ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Special Column for Psychology of Music
     Influential factors in musical syntactic processing
    ZHANG Jingjing, YANG Yufang
    2017, 25 (11):  1823-1830.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01823
    Abstract ( 1313 )   PDF (371KB) ( 1492 )  
     Musical syntax refers to a set of regularities which organize discrete elements into musical sequence. Musical syntactic processing is affected by both music structures and listeners’ personal characteristics. The current article focuses on several factors which have been discussed extensively in these years, including dependency distance, musical temporal structure, listeners’ age and musical expertise. Future research should explore musical syntactic integration within different distances, clarify when and how syntactic processing is influenced by musical temporal structure, examine the effects of heredity and environment on musical syntactic processing, and investigate how these factors are combined to influence musical syntactic processing.
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     Current situations and challenges of evolutionary musicology
    WANG Tianyan, FENG Shengzhong
    2017, 25 (11):  1831-1843.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01831
    Abstract ( 786 )   PDF (488KB) ( 1446 )  
      The origin of musicality has puzzled scientists and still puzzles. Since Darwin proposed that music must be a biological adaptation, more and more researchers come to study musicality from a biological perspective. This leads to the rise of an interdiscipline named biomusicology. Evolutionary musicology, as a branch of biomusicology, focuses on the genetic basis, cross-species characterisation and evolutionary significance of musicality. Although experiencing dramatic development over the last decades, most aspects of this field remain largely unknown. Here we propose a conceptual framework for addressing the origin of musicality. Firstly, musicality is to be deconstructed into minimal functional units. Then animal models are to be used to investigate the genetic bases. Finally the evolutionary route is to be reconstructed by systematically combining all the units.
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     The facilitation effect of music learning on speech processing
    NAN Yun
    2017, 25 (11):  1844-1853.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01844
    Abstract ( 986 )   PDF (358KB) ( 2166 )  
     Music learning can develop individuals’ artistic cultivation. Moreover, music learning has facilitation effect on speech processing. In recent years, researchers around the world have carried out related cross-sectional studies using musicians and individuals with music learning disabilities. Some longitudinal studies examining the impact of music learning have also appeared. It is notable that most of the evidence supporting the positive impact of music learning on speech processing mainly comes from cross-sectional studies. More longitudinal studies which could identify causal relationships between music learning and speech processing are still necessary. This line of work will help music learning to be more widely considered in educational and clinical settings.
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     The effect of musical training on executive functions
    CHEN Jie, LIU Lei, WANG Rong, SHEN Haizhou
    2017, 25 (11):  1854-1864.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01854
    Abstract ( 2025 )   PDF (389KB) ( 3598 )  
     Musical training has an impact on a wide range of cognitive activities, but its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Recently, researchers have claimed that the broad impact of musical training may be mediated by executive functions (EFs). In this study, we divide EFs into three core components: inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility, and elaborate the influence of musical training on these three components as well as the mediation role of EFs on transfer effects of musical training. The results showed that musical training has a different effect on different core components of EFs. Moreover, changes in the structure and function of prefrontal lobe play a significant role in the effect of musical training on EFs. In addition, there are still inconsistent results regarding the mediating effects of executive functions on the transfer effect of musical training. Future researches should focus on this issue by multiple technologies.
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     The cognitive and neural mechanisms of absolute pitch
    HOU Jiancheng, SONG Bei, ZHOU Jiaxian, SUN Changan, ZHU Haidong
    2017, 25 (11):  1865-1876.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01865
    Abstract ( 912 )   PDF (439KB) ( 1258 )  
     Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability to process music pitch; it also has the special cognitive and neural basis. The studies by event-related potentials showed that AP musicians use less working memory but with multiple cognitive strategies during AP processing. Functional neuroimaging studies showed that the left posterior dorsolateral frontal cortex and the left planum temporale are very important to AP musicians, but the involvements in some right cerebral regions indicate the increased load and difficulty during pitch processing in quasi-AP musicians. Structural neuroimaging studies showed the special morphometry of the left planum temporale as well as the white matter structure in AP musicians. Future research needs to further divide AP ability into “with relative pitch ability” and “without relative pitch ability” together with their cognitive and neural basis, and investigate the effect of gene polymorphism on AP ability through imaging genomics, and also necessarily examine the neural basis of pitch processing in the musicians with native tonal language.
