ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Virtual Social Psychology: Exploration and Implication
    PENG Kai-Ping;LIU Yu;CAO Chun-Mei;ZHANG Wei
    2011, 19 (7):  933-943. 
    Abstract ( 1713 )   PDF (176KB) ( 3346 )  
    As an intergraded part of our daily lives virtual world has affected individual human thoughts, feelings and behavior in different degrees. How much social psychology could be benefited from these changes is an important question for social psychologists. This article summarizes the recent developments in the field of virtual social psychology, and identifies three questions that are promising for social psychological research, particular for cross-cultural comparisons. First, how is online self-presentation different than that in face-to-face communication, and how online users perceive other users’ offline identity? Second, how much social psychological phenomena about online interpersonal relationships such as the online romantic relationships, online friendship, cyber bullying, and social presence in Virtual Places, different from the off-line social psychology. Third, how much group performance and group creativity can be benefited from the new digital technologies. Implications for social psychology are discussed.
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    Animal Model and Neural Mechanisms of Top-Down Modulation of Auditory Sensorimotor Gating
    DU Yi;LI Liang
    2011, 19 (7):  944-958. 
    Abstract ( 1137 )   PDF (534KB) ( 1037 )  

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI), which reflects the important mechanisms inhibiting interference and protecting information processing, is widely recognized as a model for studying both sensorimotor gating and schizophrenia. PPI can be top-down modulated by higher-order cognitive processes, such as attention and emotion. This dissertation focuses on the hierarchically organized top-down modulation of PPI by fear conditioning and perceptual spatial separation (selective spatial attention). Systematic and cross-level researches on rat behavioral model, neural pathways, and neurophysiological mechanisms were conducted, and the neuro-developmental model of schizophrenia was also applied which demonstrates that isolation rearing in rats can disrupt the attentional modulation of PPI. The findings from this research will not only promote the understanding of the brain mechanisms in information processing under complex environment, the animal model based on deficient attention-on-gating modulation function will also advance the psychological and neurobiological research on schizophrenia.

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    Exploring the Nature of Intertemporal Choice
    LIANG Zhu-Yuan;LIU Huan
    2011, 19 (7):  959-966. 
    Abstract ( 1405 )   PDF (206KB) ( 3184 )  
    Intertemporal choice refers to decisions involving tradeoffs among costs and benefits occurring at different times. A great amount of researches have proved that, in intertemporal choice, people generally discount the later or future values, which is called time discounting, and then make tradeoffs between these vales and sooner values. Researches on this area are closely related to not only the basic scientific questions of the origins and mechanism of human mind, but also the formulation of national public policy. Utilizing methods of experimental research and large-sample survey, this proposal will explore the nature of intertemporal choice. First, using experimental researches, we will probe into the significant factors of intertempral choice. The results will (1) highlight the interactions between the valence, magnitude and delay time of intertemporal choice; (2) test whether the domain-specific effect do exist in intertemporal choice, and then explore their psychological mechanisms. Second, we will establish national norms of discounting rates for Chinese urban residents and measure the rates of different classes and types of China urban residents by a nationwide survey. These results will further our understanding of intertemporal choice.
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    The Cognitive Mechanism of Subitizing: From Attention to Working Memory
    WANG Yi-Feng;WANG Rong-Yan;LI Hong
    2011, 19 (7):  967-975. 
    Abstract ( 1804 )   PDF (252KB) ( 1870 )  
    Subitizing, the fast and accurate perception of up to about 3 or 4 objects, reflects a basic capacity of numerical representation of organism. It used to be considered as a parallel preattentive process. Recently, some studies found that subitizing, like counting, required attention resources. However, the attention resource hypothesis could not powerfully explain the discontinuity between subitizing and counting. To disentangle the confusion, this review summarized recent studies on visuo-spatial working memory, and put forward a new perspective of the cognitive mechanism of subitizing based on the similarity between subitizing and visuo-spatial working memory. We argued that visuo-spatial working memory capacity limited the number of objects we could accurately perceive at a time, while attention determined what information would enter into visuo-spatial working memory.
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    Processing of Audiovisual Integration and Its Neural Mechanism
    WEN Xiao-Hui;LI Guo-Qiang;LIU Qiang
    2011, 19 (7):  976-982. 
