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    Conceptual Framework
    The conceptualization, antecedents and interventions of occupational calling in Chinese context
    XIE Baoguo, ZHANG Xiaowen, MIAO Jialing, ZHANG Xinrou, XU Jia
    2023, 31 (12):  2219-2231.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02219
    Abstract ( 157 )   PDF (769KB) ( 531 )   Peer Review Comments
    Under the dual impact of the digital transformation of enterprises and individuals’ increasingly strong pursuit of deeper work meaning, a good grasp of occupational calling is an important prerequisite for improving organizational performance and human resource management practices. Existing research on occupational calling neglects the uniqueness of Chinese context, of which there is also little research on the antecedents for dynamics, and interventions of occupational calling. This research attempts to fill these important gaps in the Chinese context. Specifically, this research attempts to enrich and expand the theoretical research in the following three ways: (a) drawing on the collective self-fulfillment perspective of Chinese culture, this research identifies the core components of occupational calling, and develops an indigenous occupational calling scale, (b) based on the self-determination theory, this research adopts a rigorous longitudinal research design to explore the antecedents for dynamics of occupational calling, and (c) based on micro-management practices, this research adopts a journaling intervention to examine the roles of social impact and social worth interventions in stimulating employees’ occupational calling.
    Theoretically, this study enriches and extends calling literature on the conceptualization, antecedents, and micro-interventions. First, it provides a new perspective for understanding the connotation and structure of occupational calling. Occupational calling is a concept with strong cultural dependence, and different cultural groups may have different understandings. Considering the cultural differences between the East and the West, and the rich interpretation of China culture itself, this study takes the emic orientation to deeply explore the connotation and structure of the occupational calling in the context of China, and develops a measurement tool. Second, this study expands and enriches the research on the antecedents of occupational calling. Generally, there are few researches on the antecedents and influencing mechanisms of occupational calling. To date, limited studies mostly use cross-sectional research, and the causal relationship between variables is difficult to determine. Moreover, the existing research mainly investigates the positive factors of the dynamic change of occupational calling from the facilitation perspective, neglecting the negative factors of calling from the inhibitory perspective. The investigation of the negative factors that cause the dynamic change of occupational calling greatly deepens people’s theoretical understanding of the protective factors of occupational calling. Third, it fills the research gap of the stimulating mechanism of occupational calling. Literature shows that the occupational calling can be stimulated through micro-management practice. However, to date, only two studies have explored the stimulation of occupational calling. In this study, the effects of social worth and social value interventions on occupational calling were examined, which fills the important theoretical and practical gap in this field.
    In practice, this study provides organizations with practical implications for how to protect and improve employees’ occupational calling. First, it is conducive to solving the management problem that it is difficult to integrate personal goals with organizational goals. How to achieve the integration of personal goals and organizational goals has always been one of the core issues in organizational management. The application of the research results is conducive to the effective integration of organizational goals and employee goals, and to achieve a win-win situation for both organizations and employees. Secondly, the results provide a reliable organizational tool for human resource management studies and practices. On the one hand, it provides an effective cross-cultural empirical tool for scholars to empirical study occupational calling. On the other hand, it provides a reliable personnel selection and evaluation tool for human resource management. Third, this study provides an important scientific support for all kinds of organizations on how to protect, promote and stimulate their employees’ occupational calling.
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    Does classical music make you smarter? A meta-analysis based on generalized Mozart effect
    CHEN Lijun, HUANG Meilin, JIANG Xiaoliu, WANG Xinjian
    2023, 31 (12):  2232-2262.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02232
    Abstract ( 248 )   PDF (2193KB) ( 731 )   Peer Review Comments
    Since the last century, scholars have increasingly focused on examining how Mozart’s music affects people’s cognitive performance, leading to rapid growth in the empirical literature on the Mozart effect. However, the effect size reported in empirical studies has been inconsistent. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a systematic and comprehensive review of studies on the impact of classical music, seeking to determine its influence on cognitive performance and the underlying mechanisms at work. We also investigated whether the characteristics of research participants (e.g., age group, gender, cultural context) and elements of experimental design (e.g., type of experimental design, types of control music, the order of music, cognitive task and cerebral hemisphere) moderate the magnitude of the Mozart effect.
    We identified studies by searching Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, WanFang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from 1993 to 2022 using the following terms: (“Mozart effect” OR “Mozart music” OR “music effect” OR “classical music”) AND (cognit* OR intellig* OR spati*). Our selection criteria were as follows: (1) the study reported original empirical findings; (2) at least two out of three possible treatments (listening to Mozart's Sonata KV 448, other classical music, or silence/other sounds) were administered to the groups; (3) the study involved the generalized Mozart effect and cognitive performance; (4) participants were the general public, excluding clinical or animal samples; (5) the study was written in either Chinese or English (the languages spoken by the authors).
    Ninety-one studies (with a total of 172 independent effect sizes and 7,159 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. Given that effect size could be influenced by participant characteristics (e.g., age, gender, cultural context), we applied a random-effects model. After coding the data, the “metafor” package (version 3.4.0) in R software was used to evaluate the total effect size of classical music and to analyze the publication bias test and moderating effects.
    The results showed that classical music improved cognitive task performance with a small effect (g = 0.36, 95% CI [0.24, 0.49]). The impact of publication bias was minimal, and the major findings remained valid. Additionally, the moderation analyses revealed that the strength of the relationship was moderated by age group, cultural context, type of experimental design, and dominant hemisphere of the brain. Specifically, the effect size of Chinese subjects was significantly larger than that of foreign subjects (g: 0.64 > 0.27, p = 0.018), and the effect size of preoperational stage children (3~6 years) was the largest (g = 1.10). Compared with the within-subject design, the between-subject effect was significantly greater (g: 0.48 > 0.22, p = 0.037). The right hemisphere also performed much better than the left (g: 0.44 > 0.08, p = 0.019). Moreover, gender interacted with age group, cultural context and cerebral hemisphere. The direct priming hypothesis received more robust support from this meta-analysis (g: 1.29 > 0.34, p = 0.045).
