ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Cultural Value as a Form of Currency
    Xinyue ZHOU;YANG Qing;HE Ling-Nan;CAO Shang-Qing
    2011, 19 (2):  143-158. 
    Abstract ( 1513 )   PDF (288KB) ( 2133 )  
    As a utility scale, money enables people to consensually determine values of material goods. Likewise, as another utility scale, cultural value allows people to consensually determine their own values. Here we propose that cultural value and monetary value overlap in the evolutionary functions, neurological correlates, behaviors, and cognitions of humans. In this review, we suggest that (i) cultural value and currency originate to serve similar evolutionary functions; (ii) behaviors that are consistent with social values (e.g., donation and cooperation) are represented in the same brain regions as monetary gain, while violations of social values (e.g., deception and aggression) are represented in the same brain regions as monetary loss; (iii) compared with prosocial behaviors and monetary gain, people are more sensitive to social transgressions as well as monetary loss (i.e., loss aversion); and (iv) globalization has similar effects on monetary systems as well as on value systems.
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    The Study of Neural Mechanism of Top-down Letter Processing Based on fMRI
    LIU Jian-Gang;TIAN Jie;Kang LEE
    2011, 19 (2):  159-165. 
    Abstract ( 1244 )   PDF (379KB) ( 1780 )  
    People can efficiently recognize an object even under some extremely poor viewing conditions. Such efficient visual processing depends on both bottom-up input and top-down regulations. The present study used a novel illusory detection paradigm to investigate the neural network involved in top-down letter processing. This paradigm required participants to detect letters in pure noise images that actually contained no letters. By using of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis, it revealed that some regions’ responses were influenced by the enhanced connectivity from the right fusiform. These findings suggested that the top-down letter processing network not only contains the regions that process the visual appearance of letters and their phonological information, but also involves neural regions involved in such high-level cognitive processes as memory retrieval and attention.
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    The Emotion Effects in the Spatial and Verbal Working Memory: ERP and fMRI Evidence
    LI Xue-Bing;LUO Yue-Jia
    2011, 19 (2):  166-174. 
    Abstract ( 2005 )   PDF (377KB) ( 2477 )  
    The interaction of emotion and working memory as subtopic of emotion and cognition is of considerable interests both clinically and theoretically. Processing efficiency theory suggests that effects of negative emotion (e.g. anxiety) on cognitive performance may be mediated by effect on working memory. The research about negative emotion and working memory not only contributes to the development of emotion and cognition theory, but also gives supports for clinical therapy of affective disorders. In the current dissertation, event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques are used to examine the relationship between emotion and three subsystems of working memory. From the perspectives of time course processing, spatial localization and functional connectivity between emotional brain and cognitive brain, these series of studies combine the behavior, psychometrics and brain together to explore the underlying mechanism of emotion and working memory interaction.
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    Cross-cultural Study on Infant Word Learning
    ZHU Li-Qi;MENG Xiang-Zhi;Twila TARDIF
    2011, 19 (2):  175-184. 
    Abstract ( 1415 )   PDF (337KB) ( 2783 )  
    Infant word learning is a hot topic in language development. Most research is working with English infants. Currently there are few studies on early language development with Chinese infants. Since Mandarin Chinese is different from English in many aspects, adults’ "input" and non-linguistic cues all influence infant word learning, these may lead to different word learning pattern. This study aims to investigate Chinese and English infant word learning (including word comprehension and production) and adults’ linguistic and non-linguistic input features that may improve infant language development. The study will adopt lab experiment, observation and scale measurement, using new technique (such as habituation and IPLP), to explore word learning and factors that influence its development. The result may reveal the language-specific and general machanism and shed light to children’s word learning.
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    The Research of Employee Voice in Chinese Context: Construct, Formation Mechanism and Effect
    DUAN Jin-Yun
    2011, 19 (2):  185-192. 