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     Neural plasticity to musical performance training: A meta-analysis study
    ZHOU Linshu, ZHAO Huaiyang, JIANG Cunmei
    2017, 25 (11):  1877-1887.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01877
    Abstract ( 1430 )   PDF (652KB) ( 2306 )  
     Musical performance is one of the most complex and sophisticated skills in humans. The present study used the activation likelihood estimation, a coordinate-based quantitative meta-analysis approach, to investigate the neural plasticity induced by the training of musical performance. The results showed that brain differences between musical performers and nonmusicians existed in the regions of left cerebellar, bilateral precentral gyri, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and right insula. These brain regions are related to auditory processing, motor processing, and multimodal integration. Future study would distinguish the neural adaptation induced by different kinds of musical performance training to explore completely relationship between musical performance and brain plasticity.
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    Conceptual Framework
     The influencing mechanism of reward on executive function in heroin addicts
    YANG Ling, WANG Sha, SU Bobo, LI Shaomei, CAO Hua
    2017, 25 (11):  1888-1897.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01888
    Abstract ( 1381 )   PDF (393KB) ( 1814 )  
     Research has identified several features of heroin-related reward dysfunction, including the enhanced attentional bias for heroin-related cues, increased drug craving, preference for immediate over delayed rewards of larger value and decreased sensitivity to delayed consequences. It has also been found that heroin addicts exhibit executive dysfunction. Reward dysregulation and executive function deficits have been hypothesized to play an important role in the maintenance of drug taking and abstinence. Dual- competition model proposes that reward regulation and executive function interact with each other and directly affect goal-direct actions. However, it is not clear yet how reward influences executive function. This study aims to investigate the effect of heroin-related cues and monetary reward on executive function in heroin addicts after different periods of abstinence. The event related potentials of the heroin addicts following short-term (1~3 months) abstinence and those with long-term (above 18 months) abstinence will be compared with the healthy controls. The results will not only contribute to the development of the addiction theories, but also help to identify the risk factors and the proper objectives in different abstinent periods.
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     Peer selection and peer influence: A meta-analysis on social network based research on adolescent delinquency
    DENG Xiaoping, XU Chen, CHENG Maowei, ZHANG Xiangkui
    2017, 25 (11):  1898-1909.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01898
    Abstract ( 2128 )   PDF (394KB) ( 2547 )  
     Accumulating studies have examined the impact of peer selection and peer influence on adolescent delinquency via longitudinal social network analyses. This meta-analysis aims to synthesize the existing findings. A total of 22 papers that have used longitudinal social network analysis were identified, involving 30 independent samples (N = 27746). The results show that (1) the impacts of both peer selection and peer influence were significant but peer influence exerted stronger impacts; (2) peer selection exerted stronger influences during early stage than during the middle and late stages, whereas peer influence exerted stronger impacts during middle and late stages than during early stage (3) delinquent behavior type did not make a difference. (4) larger number of networks was associated with stronger influence of peer selection and peer influence.
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    Regular Articles
     Occurrence, manifestation and the cause of externalizing problem behaviors in infancy
    XU Shaoyue, WANG Zhengyan
    2017, 25 (11):  1910-1921.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01910
    Abstract ( 3167 )   PDF (514KB) ( 1898 )  
     Externalizing problem behaviors (EPB) refer to child’s negative outward reactions to the external environment. Previous research suggests that the onset of showing EPB starts from eight-month-old infant. EPB, including displaying anger/tantrum, noncompliance/defiance, aggression, destructive behaviors, hyperactivity and inattentive behaviors, may be explained by early life experiences and gene-environmental interactions. Moreover, using the perspective of differential susceptibility theory, the intervention for EPB can be tailored to infants with specific temperamental characteristics and vulnerable genes. The present literature review also proposed future directions to improve the limitations in the research field.