    To summarize, this study makes several important theoretical advances. First, this study systematically assessed the effects of listening to classical music on cognitive performance basing on a broad definition of Mozart effect, covering a wider range of musical genres and cognitive task types. It bridged the limitations of existing meta-analyses, clarified the debate on the reliability and scientific validity of the Mozart effect, and laid the groundwork for in-depth discussions. More importantly, this paper was the first to compare the effect sizes based on the "Direct Priming Hypothesis" and the "Arousal-mood Hypothesis", indicating the former to be more adept at explaining the Mozart effect. This provided a clearer theoretical guide for future researches. Finally, by examining the moderation effects of several factors, this paper explained why previous literature on the Mozart effect has reported inconsistent findings and provided more targeted design guidance for future studies. Beyond its theoretical advancements, the current paper’s results also have practical implications, such as the implications of age group differences and their interactions for children's cognitive development. The results can also aid in utilizing music education more effectively to boost cognitive performance. Future researches are encouraged to examine the long-term facilitative effect of classical music on cognitive performance, to explore the role of music preference in cognitive facilitation, and to explore more underlying moderators for the intervention effect size, such as subjects' personality traits, familiarity with music, and difficulty of the cognitive task.
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    A meta-analysis of the effects of imagination strategy on multimedia learning
    YANG Jiumin, ZHANG Yi, YANG Ronghua, PI Zhongling
    2023, 31 (12):  2263-2274.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02263
    Abstract ( 86 )   PDF (454KB) ( 217 )   Peer Review Comments
    Learning by imagining, which refers to learners forming mental images corresponding to learning materials in their minds, is an essential generative learning strategy. Whether the imagination strategy has a positive impact on multimedia learning has yet to be consistent. Generative learning theory holds that the imagination strategy can enhance learners' memory and understanding of learning materials by encouraging them to produce a structured well-connected mental image in mind. However, according to the cognitive load theory, the formed mental images will occupy a large number of cognitive resources, thus leading to cognitive overload and hindering learning. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore whether the imagination strategy can affect learning performance, time spent, and cognitive load. Based on relevant studies, it was found that the manipulative way of imagination strategy (learning material visibility, timing of use) and the learner’s individual characteristics (learner’s age) might be the factors for the effect of the imagination strategy. So we further explored several moderators (i.e., learning material visibility, the timing of imagination strategy, and learner’s age) that may have contributed to the boundary conditions of the imagination strategy. We found 20 articles met the inclusion criteria and generated 65 effect sizes. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the imagination strategy could positively facilitate learning performance (g retention = 0.40, g comprehension = 0.27, g transfer = 0.43). But there is no significant effect on learning time and cognitive load. This result confirmed the hypothesis of generative learning theory that the imagination strategy can promote meaningful learning by helping learners to attend, organize and integrate relevant materials. Furthermore, moderator analysis found that the learning material visibility moderated the impact of imagination strategy. When the material was visible, the imagination strategy could positively impact learning (g retention = 0.42). But when the material was not visible, the imagination strategy had a negative impact on learning (g retention = -0.26). This result could be explained by the cognitive load theory. When learning materials were not visible, learners needed to spend more cognitive resources on recall and retrieval, which might cause cognitive overload. So it could not promote learning and even have a negative impact. In addition, no moderating effect was found on the timing of using imagination strategy and learner’s age. There might be other factors that need further exploration. In conclusion, the imagination strategy plays a positive role in multimedia learning. In educational practice, educators should encourage learners to adopt the imagination strategy for learning. Allowing learners to view the material while imaging will lead to better learning performance. Due to the limited number of articles, this study did not set a more detailed baseline. Future research should focus on boundary conditions, neural mechanisms, and ecological validity to further explore the mechanism of imagination strategies.
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    The behavioral effects of nudge: A meta-analysis based on a dual perspective of “Cognitive Pathway” and “Transparency”
    LI Yan, CHEN Wenjin, ZHANG Shuwei
    2023, 31 (12):  2275-2294.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02275
    Abstract ( 93 )   PDF (901KB) ( 212 )   Peer Review Comments
    Challenges faced by nudges in practice have prompted scholars to reflect on effectiveness and applicable conditions of nudge. A common approach is to conduct meta-analyses on the results of behavioral intervention experiments involving nudges. However, existing meta-analyses have significant limitations. On one hand, due to differences in the selection of effect size indicators, the results of different meta-analyses lack comparability, preventing a comprehensive view of the overall effects of various nudging tools across common behavioral domains. On the other hand, most existing meta-analyses categorize nudges based on the “MINDSPACE” framework, which does not encompass all nudge interventions.
    Drawing inspiration from Hansen and Jespersen (2013), this study establishes an analytical framework from a dual perspective of cognitive pathway and transparency, encompassing commonly used nudging interventions in practice. Based on this framework, a meta-analysis is conducted to compare the differences in effectiveness across nudge categories, providing a comprehensive and objective evaluation of the real effects of nudges under different cognitive pathways and levels of transparency. This helps address academic disputes regarding the effectiveness of nudges under different cognitive pathways and transparency levels.
    This study focuses on the effectiveness of nudge in the actual policy domain, conducting a meta-analysis on nudge intervention experimental research published in the two professional journals: Behavioural Public Policy (2017-2022) and Behavioral Science & Policy (2015-2022). Using the standardized mean difference (Cohen's d) as an effect size index, Comprehensive Meta Analysis 2.0 is employed to calculate the effect size. All articles published in these two journals were included (a total of 330) in our sample frame, and a thorough reading of the full text was used to screen the literature one by one. The experimental data included in the meta-analysis had to meet the calculation requirements of CMA 2.0, containing basic statistical data such as means, standard deviations, t-values, and F-values. After screening, 40 sample articles were ultimately selected, yielding 108 research results. Considering the differences in research sample sizes, a random effects model was applied to calculate the overall effect of nudging, and then compare the effectiveness of nudges that work through different cognitive pathways and are presented with different levels of transparency. Subsequently, a regression analysis model is established using SPSS25 to test the effects of three classes of heterogeneity factors (research design, behavioral characteristics, and behavioral domains) with eight variables (sample size, field experiment, data type, behavioral motivation, monetary change, health, consumption, finance, public interest) on nudging intervention effects; Finally, an interaction regression analysis model is constructed to analyze the interactions between nudge cognitive pathways, transparency, and heterogeneity factors.
    The results showed that: (1) Nudge research in the field of behavioral public policy has a relatively small overall effect and still faces the risk of failure in practice. (2) Transparent nudges can also be effective in guiding people to change their behaviour, and there is an interactive effect between different nudges that work through different cognitive pathways and are presented with different levels of transparency. (3) The effects of nudges are influenced by study design and vary across different behavioral domains. (4) Complex interactions are observed between the cognitive pathways through which nudges operate, the transparency of nudge design, and the factors affecting effect size heterogeneity.