    Abstract ( 1214 )   PDF (230KB) ( 2474 )  
    Incoming signals from different sensory modalities are initially processed in anatomically separate regions in human brain, and then be integrated in multimodal association cortices. From human imaging studies about audiovisual integration in speech perception it is clear that auditory and visual inputs can influence each other and be integrated primarily in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Increasingly, this integrative effect should be constrainted by space and time. Further trends will benefit from establishing the most suitable experimental paradigms and analytic methods for multisensory integration involved in more complex domain.
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    Do Speech-associated Gesture and Speech Share the Same Communication System?
    MA Li-Jun;ZHANG Ji-Jia
    2011, 19 (7):  983-992. 
    Abstract ( 1093 )   PDF (175KB) ( 1924 )  
    Speech-associated gesture, extensively found in human communication, was classified into representational gesture and non-representational gesture according to its generation and adaptation. Most studies proved that language and gesture are close relatives, sharing “Family Resemblance”. The opinion was also supported by evidences from language development, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuroscience, saying gesture and language coexist in the same communication system: gesture can be interfered by language and results in amplifying Formant 2 (F2) when it resembles the same meaning with language. Gesture and language can mutually affect on account of sharing semantic homogeneity, which is carried out by mirror image system. Thus, relationship between speech-associated gesture and language provide the possibility to do further research on the nature and development of human mind.
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    Emotional Complexity: A New Perspective on the Functions of Emotion
    GUO Ting-Ting;CUI Li-Xia;WANG Yan
    2011, 19 (7):  993-1002. 
    Abstract ( 1957 )   PDF (289KB) ( 4666 )  
    Emotional complexity refers to the individuals’ emotional experiences that are well differentiated, broad in range and of full depth. Emotional complexity can be examined by measuring emotional awareness and mixed emotions. Emotional complexity is affected by individuals’ distribution of attention, social cognitive skills, certain personality traits and the context factors. Some evidence from cross-cultural and developmental researches also indicates that emotional complexity differs in age and cultures. Maintaining emotional complexity can have positive effects on individuals’ cognitive functions as well as physical and mental health, such as improving individuals’ environment adaptability and better recovery from stress situations. Mindfulness training and emotion-focused therapy are introduced as two effective interventions to improve individuals’ emotional complexity.
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    Infants’ Intuitive Physical Knowledge of Support
    DU Yu;HU Qing-Fen
    2011, 19 (7):  1003-1010. 
    Abstract ( 1003 )   PDF (232KB) ( 1575 )  
    Young infants’ intuitive knowledge about physical support relations between objects enables them to infer whether and when an object resting on a solid platform will remain stable, and constitutes an important part of their naïve physics. Previous experiments have adopted two primary methods, and have focused on how intuitive physical knowledge related to support relations develops, exploring the thesis that various common sense knowledge of physical objects develops around an initial set of core concepts. However more research work is needed since paradigms in the area are unitary and researches fail to provide support or validation to each other.
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    The Development and Prospects of Research on Adolescents’ Romantic Relationship
    LIU Wen;MAO Jing-Jing
    2011, 19 (7):  1011-1019. 
    Abstract ( 1733 )   PDF (168KB) ( 2939 )  
    Romantic relationship is formed through the communication between couples, including intimacy, passion and commitment. The present study reviewed the conception, romantic attachment style, behavioral system and development of adolescents’ romantic relationships. Adolescents’ romantic relationships were mainly influenced by family, peer, conflict management and culture. Current approaches of investigation on romantic relationship include self-report, interview, observation, narrative and experiment. More attention should be paid to the mechanism of romantic relationship, its relation with mentally health and the localization and cross-cultural research in the future.
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    The Theoretical Background, Empirical Study and Future Development of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
    ZENG Xiang-Long;LIU Xiang-Ping;YU Shi
    2011, 19 (7):  1020-1026. 
    Abstract ( 1419 )   PDF (156KB) ( 5189 )  
    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was brought forward by Steven C. Hayes in the 1990s. As one of the “third wave” of behavior therapies based on mindfulness skill, ACT takes functional contextualism as its underlying philosophy, and engages in empirical research on cognition and language to enhance the mental flexibility of clients through striking a balance between change-oriented strategy and acceptance-oriented strategy. Clinical studies have demonstrated ACT’s effectiveness in a wide range of clinical problems, and its superiority in contrast to traditional therapies including CBT. Further studies of ACT could be done on its clinical efficacy and technical details, as well as the combination with CBT and the non-clinical uses.
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    General Review on Career Resilience
    LI Xia;XIE Jin-Yu;ZHANG Ling
    2011, 19 (7):  1027-1036. 