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     Hot topics on the research in empathy from the perspective of neuroscience
    JIE Jing, ZHUANG Mengdi, LUO Pinchao, ZHENG Xifu
    2017, 25 (11):  1922-1931.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01922
    Abstract ( 2265 )   PDF (399KB) ( 2950 )  
     Empathy refers to the ability to share and understand other people’s emotions and thoughts. Recently, the neural mechanisms underlying empathy have been attracting more and more attention in neuroscience research. However, most existing studies focus on affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and empathy for physical pain, leaving empathy for social experiences, positive empathy and counter-empathic responses relatively understudied. Moreover, because of differences in research paradigms and individual approaches, the results of these studies are controversial. Future research should focus on designing more ecologically valid research paradigms; further deepening and refining the study of the neural mechanisms of empathy; exploring the characteristics of people with different empathic abilities including underlying neural mechanisms; and exploring factors that moderate empathic responses.
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     Episodic and background craving: Distinguishing pathway of caving effect on nicotine addition
    TONG Wei, CHEN Taolin, HUANG Xiaoqi, GONG Qiyong, FANG Xiaoyi
    2017, 25 (11):  1932-1941.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01932
    Abstract ( 1522 )   PDF (490KB) ( 1479 )  
     A major of studies have found that craving plays critical role in nicotine dependence. Cue- exposure is the main paradigm to explore the relationships between nicotine and cravings. Some researchers, however, proposed that this paradigm could not distinguish the episodic and background craving. Consequently, the exact mechanism of craving has not been illustrated clearly. By review of previous studies about craving, we proposed that there exist both similarities and differences between the episodic and background cravings in neural mechanism. More researches should focus on how to separate and identify these two kinds of craving.
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     Anthropomorphism: Antecedents and consequences
    XU Liying, YU Feng, WU Jiahua, HAN Tingting, ZHAO Liang
    2017, 25 (11):  1942-1954.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01942
    Abstract ( 3591 )   PDF (466KB) ( 4531 )  
     Anthropomorphism refers to the psychological process or individual difference of imbuing nonhuman agents with humanlike characteristics, motivations, intentions, or mental states. Elicited agent knowledge, effectance motivation, and sociality motivation have been found as the three key determinants of anthropomorphism. Existing research mainly focused on anthropomorphism of nature, super-nature, animals, machines, brands, and products. Previous research found that, anthropomorphizing nature contributed to pro-environment behavior, while anthropomorphism of animals, machines, brands or products had diversified forms and ambiguous consequences. Future research might be mainly conducted in human-robot interaction area, as well as the relationship between anthropomorphism and cuteness.
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     The interactions between multiple social subcategories in facial recognition
    ZHANG Kaili, ZHANG Qin, ZHOU Jing, WANG Pei
    2017, 25 (11):  1955-1963.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01955
    Abstract ( 1134 )   PDF (348KB) ( 1330 )  
     The perceivers categorize unfamiliar individuals based on gender, race and other social categories, in order to recognize and interact with others. Based on facial perception, a large number of studies have found that there are different interactions between different social subcategories. Using Who Said What Paradigm, Repetition Priming Paradigm, Garner Selective Attention Paradigm, Mouse-tracking Paradigm and other methods, researchers concluded that implicit processing of multiple subcategories is weakened by each other; and the interaction between explicit multiple categorization is asymmetrically or biased. The Theory of Dynamic Interaction and some other theories try to explain the causes of each interaction. Further work should differentiate the process stages of social subcategories scientifically and highlight the relationship and difference between implicit and explicit categorization. Meanwhile, it is necessary to integrate relative research paradigms to overcome the heterogeneity and contradictory resulting from method deviation in the future.
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     Every injustice has its perpetrator? Inter-group vicarious retribution
    AI Juan
    2017, 25 (11):  1964-1971.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01964
    Abstract ( 788 )   PDF (409KB) ( 1417 )  
     Inter-group vicarious retribution is the phenomenon whereby, after an out-group member attacks an in-group member, a member of the victim's group retaliates against a member of the perpetrator's group. Group-based vicarious retribution has largely gone beyond the original offenders and victims, and involves a wider range of other people in the group. Vicarious retribution is a complex psychological process, and its occurrence and extent are influenced by many fators. Perceived injury, in-group identification, out-group entitativity, group emotions and in-group audience effect are predictors of vicarious retribution. After the implementation of vicarious retaliation, the in-group members often has “positive” cognitive assessment and emotional experience. In the future, we need to integrate the psychological mechanisms of vicarious retribution, explore whether the different cultural values and religions idea can affect the possibility of vicarious retribution occurring, and the most important work is putting forward proposals to reduce vicarious retribution in society.