    The academic contributions of this paper are: (1) By conducting a meta-analysis on nudge behavioral effects from the dual perspectives of “cognitive pathway” and “transparency”, this research helps separate the actual effects of various psychological cognitive processes and intervention techniques, aiding in forming an objective understanding of the real effectiveness of different types of nudges. (2) Evaluating the effects and differences of various nudges, which not only addresses the academic debate on whether nudge designs should be transparent but also compares the differences in the effects of two cognitive pathways on behavior change, providing empirical evidence for the selection of nudging tools in subsequent policy practices. (3) This study's analysis of the root causes of heterogeneity in nudge effects enriches the literature on the factors influencing nudge effectiveness and applicable conditions, promoting the accumulation of knowledge in the field of behavioral public policy.
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    Regular Articles
    Language processing in the newborn: Potential biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder
    LI Sijin, WANG Tingdong, PENG Zhilin, ZHANG Dandan
    2023, 31 (12):  2295-2305.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02295
    Abstract ( 125 )   PDF (463KB) ( 178 )   Peer Review Comments
    Language is the primary means of human communication. Understanding how it develops and which brain regions control it is a significant concern for psychologists and linguists. In early life, especially during the neonatal stage, infants possess strong perceptual abilities for speech sounds. Newborns can distinguish vowels and consonants from different languages. However, this sensitivity narrows as they are exposed to their native language, making it challenging to perceive non-native phonemes. Studying newborns' perception, discrimination, and learning of speech sounds provides insights into early cognitive mechanisms of language development and aids in understanding neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.
    Early studies on newborns and infants often use the “habituation-dishabituation paradigm” with “nipple sucking rate” as an indicator. Newborns exhibit perceptual preferences for speech sounds, their native language, and their mother's voice. Brain observation techniques like electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) are used to study speech perception in infants. EEG focuses on the mismatch response (MMR), while fNIRS reveals specific cortical regions involved in speech processing. Both techniques show left-hemisphere dominance in newborns' language processing, with left temporal and frontal lobes being more activated during language tasks. This leftward bias is evident in both functional and structural aspects of the brain. Understanding early language perception is crucial for developmental psychology and related clinical research.
    Newborns possess strong phoneme discrimination abilities, distinguishing vowels and consonants from different languages. They can also recognize syllables and syllable sequences. Studies using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm and brain observation techniques like EEG and fNIRS demonstrate newborns' unique language capabilities. They exhibit perceptual preferences for their native language and can differentiate it from other languages. Behaviorally, newborns can distinguish sentences and perceive accent patterns. EEG and fNIRS studies show newborns' ability to discriminate vowels, consonants, and syllables, with left hemisphere involvement. They also display sensitivity to syllable sequences, showing enhanced brain responses to certain sequence structures. These findings contribute to understanding language processing and statistical learning in early development.
    To date, research on newborns' speech perception and phoneme discrimination has primarily employed passive observation of language exposure in utero (e.g., Moon et al., 2013) or single-time-point assessments (excluding Moon's study). Only one study (Partanen et al., 2013) has examined fetal language learning by exposing fetuses to speech sounds prenatally. Few studies have directly observed changes in brain activity before and after speech learning in newborns. Studies using EEG and fNIRS found enhanced neural responses to learned vowels, demonstrating brain plasticity due to learning. Additionally, a study using fNIRS showed that sleep influenced the brain's response to learned vowels. However, the debate remains about whether newborns can differentiate vowels or if their sensitivity is related to prosody rather than phoneme discrimination. Future research should explore the effects of sleep on newborns' language learning and the broader range of phoneme learning in newborns.
    Autism is a major neurodevelopmental disorder in early childhood, characterized by social communication difficulties, language impairments, and repetitive behaviors, significantly impacting lifelong social functioning (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The global prevalence is 1-2% (Hirota & King, 2023; World Health Organization, 2023; Zeidan et al., 2022). Language issues are a primary concern, with affected children showing reduced language abilities and abnormal brain networks (Belteki et al., 2022; Tryfon et al., 2018). Early diagnosis and intervention can improve outcomes, but the link between newborn language development and autism needs further research. This review focuses on infant studies, particularly longitudinal research predicting autism in high-risk infants with genetic and brain risk factors (Hirota & King, 2023). Longitudinal studies suggest language behavioral indicators predict autism after one year, while brain indicators show predictive value as early as three months (Ayoub et al., 2022; Clairmont et al., 2022; Molnar-Szakacs et al., 2021). Three longitudinal studies indicate language brain indicators predict autism in high-risk infants. Language lateralization in the brain also has predictive implications for autism (Lindell, 2020; Herringshaw et al., 2016). Five longitudinal studies on high-risk infants show language lateralization indicators predict autism during infancy. Research on high-risk infants provides valuable insights into the predictive value of early language development in autism. Capturing language processing brain indicators in newborns may offer valuable personalized warning parameters for early autism diagnosis, taking advantage of the brain's greater plasticity at younger ages.
    In summary, current research on newborns' speech perception, discrimination, and learning indicates the following: 1) Newborns exhibit speech perception preferences, showing a preference for speech, their native language, and their mother's voice, with a leftward brain lateralization. 2) Newborns possess unique phoneme discrimination abilities, differentiating vowels, consonants of various languages, and complex syllables and sequences. 3) Early language learning in newborns leads to plasticity changes in the brain's language networks. Moreover, several studies suggest that early language development brain indicators have significant predictive value for autism. However, there are three critical issues in the foundational and translational research of newborn language processing. Firstly, the rhythmic features of speech materials have been overlooked, potentially interfering with newborns' phoneme discrimination. Secondly, the cognitive neural mechanisms of newborn speech learning remain unclear, particularly regarding consonant learning and the role of sleep in language learning. Lastly, there is a lack of clinical translational research on newborn language development, necessitating the exploration of early language-related brain markers to predict and warn against neurodevelopmental disorders like autism. Future research should address these gaps by rigorously controlling rhythmic factors in speech materials, investigating the neural mechanisms of consonant learning using EEG and fNIRS techniques, and exploring the role of sleep in memory consolidation during language learning. Additionally, longitudinal studies focusing on high-risk newborns can potentially establish a comprehensive risk assessment system for neurodevelopmental disorders based on multiple brain modalities and clinical evaluations. Addressing these challenges may pave the way for early intervention and prevention of language-related developmental disorders in infancy.
