clarifies its definition and expands the comparative scope of previous research. Previous literature has examined this concept at both product and corporate level. This study integrates both levels into a unified definition. Then, the study identifies and expounds upon the differences among professional designers, users, and AI from the following aspects: their understanding of consumer needs and their capability to provide suitable solutions for product design. To illustrate the source of design effect, this research also analyzes consumer responses to different sources of design information. For products with low design complexity, consumers prefer user-designed products, while in the case of products with high design complexity from unfamiliar brands or those positioned as luxury products, consumers favor designer-designed products. However, the conclusion regarding consumer preferences for AI design over designer design remains inconsistent.
    Secondly, the mechanisms of the source of design effect are summarized and integrated. Professional design, user design, or AI design each exerts either positive or negative influences on consumer preferences through different psychological mechanisms. Due to the professional and authoritative nature of professional designers, the source of professional design influences consumer preferences through the perceived competence of these professional designers. Users are characterized as large quantity, an understanding of consumer needs, diversity, and fewer company constraints, but they often lack expertise. In addition, user design not only enhances consumers' sense of power, but also narrows the psychological distance between companies and consumers. Consequently, the source of user design influences consumer preferences through the perceived capabilities of users, empowerment and the psychological distance between users and brands. Furthermore, AI is not a human in nature and AI design is not familiar for consumers. Therefore, the source of AI design influences consumer preferences through the value and information provided by products designed using AI.
    Thirdly, the source of design effect is moderated by consumer individual differences, product characteristics and the openness of a firm’s design policy. To illustrate, consumer factors can be divided into three aspects: individual characteristics, cognitive level, and perceived psychological distance between consumers and participating users. Product factors can be categorized into two aspects: product categories and product features.
    Finally, future research should delve deeper into consumer reactions to mixed design sources, the mediating role of perceived fairness in the source of design effects, the influence of different product design goals on the mechanism at play, as well as the boundary conditions of the source of design effect.
    The current research builds a theoretical framework on the source of design effect, reconciles some inconsistent conclusions as well as provides promising further research directions. Beyond these important theoretical contributions, this research also provides suggestions for firms under which circumstances it is appropriate to communicate the source information of product design to consumers.

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    Research Method
    Q-matrix theory and its applications in cognitive diagnostic assessment
    SONG Lihong, WANG Wenyi, DING Shuliang
    2024, 32 (6):  1010-1033.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01010
    Abstract ( 285 )   HTML ( 6 )  
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    The Q-matrix helps bridge the gap between cognitive psychology and psychometrics, and thus it plays a very important role in cognitive diagnostic assessment. Significant progress has been made in the Q-matrix theory and its applications in recent years. Numerous researchers have made significant contributions to the Q-matrix theory from structured to unstructured matrices, binary to polytomous attributes, simple to complex models, independent to general structures, and dichotomous to polytomous item responses.
    The studies on the Q-matrix theory mainly contain four aspects of contents. The first is related research on the Q-matrix theory under ideal item response patterns. The representative study was the sufficient Q-matrix proposed by Tatsuoka (1995, 2009), which is used for representing the prerequisite relationships among the attributes and improving the construct validity of a test. Under the hierarchical relationships among the attributes, Ding et al. (2009) and their subsequent research found that a sufficient Q-matrix cannot completely distinguish the ideal item response patterns of different knowledge states. Therefore, they proposed a sufficient and necessary Q-matrix that must include a reachability matrix. Due to the rich information contained in polytomous scores, Ding et al. (2014) explored a method for constructing a complete Q-matrix under different attribute hierarchies for a certain polytomous scoring rule. As students’ cognitive levels at the same attribute may change over time in their learning progression, the polytomous sufficient Q-matrix was introduced and can be used to guide test design and item construction, and establish a one-to-one correspondence between knowledge states and ideal item response patterns (Ding et al., 2015; Sun et al., 2013).
    The second is the study on complete Q-matrix theory under the nonparametric cognitive diagnostic framework. Under independent structure, Chiu (2009) proposed a complete Q-matrix containing an identity matrix, which can be used to distinguish different knowledge states from ideal item response patterns, and established the asymptotic classification theory of cluster analysis for cognitive diagnosis. Chiu and Köhn (2015) provided a general definition of a complete Q matrix based on expected item response patterns, and delved into the sufficient conditions for the Q matrix to be complete in general cognitive diagnostic models (such as the generalized deterministic inputs, noisy and gate model, the log-linear cognitive diagnosis model, the general diagnostic model) or simplified cognitive diagnostic models with two item parameters (such as the deterministic inputs, noisy and gate model, or the deterministic inputs, noisy or gate model, referred as the DINA or DINO model). The purpose of the design of the compete Q-matrix mainly focused on the identifiability of the knowledge state and derived the asymptotic classification theory under the general cognitive diagnostic model. At the same time, they also explored the completeness conditions of the structured and unstructured Q-matrices of the DINA model with attribute hierarchy structures.
    The third kind of the complete Q-matrix was proposed for the general attribute structure under the framework of knowledge space theory. Heller (2022) summarizes and sorts out the relevant conclusions on complete Q-matrices under knowledge space theory. Unlike the independent structure and attribute hierarchy discussed earlier, the complete Q-matrix in conjunctive models under knowledge space theory is suitable for more general attribute structures. The fourth category is the complete Q-matrix under the framework of the model identifiability (Gu & Xu, 2021, 2023), which mainly includes the necessary and sufficient conditions for the strict identifiability of the DINA and DINO model parameters, the sufficient conditions for partial identifiability of cognitive diagnostic models with two-parameters or multi-parameters, and the model identifiability conditions for both item parameters and attribute hierarchy structures.
    Following the introduction of the Q-matrix theory, four examples were presented to illustrate its applications in the theoretical validity criterion of diagnostic tests, the design of item selection methods in computerized adaptive test, the methods for Q-matrix learning and specification, and test construction for cognitive diagnosis. Model-free or model-based Q-matrix theory, and the applications of the latest Q-matrix theory needs to be further investigated.

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