    Abstract ( 1486 )   PDF (246KB) ( 3504 )  
    As the development of knowledge management and the spread of ethosos of self-innovation, the study of extra-role behaviors, including voice behavior, attracts much attention increasingly. Compared with the popularity in western academia, the indigeneous empirical study awaits much reinforcement. After review of past studies, based on trait activation theory, social identity theory and homo economicus perspective, this study try to explore the construct, formation mechanism of employee voice behavior and its effect on organizational creativity. The research methods include semi-structure interview, matched-sample- questionnaire field study and lab simulation. The whole study include three substudies, that is, (1) the exploration of construct of emplolyee voice in Chinese context; (2) the research of multi-level dynamic formation mechanisms of employee voice, which includes the trait-activation-based exlporation of personal characteristics on voice, the personal-identity-based exlporation of leadership behavior on voice, and the homo-economicus-perspective-based exlporation of the interaction of personal characteristics and situational factors on voice; and (3) the research of the influence of employee voice on organizational creativity.
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    Comparing the Studies of Laboratory and Naturalistic Conditions on the Aging of Prospective Memory
    CHEN Si-Yi;ZHOU Ren-Lai
    2011, 19 (2):  193-201. 
    Abstract ( 1229 )   PDF (185KB) ( 1441 )  
    The age-prospective memory (PM) paradox in laboratory and naturalistic conditions widely exists. When the tasks were set in naturalistic conditions, there were no age differences in the performance of prospective memory, and in some occasions older adults even performed better, possibly resulted from personality, life styles, task materials and reminders. When the tasks were set in laboratory conditions, the performance of prospective memory tended toward age-related decline, possibly resulted from recollection memory load, the type of cues, and the need of strategy control processing in tasks.The age-prospective memory (PM) paradox may result from the social characteristic of environment and intention or the strategy of allocating the cognitive resources. At last we provide future researches with advices about the control of subjects, task materials, and the exploration of motive causes.
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    Brain Mechanisms of Criminal Psychopaths
    WANG Shao-Kun;YANG-Bo
    2011, 19 (2):  202-208. 
    Abstract ( 1749 )   PDF (198KB) ( 2269 )  
    Psychopathy is a personality disorder with a cluster of interpersonal, affective, behavioral and antisocial traits. Compared with non-psychopath, psychopaths are more likely to violate social rules and laws. They display crueler and extreme aggression models, with earlier onset age of crime, more extensive and diverse criminal activities, and higher recidivism rates. Recent event-related potential (ERP) researches of criminal psychopaths indicated deficits in attentional orientation, semantic and affective processing, and later stage of mistake processing. MRI and fMRI studies showed that the abnormal brain structure and frontolimbic circuit activities are relevant to psychopaths.
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    An In-Group Advantage in Recognizing Emotion
    ZHANG Qiu-Ying;CHEN Jian-Wen;YU Quan-Lei;XIN Peng
    2011, 19 (2):  209-216. 
    Abstract ( 1495 )   PDF (153KB) ( 1927 )  
    Going beyond the debate of universals and cultural differences in recognizing emotion, it is unanimously agreed that the emotion recognition has incorporated both universals and cultural differences. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is an in-group advantage in recognizing emotion, meaning that people are more accurate when emotions are both expressed and recognized by members of the same culture. The dialect theory provides the theoretical support for in-group advantage. The in-group advantage has a methodologically controversy. The future studies will need to pay closer attention to methodological sound of emotion stimulus, and further explore the differences in the dimension of individual personality or emotion of the in-group advantage and some other perceiving cues of this effect.
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    An Overview of Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
    AO Ling-Min;LV Hou-Chao;HUANG Xi-Ting
    2011, 19 (2):  217-223. 
    Abstract ( 1914 )   PDF (150KB) ( 5499 )  
    Individual’s perception for future time is inevitably linked to the social motivation, pursuit of social goals, emotion regulation, and cognitive processing. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, the perceived time left to live is a composition of individual’s motivation which determines the priorities of social goals. When future time is perceived as limited, emotion regulationgoals assume primacy. In contrast, when future time is perceived as open-ended, knowledge-aquicition goals are prioritized. This paper provides a general instroduction and basic presumptions of the theory and reviews related empirical evidence. The paper also identifies several areas for future research development.
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    Emotional Reactions to Historical Injustice Events: Collective Guilt
    SHI Wei;YAN Xian-Yang;LIU Jie
    2011, 19 (2):  224-232. 