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    Potential early identification markers for children with developmental dyslexia: Atypical rhythm and its characteristics
    LI Yunduan, MA Xiaofeng, HU Yu
    2023, 31 (12):  2306-2318.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02306
    Abstract ( 95 )   PDF (559KB) ( 229 )   Peer Review Comments
    The “Dyslexia Paradox”, caused by the relatively later diagnosis of developmental dyslexia (DD) than the optimal intervention period, has always been a challenge in research on children's reading development disorders. The core deficit of DD is phonological awareness, which is essentially caused by more fundamental auditory processing deficits. Rhythm, as one of the main influencing factors of auditory processing, occurs early in an individual's life and is also a key indicator of children's language acquisition. It not only affects children's oral development but also plays an important role in children's decoding, reading comprehension, and writing. Previous studies have found that children with DD exhibit behavioral and neural characteristics of atypical rhythm. Specific behavioral characteristics include worse sensitivity and accuracy in rhythm perception; high rates of rhythm synchronization and reproduction errors, missed beats, and significantly shorter durations; longer prediction intervals and weaker neo-alternative intervals to stimulate neural responses; and an inability to differentiate between rhythmically related slower rise time, resulting in impaired information about speech flow etc. Specific neural activity characteristics include atypical δ-band neural entrainment; low synchronization of amplitude modulation in the low-frequency bands of the brain; and abnormal auditory-motor coupling. Based on this, the causal relationship between atypical rhythm and written disorder in DD children is further revealed: 1) atypical rhythm impede early word decoding. Unlike TD children, most reading and spelling (dictation) failures in DD children are due to decoding failures caused by rhythm perception defects. When rhythm production is atypical, decoding ability is also affected. 2) Atypical rhythm affects DD children's reading comprehension. The prediction deficit in DD children is inferior to that of TD peers, and the number of syllables read per second is also lower, reducing reading efficiency. The prediction deficit also makes it difficult for them to effectively use morphosyntactic information to predict upcoming words and complex language structures, making it difficult to ensure reading fluency and accuracy. 3) Atypical rhythm affects the writing efficiency of DD children. Writing is a rhythmic activity. Compared with TD peers, DD children take significantly longer to write individual letters of a word, and they are unable to adjust the writing time of individual letters and the overall writing speed as required, which makes it difficult for them to accurately and fluently complete a series of rhythmic events related to the content of the writing in a limited period of time. In summary, rhythm perception deficits in DD children can predict defects in their reading processing mechanisms. This fully demonstrates that atypical rhythm may be an earlier and deeper risk factor for DD, and can be considered as a potential identification marker for DD children before formal schooling. Future research can take atypical rhythm as an entry point to explore the individual differences of atypical rhythm in DD children, and actively explore the characteristics and mechanisms of atypical rhythm in Chinese children with DD, so as to provide empirical and theoretical evidence for developing more ecologically valid rhythmic measurement tools and improving the efficiency of the identification of and intervention in DD.
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    New playmates in the age of intelligence: Characteristics of children’s interactions with robots and their impact on child development
    DENG Shichang, LIN Zihan, LU Yuqian, LI Xiangqian
    2023, 31 (12):  2319-2336.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02319
    Abstract ( 103 )   PDF (700KB) ( 222 )   Peer Review Comments
    In recent years, with the surge in human-computer interaction research, children as a distinct user group have gained significant attention from researchers, leading to numerous studies on Child-Robots Interaction (CRI). Research in this domain can be summarized into three main processes: children's understanding of robots, their interaction with robots, and the impact of such interactions on children's development.
    Firstly, children's understanding of robots can be categorized into observation, exploration, and comprehension phases. During the observation phase, the visual characteristics of robots make a profound impression on children, with anthropomorphic robots being particularly appealing to them. Concurrently, the social cues exhibited by robots stimulate children's interest and positive sentiments. In the exploration phase, children start to understand the functionalities of robots through basic interactions and delve further into their applications with guidance from adults. By the comprehension phase, while younger children might perceive robots as living entities, as they age and their cognition develops, they gradually discern the differences between robots and living organisms.
    Secondly, during the interaction phase, children's nascent understanding of robots inclines them to engage more deeply, viewing robots as companions. Owing to children's more open-minded stance towards robots, their interactions are characterized by affection, protection, seeking guidance, emotional exchange, and even attachment. However, on the flip side, given that children's cognitive and judgmental abilities are not fully developed, they might treat excessively compliant robots in a negative manner.
    Lastly, interactions with robots have had a positive influence on children's development. Robots offer an engaging, interactive, relaxed, and feedback-rich learning environment, facilitating the growth of children's cognition and metacognition. Moreover, as educational tools, robots present novel opportunities for children's learning, aiding them in gaining a deeper understanding of subjects. However, while interactions with robots may bolster children's social skills to some extent, robots cannot entirely replace genuine human companions. Robots that can't offer candid feedback might adversely impact children's social perceptions.
    Regarding the CRI domain, several research challenges and questions remain. In terms of study design, future research should emphasize the differences in children's ages, adopting longitudinal tracking and cross-cultural comparisons. Methodologically, traditional evaluation methods, like questionnaires, may not wholly capture children's genuine perspectives, necessitating the development of more appropriate assessment tools. In terms of content, future studies should delve deeper into children's interactions with robots across various settings, particularly focusing on interactions in private environments, and further explore the underlying reasons and associated ethical issues.
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    The occurrence mechanism of short video indulgence from the perspective of human-computer interaction
    DONG Wanghao, WANG Weijun, WANG Xingchao, LI Wenqing
    2023, 31 (12):  2337-2349.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02337
    Abstract ( 201 )   PDF (740KB) ( 566 )   Peer Review Comments
    Short video indulgence refers to an individual’s compulsive and uncontrollable consumption of short videos, leading to significant behavioral or attention impairments, and subsequently causing difficulties in interpersonal relationships, learning, and/or work adaptation. With the continuous expansion of the short video user base and the trend towards younger groups, threats of short video indulgence to users’ physical and mental health have aroused extensive attention. From a human-computer interaction perspective, we synthesized and delineated the relevant factors contributing to the occurrence of short video indulgence. The objective is to formulate a comprehensive framework delineating the intricate mechanism that underpins the phenomenon of short video indulgence, thereby shedding light on the intricacies involved in its developmental process.