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     Antecedents and consequences of organizational member status
    WEI Xuhua, SHAO Jianping, WANG Aochen, JIANG Nan
    2017, 25 (11):  1972-1981.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01972
    Abstract ( 1749 )   PDF (378KB) ( 1801 )  
     The status of an organizational member usually refers to the extent to which the individual is respected or admired by other members of the organization. It is a psychological construct that has attracted much attention in recent years. Although the status of an organizational member is related to the concepts of power, class, mianzi and organization-based self-esteem, there are clear conceptual differences among these constructs. The status of an organizational member is mainly affected by external personal factors (physical and demographic characteristics), intrinsic psychological factors (personality, cognition, emotion and behavior) and neurophysiological factors (testosterone and cortisol). Status also has significant impact on organizational members’ cognition, emotion, behavior and performance. Future research should further distinguish between the unique dimensions of organizational members’ status, explore the biological basis and cultural differences of organizational members’ status, pay attention to the dynamic evolution of organizational members’ status and its consequences, and examine the effects of team and organizational members' status distribution.
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     Power Basis Theory: A kind of power corresponding to survival needs
    SUN Hongri, PRATTO Felicia
    2017, 25 (11):  1982-1991.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01982
    Abstract ( 2049 )   PDF (437KB) ( 2055 )  
     Power is the core of social relationships and social actions, and it also corresponds to survival needs and associates with one’s quality of life. Using a psycho–ecological approach, Power Basis Theory defines power as the ability to meet one’s basic survival needs given one’s own capabilities in the context of environmental and affordances. In this unique contribution, Power Basis Theory further identifies six types of power, each of which meets a distinct survival need. The actions and social transations people use to try to meet their needs create social and ecological changes for those in one’s social field. These dynamics may produce greater inequality through power transaction which is fungible rather than exchangeable. Thus, the framework addresses where each type of power comes from pertaining to interpersonal and intergroup levels, and provides processes by which power connects to social inequality. Power Basis Theory provides a new approach for research on the social psychology of power.
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     Decision making: Based on the perspective of psychological distance
    JIANG Duo, HE Guibing
    2017, 25 (11):  1992-2001.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01992
    Abstract ( 2989 )   PDF (468KB) ( 4323 )  
     Decision making means the evaluating and choosing among alternatives which contains some outcomes. No matter what the results of the decision making refer to money, health, environment or others, all these outcomes may embrace multiple attributes, such as the probability, time and places of the occurrence. And these attributes, as well as the amount of outcome affect individuals’ evaluation of outcome utility and their choices. Previous researches have proposed some models of evaluation, which associate the amount of outcome with its attributes respectively. However, theory of psychological distance has proposed that the probabilistic, temporal, spacial and social distance all can be represented by psychological distance. It indicates that the intertemporal choice, risky decision making and the other kinds of decision making may be unified by the perspective of psychological distance. Recently, a series of researches have been conducted to analyze the homogeneity of these four dimensions of psychological distance. Moreover, the researchers explored the phenomena and rules of discounting based on psychological distance. They also examined the effect of the time, probability, spacial and social distance on individuals’ decision making. For the future research, more attention should be paid to the multi-attribute decision making. And more studies should focus on the common currency of four kinds of psychological distance and the way of integrating different psychological distance. At last, it is expected to construct a general model of decision making based on psychological distance.
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     Models and influential factors of aeronautical decision making
    WANG Ziyu, YOU Xuqun
    2017, 25 (11):  2002-2010.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.02002
    Abstract ( 1684 )   PDF (494KB) ( 1960 )  
      Aeronautical decision making is a systematic approach, that pilots use to perceive and process all information regarding a flying situation and to select alternatives based on desired outcomes to determine the best course of action. Situation assessment and risk assessment are important components in aeronautical decision making models. The influential factors to an aeronautical decision include cognitive factors, fatigue, motivational factors, and the lack of expertise. Besides these factors, organization pressure and social factors influence aeronautical decision in an indirect way. In the future, researchers need to establish a more reasonable model, which could be applied more widely. Expertise and knowledge play an important role in decision making. Therefore, it needs to discuss from a more dialectical perspective. In the end, researchers should pay more attention on motivational and environmental factors with investigative and experimental methods.
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