    Abstract ( 1306 )   PDF (126KB) ( 2048 )  
    Collective guilt can be conceptualized as guilt that is experienced as a consequence of belonging to a group which has done wrongdoing to the other groups, even though the personal self was clearly uninvolved in the harmful actions. It is a self-focus emotion. Some cognitive factors will affect the group-based guilt, such as in-group responsibility, legitimacy appraisal, perceived difficulty of making restitutions, the personal value priorities and national identity will produce the individual difference in collective guilt. Group-based guilt can facilitate apologies and restitutions to the victimized group. There are ample opportunities to develop whether people can experience collective guilt for present-day behavior that harms in-group members in the future, and the other emotions will integrate with collective guilt in intergroup reconciliation.
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    Reputation Mechanisms in Indirect Reciprocity: Image, Standing, Tag and Its Transmission
    LIU Guo-Fang;XIN Zi-Qiang
    2011, 19 (2):  233-242. 
    Abstract ( 1489 )   PDF (179KB) ( 2374 )  
    Alexander (1986) first proposed the concept of indirect reciprocity, then in a book named The Biology of Moral Systems (1987), applied it to the explanation of the origins of human morality and large-scale cooperative behaviors. Since then, indirect reciprocity has obtained much academic attention. In the last decades, based on the view of Evolutionary Game Theory, researchers have carried out many studies to investigate the reputation mechanisms (such as image score, standing and tag etc) resulting in the universal existence of indirect reciprocity. However, most researches of reputation mechanisms were based on an assumption that one’s actions can be fully perceived by the others, and the results analysis in the researches were conducted merely on individual level. Future studies should pay more attention to reputation transmission on group level when information is not sufficient, and probe into the psychological mechanisms (e.g. fairness, trust) underlying indirect reciprocity and improve the ecological validity of indirect reciprocity research.
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    Review on Intervention Strategy Studies about Stereotype
    PANG Xiao-Jia;ZHANG Da-Jun;WANG Xin-Qiang;WANG Jin-Liang
    2011, 19 (2):  243-250. 
    Abstract ( 2009 )   PDF (156KB) ( 3489 )  
    Stereotype is the main cause of prejudice, and the way of decreasing or eliminating stereotype has been studied for years. Regarding to the controllability of stereotype, conventional view holds that “automatic process is fixed and inevitable”. On the other hand, modified point argues that “automatic process is being conditional”, and which has been changed from “fixed and inevitable” to “being conditional”. So far, some effective intervention strategies for eliminating stereotype have been demonstrated through numbers of empirical studies, which mainly include training, consciousness inhibition, familiarity and holding unprejudiced belief. Theory of controllability of stereotype is also empirically supported by existing intervention studies. However, current studies still have some limitations concerning its applicability, effectiveness and work mechanism, which should be improved in further research.
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    A Commentary of the Research on Collective Efficacy in Public Sphere
    ZHENG Yu;WANG Er-Ping
    2011, 19 (2):  251-263. 
    Abstract ( 1514 )   PDF (236KB) ( 1258 )  
    Collective efficacy in public sphere is defined as a sense of collective belief and anticipation through shared mutual trust and social cohesion among residents when coordinating and integrating their resources in concentrated endeavors to specific situational goals. There are a lot of peculiar methods of measurement and consequences of collective efficacy in public sphere. The antecedent variables of collective efficacy include social identification, socioeconomic status and social participation. The consequences and impacts of collective efficacy can be divided into three fields: public safety, political behavior and public health. At last, the paper pointed out four prospects for the future research.
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    Combination of Eye Movement and ERP Methods in Language Cognition: Theory, Method, and Application
    CHEN Qing-Rong1; WANG Meng-Juan1; LIU Hui-Ning2; TAN Ding-Liang1; DENG Zhu1; XU Xiao-Dong3, 4
    2011, 19 (2):  264-273. 