    At first, in order to explore the delineation between short video usage and indulgence, we categorized short video usage into “instrumental” and “ritualistic” forms. Instrumental usage refers to user behavior driven by specific goals or needs, where short videos serve as tools or means to achieve particular objectives. Ritualistic usage refers to user behavior without a specific objective, where short videos become habitual behaviors associated with particular contexts, times, or situations. The transition from conventional utilization of short videos to the state of short video indulgence appears to encompass a notable shift in usage behavior, evolving from a utilitarian “instrumental” function to a more “ritualistic” engagement.
    After that, the present work formulates a conceptual framework delineating the mechanisms underlying the onset of short video indulgence, delving into the domains of human-computer interaction and susceptibility traits. The first section encompasses four facets: information technology, content provision, human-computer interaction, and user experience. Their salient characteristics encompass technological advancement, content richness, interactive efficiency, and user immersion. Furthermore, propelled by recommendation algorithms, users’ engagement with short videos becomes increasingly fortified. The second section systematically expounds the susceptibility factors contributing to short video indulgence. The four categories of unique susceptibility traits align with the four stages of interactive mechanisms, while the categories represented by common susceptibility traits have an inducing effect on general addictive behaviors. Considering the analogous nature of short video indulgence to general online indulgence, the unique and common susceptibility traits exhibit mutual intersection and overlap. Overall, the role of interactive mechanisms lies in arousing susceptibility traits, rendering individuals more susceptible to allure and ensnarement in a cycle of addictive behaviors. Simultaneously, susceptibility traits amplify users’ responsiveness and vulnerability to inducing factors. The multifaceted components within the realm of human-computer interaction, propelled by recommendation algorithms, intricately intertwine with users’ susceptibility traits, driving the transformation of users’ engagement with short videos from an “instrumental” to a “ritualistic” approach, ultimately leading to the emergence of short video indulgence. This framework seeks to illuminate the genesis and progression of short video indulgence, offering researchers in this domain a comprehensive conceptual structure to foster the scientific governance of short video indulgence.
    Subsequently, in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind short video indulgence, we offered theoretical interpretations of short video indulgence from cognitive, emotional, motivational, and social perspectives. The dual process theory, opponent process theory, uses and gratifications theory and social shaping of technology theory were employed to elucidate the process of short video indulgence formation.
    Finally, this study concludes by summarizing the existing shortcomings in the current field of research. The points are concluded as follows: 1) The research methods are limited, there should be a diversification of research perspectives; 2) Insufficient attention to technology emphasizes the need to emphasize improvements in technology that contribute to addiction; 3) The mechanism of formation is unclear, there should be a deepening of the research into the mechanisms of occurrence; 4) Inadequate research on user characteristics highlights the need to focus on susceptibility factor studies.
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    Implementation of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: An early intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorder
    XIAO Shihua, LI Jing
    2023, 31 (12):  2350-2367.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02350
    Abstract ( 75 )   PDF (661KB) ( 202 )   Peer Review Comments
    Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI) are a class of early intervention methods for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that combine the principles of applied behavior analysis and developmental psychology, emphasizing naturalistic teaching. In recent years, NDBI have gained international attention, with a continuously expanding empirical research base. This systematic analysis examines the application and effectiveness of six representative NDBI methods in early intervention for ASD. The findings highlight the outstanding advantages of NDBI in promoting the development of social, language, cognitive, and other domains in children with ASD, reducing family costs, and fostering children's initiative. Additionally, the study discusses the application prospects and existing problems of NDBI in China and proposes future research directions. These include clarifying predictive factors and moderating variables that affect intervention effects, exploring effective parent training methods, investigating the combination of different intervention methods and tools, and promoting the localization research and practice of NDBI within China's cultural context. This comprehensive analysis provides valuable reference and inspiration for early intervention in ASD.
    The six representative NDBI methods introduced in the study are: Joint Attention, Symbolic Play, Engagement and Regulation (JASPER), Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT), Social Communication, Emotional Regulation, and Transactional Support (SCERTS), Pivotal Response Training (PRT), Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), and Parent-Implemented Social Coaching (PIT). These methods share core elements and characteristics of NDBI but have different focuses on target domains and effectiveness.
    JASPER primarily targets the core deficits of children with autism in the nonverbal communication domain, enhancing their abilities in joint attention, symbolic play, and shared engagement while also promoting language development. EMT focuses on the language domain, effectively improving the language and verbal communication abilities of children with autism while fostering overall social communication development. SCERTS addresses the core deficits of children with autism in social communication and emotional regulation, building a cross-environmental support system that enhances their social interaction, particularly active participation in social engagement. PRT, as a comprehensive intervention method, targets four “pivotal areas” with a particular emphasis on the role of motivation in the overall development of children with autism, demonstrating favorable outcomes in social interaction and language communication domains. ESDM provides a comprehensive and systematic teaching system to promote the overall development and improvement of core symptoms in children with autism, particularly showing significant effects in cognition, language, and social participation. PIT involves parent training in teaching strategies, enabling parents to implement interventions to improve the social communication abilities of their children with autism while also facilitating the creation of a supportive family environment conducive to their development.
    This study presents a comprehensive overview of six representative Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI) methods, examining their concepts, characteristics, applications, and effectiveness. It summarizes empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of these NDBI methods in improving various developmental domains of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including social interaction, joint attention, play skills, language communication, cognition, adaptive behavior, and executive function. By integrating findings from multiple studies, the study compares the advantages and disadvantages of different NDBI methods.
    Furthermore, it discusses the prospects and challenges of implementing NDBI in China from a cultural perspective. The study emphasizes the broad application prospects of NDBI in China while acknowledging the challenges and difficulties hindering its implementation, such as the lack of qualified professionals, training resources, and localized research. To address these issues, the study proposes future research directions, including clarifying predictive factors and moderating variables that influence intervention effects, exploring effective parent training methods, and investigating interventions that combine different approaches or incorporate cutting-edge technologies. Additionally, the study provides insightful pathways for promoting the localization research and practice of NDBI in the cultural context of China.
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    The influence of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering and its mechanism
    SHAO Hongtao, REN Guiqin, DING Xiaoqian, SHI Mengmeng, LI Ruiyan, LI Yang
    2023, 31 (12):  2368-2379.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02368
    Abstract ( 214 )   PDF (461KB) ( 593 )   Peer Review Comments
    Mind wandering is a common psychological phenomenon that we commonly face in our daily lives, and it can have negative effects, such as increasing the incidence of car accidents and affecting academic performance. Given the adverse effects of mind wandering on people, it is particularly important to adopt a reasonable intervention to mitigate the negative effects of mind wandering. Mindfulness meditation as a form of intervention has gained traction in recent years. In order to investigate the effects of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering and its mechanism, based on a systematic review of previous studies, the present study summarized the effects of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering from different perspectives, such as training duration, training format, the setting of the controlled group, and different groups. Combining the two aspects of neural mechanism and related theoretical models, the mechanism of mindfulness meditation to improve mind wandering was also explained. First of all, there are different training durations for mindfulness meditation, such as 8 minutes, 4 days, 8 weeks or even longer. This study analyzed the effects of different training durations of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering, and clarified that different training durations of mindfulness meditation have different effects on the improvement of mind wandering, and fewer longitudinal studies have been used in the past. Second, there are many forms of training for mindfulness meditation, such as mindful breathing exercise, sitting meditation, and body scan. This study found that different forms of mindfulness meditation have different effects on mind wandering by comparing different studies. Third, most of the previous related studies were examined in the form of randomized experimental group and controlled group. Based on the examination of different controlled groups, it is clear that it is important to use appropriate controlled group in the study of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering, such as the use of controlled group by considering active controlled group and passive controlled group. This method is conducive to avoiding the interference of additional variables and highlighting the effect of mindfulness meditation. Fourth, by examining different groups, it was also found that the degree of effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in reducing mind wandering may depend on the characteristics of the target group. For example, the researcher's study on the normal group found that mindfulness meditation reduced the occurrence of mind wandering. In contrast, for individuals with negative emotions, the improvement of mind wandering by mindfulness meditation was shown to be protective. Fifth, by measuring the changes in neural mechanisms before and after the intervention, for example, EEG components such as alpha and beta, ERP components such as N2, P3, and MMN, and the default mode network in the brain, we explained the mechanism of action of mindfulness meditation to improve mind wandering from the perspective of neural mechanisms. Sixth, combining the natural cognitive fluctuation model and the cycle of meditation and mind wandering, the present study found that the improvement of mind wandering by mindfulness meditation works through different stages, such as attentional modulation, meta-consciousness enhancement, and the calming thought. These stages do not necessarily occur in a sequential manner, and the applicability of these stages to other forms of mindfulness meditation needs to be verified. Previous studies have defined mind wandering as a single structure and directly examined the effects of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering, without distinguishing between intentional and unintentional mind wandering. Future research should continue to delve deeper and clarify the effects of mindfulness meditation on different types of mind wandering. In addition, previous studies have examined the effects of a single form of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering, neglecting a direct comparison of the effects of different forms of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering. In the future, it is possible to directly compare the effects of different forms of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering, in order to clarify the most effective form of improving mind wandering, and to determine the most effective duration of different forms of mindfulness meditation interventions. In the future, we can also continue to explore the underlying mechanisms, such as understanding the time course of the effects of mindfulness meditation, exploring the reasons for the differences between different processes, and validating the different stages of mindfulness meditation to improve mind wandering, so as to validate and improve the existing theoretical models.
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    Enhancing mindfulness interventions for test anxiety: A perspective based on the NIH stage model
    XU Shaoqing, LIU Xinhua, ZHANG Huiping, LI Bo, TANG Xinfeng, QU Gaiping, BAO Yuqin, ZHAO Junping, FU Zhongfang
    2023, 31 (12):  2380-2392.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02380
    Abstract ( 137 )   PDF (626KB) ( 316 )   Peer Review Comments
    Test anxiety directly impacts academic performance and can have extreme consequences, including school dropout, self-injury, and even suicide. Nevertheless, most current interventions for text anxiety focus on its individual components, which complicates achieving satisfactory results. Mindfulness, a method of consciousness training in Buddhist meditation, has been scientifically examined since being extracted from the Buddhist system and secularized. It has two core characteristics: (1) attention to and awareness of one’s inner experience of the present moment and (2) an open, accepting attitude toward one’s inner experience. In recent years, the academic community has applied mindfulness in interventions for test anxiety, which are collectively referred to as “Mindfulness Interventions for Test Anxiety” (MI-TA).
    The NIH stage model, originally proposed to promote the implementation and dissemination of psychological interventions, divides the development of interventions into six stages: basic research, intervention generation and refinement, efficacy testing, mixed efficacy-effectiveness testing, effectiveness testing, and implementation and dissemination. A closed-loop connection is formed between the stages, meaning that the development of any intervention following the model is an iterative, recursive process. Inspired by the model, we distinguished five attributes of intervention research: mechanism exploration, intervention model design, efficacy testing, effectiveness testing, and implementation and dissemination. By extension, we outlined three research orientations from past studies on MI-TA: initially testing efficacy, refining and optimizing the model, and promoting implementation and dissemination. The current status of each approach is presented and discussed in our review.
    First, using target analysis, we conceptualized the mechanisms by which mindfulness training affects test anxiety. For one, mindfulness training emphasizes the awareness and acceptance of bodily sensations, which helps to relax physiological indicators and tensions induced by test anxiety and promotes emotional regulation. For another, mindfulness training emphasizes the awareness and acceptance of thoughts and emotions, which helps both to reduce worrying thoughts and cognitive interference caused by test anxiety and to sustain cognitive efficacy. Last, mindfulness training can promote de-reification and self-compassion, which can help to resist the self-depreciation caused by test anxiety and safeguard self-worth.
    Second, by comparing the practical components and effects of single-session, short-duration mindfulness exercises with those of MI-TA of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), we found that such exercises mostly included only focused attention (FA) meditation and lacked open monitoring (OM) meditation. Whereas FA mainly acted on the physiological indications and tension-related components of test anxiety, OM acted on the components of worrying and cognitive interference. FA and OM are different components of complete mindfulness practice and cannot be biased or replaced by each other.
    Regarding the core principles of MBSR, the requirements of teaching methods, and teaching objectives, we analyzed two optimized MI-TA models that integrate Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) mindfulness skills and integrated self-leadership strategies. As a result, we found that both could be improved in by adhering core teaching intentions, valuing the practical experience, organically integrating the components of the intervention for test anxiety, and improving the ease of implementation. Future interventions should be designed to capture the pedagogical intention of mindfulness interventions, integrate components specific to test anxiety, and weigh the curricular structure for specific contexts of implementation.