    Abstract ( 1554 )   PDF (418KB) ( 2961 )  
    Both eye movements (EM) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have excellent temporal resolution and are therefore ideal for capturing the millisecond-by-millisecond time course of language comprehension or production processes. Given that either of these two measures has its advantages as well as limitations over the other, it will be a promising way to study language cognition by using simultaneous ERPs and EM techniques. On basis of literature reviews in this filed, this paper made a comparison between these two methods and pointed out the necessities of using these two techniques simultaneously in language cognition, such as word recognition, parafoveal-on-foveal effects and syntactic agreement processing. Additionally, the authors introduced three ways of combing EM with ERPs: EM separately combined with ERPs, EM combined with EOG analysis and EM simultaneously combined with ERPs. Following these, the authors gave an introduction based on previous investigations on how to combine EM and ERPs in language cognition. Finally, the authors raised some questions and limitations about combination EM with ERPs, which should be paid more attention in future studies.
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    Meta-analysis of Factor Analyses and Its Applications
    School of Education and Physical Education; Institute of Educational Psychology of Research Center for Curriculum and Teaching, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013, China
    2011, 19 (2):  274-283. 
    Abstract ( 1617 )   PDF (318KB) ( 2639 )  

    Meta Analysis of Factor Analyses (MAFA) is defined as utilizing meta-analysis techniques to synthesize numerous primary studies with factor analysis paradigms. Although MAFA is a key stage in the process of producing and updating knowledge, it is not well known to the community of researchers. The five main MAFA techniques were summarized, including their basic premises, conditions for application, advantages and disadvantages. Typical examples corresponding to 1) pair-wise rotation of results to congruence (KHB), 2) multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA), 3) factor analysis based on aggregate correlation matrix (ACMFA), 4) confirmatory factor analysis based on pooled correlation matrix (PCMCFA), and 5) exploratory factor analysis based on co-occurrence matrix of salient factor loadings (COEFA) are also presented The MAFA process can be divided into seven stages of which three, i.e., data extraction, data transformation, and data analysis, differ from other types of meta-analyses. Finally, several potential issues concerning the method itself and its application were also discussed.

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    Analysis of Contextual Effects on Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling: Compared with Multilevel Modeling
    FANG Jie;CHIOU Hawjeng;ZHANG Min-Qiang
    2011, 19 (2):  284-292. 
    Abstract ( 2053 )   PDF (337KB) ( 4263 )  
    The advantage of multilevel modeling (MLM) is to examine the data with nested structure which is frequently collected in the social and educational research. The effect of level-1 independent variable Xij on Yij would be decomposed into within-group and between-group effects by group mean centering with the means reintroduced into the level-2 intercept model, whose difference was called contextual effect and the reintroduced mean score of independent variable .j was called contextual variable. In order to estimate the complex structure of sampling error and measurement error occurring in multilevel modeling, multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) treats the contextual variable as latent with multiple indicators. The superiority of MSEM is the integration of MLM and SEM to simultaneously analyze nested data structure and estimate latent variable. By taken as an example, the contextual effects of Competitive atmosphere of the class on Competitive behavior of individual students was introduced for illustrating how the analysis of contextual effects was achieved by MSEM. The future research direction of contextual effects, unbiased estimation of the effect and contextual variable is discussed at the end of the paper.
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    Formative Model: A New Perspective of Structural Equation Model
    WANG Xiao-Li;LI Xi-Ying;SHAO Jing-Jin
    2011, 19 (2):  293-300. 
    Abstract ( 1979 )   PDF (292KB) ( 5446 )  

    Formative Model (FM) refers to the measurement model in which the variation of latent variable is caused by the index variation, while Reflective Model (RM) refers to the measurement model in which the index variation is caused by the variation of latent variable. There are distinctions between FM and RM in definition, identification, estimation, the evaluation of reliability and validity and application. Wrong model definition may cause the deviation of parameters estimation, so as to lower the efficiency of statistical result. Therefore prudent consideration should be taken to the relationship between index and latent variable in order to choose the appropriate measurement model. At last, the future research should focus on the clarification of the differences between FM and RM, the effect of misuse, the improvement of the identification and estimation, the reliability and validity evaluation, the explanation of the meaning of variables and the theoretical interpretation and model estimaton of high-level FM.

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