    Next, based on a review of two types of studies that promote the implementation and dissemination of MI-TA by approaching real-world target groups relying on multimedia and digital self-help interventions, we propose that future real-world-based interventions should take into account the external environment (e.g., regional economic, social, and cultural factors), the internal environment (e.g., schools’ organizational characteristics, cultural climate, and communication characteristics), stakeholders (e.g., intervention providers, school administrators, parents, and students), and the implementation process, including planning, participation, implementation, evaluation, and reflection. Likewise, studies on such interventions should vigorously adhere to the framework of implementation science.
    Last, we propose three research perspectives in light of the original intention of the NIH stage model and the specificity of mindfulness interventions: (1) focusing on continuously testing and clarifying the efficacy mechanisms of MI-TA at each stage by following the basic guidelines for identifying efficacy mechanisms; (2) taking special consideration of the study design, intervention model, control measures, and selection and measurement of outcome indicators by using the PRagmatic Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary(PRECIS) -2 tool; and (3) enhancing the accuracy and adequacy of the interpretation of effects in research on MI-TA by being sensitive to the basic tenets of mindfulness interventions (e.g., including open monitoring, collecting data on intervention adherence, emphasizing the learning of attitudes of mindfulness, and considering the influence of different understanding of self between Eastern and Western cultures).
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    The concept, manifestation and cause of naturalness preference
    ZHANG Haotian, YU Feng
    2023, 31 (12):  2393-2405.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02393
    Abstract ( 129 )   PDF (527KB) ( 271 )   Peer Review Comments
    Naturalness preference, characterized by a tendency to value natural environments, products, and innate abilities, is a crucial psychological phenomenon guiding aesthetic judgments, everyday consumption, and evaluations of others’ achievements. In this study, we define naturalness preference as a tendency to value entities or individuals that are naturally occurring with minimal human intervention. In terms of the extension of the concept, naturalness preference can be broadly categorized into three domains: natural environments, natural objects, and human characteristics. The domain of natural environments reflects people's preference for environments originating from nature, characterized by their pristine and non-artificial features. The domain of natural objects encompasses people's preference towards entities that are naturally generated or crafted by hand. Lastly, the domain of human characteristics primarily reflects people's preference for innate abilities, traits, and talents.
    This paper is the first to summarize the causes of naturalness preference into three factors: cognitive (psychological essentialism), affective (positive and negative emotions), and normative (sacred moral values). The cognitive causes of naturalness preference are mainly associated with psychological essentialism, where entities perceived to possess higher natural essence are regarded as more authentic. The mutual transmission of essence is one of the core psychological mechanisms in the perception that human intervention disrupts or enhances naturalness. The affective causes of naturalness preference mainly include positive emotions and negative emotions. Positive emotions, such as satisfaction and happiness, boost the approach motivation towards naturalness, which makes people prefer natural objects. While negative emotions, such as disgust and fear, can stimulate avoidance motivation towards naturalness, which makes people stay away from unnatural objects. The normative aspect of naturalness preference primarily manifests in sacred moral values. People generally regard the natural world as benevolent, sacred, and inviolable. The sacred value of naturalness cannot be traded, let alone measured by worldly values such as money and power.
    Future research should focus on the following three aspects. First, we should pay attention to the potential “dark sides” of naturalness preference and promote science popularization of beneficial products that are perceived as “non-natural” by the public. Employing “nudging” methods may help rectify biased perspectives and irrational consumption behaviors caused by naturalness preference. Second, future studies should delve into the cultural and psychological differences in naturalness preference, exploring how indigenous religious beliefs and traditional cultural thoughts shape distinct attitudes towards nature among Chinese and Western people. Last but not least, future research should approach the issue of emerging technology acceptance from the perspective of naturalness preference. Understanding the psychological aspects of naturalness preference can significantly contribute to reevaluating the impact of technology on the process of natural evolution and exploring how technology can better serve human beings, while fostering harmonious coexistence between humans and the natural world.
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    The ambivalent reaction of being envied: A perspective of self-based agency and communion
    CHENG Xiang, LI Fangjun
    2023, 31 (12):  2406-2418.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02406
    Abstract ( 120 )   PDF (638KB) ( 330 )   Peer Review Comments
    In the competitive environment of corporate organizations, it is a common occurrence that high-performing individuals become the targets of envy due to their outstanding accomplishments. Envy is a multifaceted concept and can be perceived from various perspectives. In this case, it is described as a state where an individual recognizes others' feelings of envy towards them. This recognition further includes the cognitive evaluation that this individual makes regarding others' feelings of envy. The induction of envy can spark a range of emotions, from positive ones such as pride to negative ones like anxiety. These emotional responses can, in turn, influence job performance and interpersonal dynamics in different ways.
    Two main theories form the basis of our understanding of envy: STTUC theory and social comparison theory. STTUC theory largely emphasizes the potential damage envy can cause to interpersonal relationships. It puts a spotlight on the unease and disquiet that feelings of envy can breed, thereby limiting its ability to explain the positive outcomes that can also arise from envy. On the other hand, the social comparison theory stresses that envy is an indication of personal success and consequently focuses on the pleasure and happiness derived from it. However, this approach fails to acknowledge the negative outcomes that can also emerge from feelings of envy.
    These limitations point towards an evident issue: understanding the emotional and behavioral responses to envy from a single perspective does not provide a comprehensive understanding of the implications of being envied.
    To bridge this gap in the current literature, our study begins with a review of existing research on the implications of being envied. We then introduce the dual perspective model of agency and communion, suggesting a more nuanced approach to understanding the experiences of being envied. Under this model, we propose that individuals perceiving themselves as actors of envy can strengthen their agency self-concept, thereby generating a positive self-experience. Conversely, individuals viewing themselves as recipients or observers of envy might experience a decrease in their communion self-concept, which can lead to a negative self-experience.
    Furthermore, our study examines the role of self-regulation strategies in managing envy. For instance, when envy enhances the agency self-concept, individuals may resort to maintenance strategies like self-enhancement or boastful behaviors. On the contrary, when envy diminishes the communion self-concept, individuals might either use a change strategy, engaging in helpful and cooperative behaviors, or adopt avoidance strategies such as turnover.
    Our study also underlines the relative significance of agency and communion for individuals by delineating the boundary conditions of the effects of envy at individual and cultural levels. This includes factors like gender, age, narcissism, sociotropy, and individualistic and collectivistic culture. We argue that those who are envied should cultivate a paradoxical mindset, viewing agency and communion as mutually reinforcing aspects, to manage envy effectively.
    Given these insights, our study then sets forth several potential avenues for future research. Firstly, we propose the investigation of the comprehensive effects of envy, using the dual perspective model primarily through empirical research. This involves testing the agency and communion self-concepts as the mechanisms and further exploring other boundary conditions at interpersonal and organizational levels. Secondly, we encourage further study into the self-experience and self-regulation of envy, including aspects such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, creative process engagement, and advice seeking. Lastly, we recommend an assessment of the practical effectiveness of coping strategies for envy.
    By offering a unified theoretical framework that comprehensively integrates the impacts of envy, our study not only enhances the understanding of the full implications of being envied but also provides invaluable recommendations for future research and interventions. In doing so, it aids organizations in maximizing the positive effects of envy and minimizing its negative impacts. Therefore, our research contributes significantly to the ongoing conversation around envy in organizational settings.
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    The influence of others and self-dressing style on consumer behavior: An interpretation based on regulatory focus theory
    YAN Yan, LIU Wumei, WANG Xuefeng
    2023, 31 (12):  2419-2440.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02419
    Abstract ( 117 )   PDF (794KB) ( 304 )   Peer Review Comments
    Dressing is a material supplement to the body, including primary dressing (such as tops and pants) and extended dressing (such as jewelry and accessories). Compared to extended dressing, primary dressing covers a larger part of the body and has a greater impact on forming impressions on others and initiating self-concept. Within primary dressing, formal attire and casual attire are among the most significant classifications of dressing styles.
    Existing literature has explored the influence of consumers' own formal attire (versus casual attire) on their cognition, emotions, and behavior from the perspectives of observers or wearers. These studies have examined the impact of individuals other than the consumer themselves, such as waiters, salespeople, advertising models, and other customers. While these studies have utilized various theoretical perspectives, such as social comparison theory, signaling theory, and clothing cognition theory, to explain the phenomenon and mechanisms of dressing style influencing consumer behavior, these theories have been introduced based on specific research purposes. As a result, the interpretation of the mechanisms underlying the influence of dressing style on consumer behavior remains fragmented, limiting the explanatory power of existing research conclusions. Specifically, it is difficult to provide a comprehensive theoretical perspective that explains when and how dressing style influences consumer behavior.
    After reviewing existing empirical research on dressing style, we have identified a correlation between this topic and regulatory focus theory. Formal attire (versus casual attire) can lead to either a promotion-focused orientation (versus a prevention-focused orientation), resulting in promotion-focused response strategies (versus prevention-focused response strategies), or a prevention-focused orientation (versus a promotion-focused orientation), resulting in prevention-focused response strategies (versus promotion-focused response strategies) for consumers. The key question is: When does formal attire (versus casual attire) lead consumers to adopt promotion-focused strategies (versus prevention-focused strategies), and when does it lead them to adopt prevention-focused strategies (versus promotion-focused strategies)? What are the underlying mechanisms behind these differential responses? This study aims to answer these questions.
    Therefore, this paper builds a model framework for the influence of dressing style (formal vs. casual) on consumer psychology and behavior based on regulatory focus theory. The main objective is to utilize regulatory focus theory to summarize consumer behavioral responses triggered by dressing style and to provide an integrated explanation of the mechanisms through which dressing style (formal attire vs. casual attire) influences consumer psychology and behavior within a single theoretical framework.
    This study holds significant importance and necessity in the field of consumer behavior research on dressing. Its significance lies in the fact that it establishes a novel and integrative research framework based on regulatory focus theory, advancing existing theoretical research. The necessity can be explained as follows: Building on regulatory focus theory and adopting a dual-process perspective, this study introduces moderating variables to reconcile divergent findings in existing research. Previous studies on the influence of dressing style on individual behavior have mostly emphasized the positive effects of formal attire (versus casual attire) based on outcome valence. However, this study takes a motivational process perspective and highlights the bidirectional influence of formal attire (versus casual attire) on consumer behavior. This contributes to a deeper understanding of how dressing style affects consumer behavior in academia.This study compares the differential impact of others' formal attire (versus casual attire) and one's own formal attire (versus casual attire) on consumer behavior based on regulatory focus theory.
    Specifically, this study found that from the observer's perspective, when others are dressed formally (versus casually), consumers exhibit promotion-focused responses through the motivation dimensions of gain focus, positive emotional experiences, and representation of aspirational goals. Consumers also show prevention-focused responses through the motivation dimensions of threat focus, negative emotional experiences, and cautious behavioral strategies. From the wearer's perspective, when consumers themselves are dressed formally (versus casually), they display promotion-focused responses through the motivation dimensions of ideal self-guidance, representation of aspirational goals, and positive emotional experiences. Consumers also exhibit prevention-focused responses through the motivation dimensions of responsibility self-guidance, moral requirements, and attention to negative outcomes. In these processes, variables such as self-construction, involvement, self-monitoring, and environmental norms play a moderating role by influencing the characteristics and states of regulatory focus.
    Future research should continue to focus on the following topics: The interactive effects of dispositional and situational regulatory focus on consumer responses to dressing. Examining how individual differences in regulatory focus, along with contextual factors, influence consumer reactions to dressing style would provide valuable insights. Applying regulatory focus theory to explain the effects of other types of dressing on consumer behavior. Investigating how different dressing styles beyond formal and casual attire impact consumer behavior through the lens of regulatory focus theory would enhance our understanding of the broader implications of dressing. Identifying the moderating variables that determine whether dressing style leads to promotion-focused or prevention-focused consumer orientations. Exploring the factors that moderate the relationship between dressing style and consumer regulatory focus orientations would contribute to a more nuanced understanding of this dynamic. Exploring additional consequences of dressing style on consumer behavior. Investigating other potential outcomes or downstream effects of dressing style on consumer decision-making, attitudes, and perceptions would provide a comprehensive understanding of the influence of dressing on consumer behavior.By addressing these areas of inquiry, future research can further advance our knowledge of the complex relationship between dressing style and consumer behavior.
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