    Abstract ( 1453 )   PDF (258KB) ( 2445 )  
    The concept of career resilience, which is a quite new term in the field of career development, is generally defined as the ability to adapt to changing work environment, or to bounce back from one’s career adversities. There are various definitions of career resilience, which were classified into three types, i.e., quality (or trait), outcome, process in this paper. Four prevalent models of career resilience, i.e., the Model of London, the Model of Collard, the Model of Pulley, the Model of Conner, were introduced. The antecedent factors of career resilience include demographic variables, personal characteristic variables and work environment variables. For future research, more attention should be paid to career resilience’ structure and measurement, and experimental and longitudinal researches should be adopted to explore career resilience’s causes and effects.
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    Leader-Member Exchange Differentiation: A Review and Agenda for Future Research
    WANG Zhen;ZHONG Li-Feng
    2011, 19 (7):  1037-1046. 
    Abstract ( 1230 )   PDF (251KB) ( 3584 )  
    Leader-member exchange differentiation was defined as the degree to which members have different exchange relationship with their leader when compared to other members of the same work group. Despite its core element in leader-member exchange theory, compared with leader-member exchange quality, this topic has only received scant attention in prior literature. Recent studies have illustrated its great salience to individual and group process and outcome. Based on existing theoretical and empirical studies, this article reviewed LMX differentiation research in an effort to assess the current state of the literature. We investigated the research history, conceptualization and measurement of LMX differentiation and summarized the findings related to its antecedents and consequences as well as the various theoretical basis used in prior studies. We concluded with an agenda for future research on this area.
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    Political Candidates’ Appearances-based Trait Inferences and Voting Decisions
    YANG Zhao-Ning;HOU Shu-Wei
    2011, 19 (7):  1047-1053. 
    Abstract ( 1303 )   PDF (148KB) ( 1586 )  
    In political election context voters seem to make the competence trait inference and warmth trait inference from the candidates’ faces, which indicates that candidates’ faces affect voting behavior of voters. The appearance-based trait inferences, facial attractiveness, facial maturity, facial expression and facial familiarity play important roles in predicting electoral outcomes. Recently, research of behavior study on predicting the outcomes from candidates’ appearances has been expanded to study the neural mechanisms. For example, scanned by fMRI, activations were observed in the amygdala, insula and ventral anterior cingulate, when the subjects were making negative trait judgments and voting behavior. Whereas the subjects watching the winning candidates showed no differential brain activations. To find out the reason of the candidates’ face effect, researchers have explained it from cognitive and evolutional adapting view. Finally because there existed defect in experiment materials and contents of the previous researches, this also indicates the direction of future research.
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    Review and Prospect on the Research of Self-serving Bias
    GUO Jing;LV Hou-Chao;HUANG Xi-Ting;CHEN Xiao-Jing
    2011, 19 (7):  1054-1060. 
    Abstract ( 1108 )   PDF (161KB) ( 2432 )  
    It is very common that people often attribute desirable outcomes to their ability or efforts, and attribute undesirable outcomes to others or situation. The tendency that people take personal credit when they succeed and deny their responsibility for failure is called self-serving bias. Today, the theoretical explanations for this bias have not been reached unified conclusion. The debate mainly focuses on whether the self-serving bias was produced by cognitive drive or by motivation, or by both. Lots of research shows that self-serving bias is widespread in the daily life and affected by age, gender, culture, and psychopathology. However, the research on its brain mechanism is relatively rare. Future research should extend the study of the self-serving bias to non-depressed psychopathological groups and other different populations. In addition, the brain mechanism of self-serving bias, its cross-cultural research, and the applicability of foreign research results in China will also be emphasized in the future.
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    Outgroup Favoritism among the Members of Low-Status Groups
    LI Qiong;LIU Li
    2011, 19 (7):  1061-1068. 
    Abstract ( 1701 )   PDF (144KB) ( 2578 )  
    Ingroup favoritism is common in intergroup relationship. However, recent studies have found that the members of low-status groups may show outgroup favoritism. Social identity theory, social dominance theory and system justification theory elucidate the outgroup favoritism among the members of low-status groups from different perspectives. Social identity theory focuses on the effect of context, and it demonstrates the conditions in which outgroup favoritism emerges. Social dominance theory explains the phenomenon in terms of social dominance orientation. It is social dominance orientation that affects disadvantaged groups’ choice between rebellion and acceptance of the social status quo. System justification theory suggests that system justification motive impulses the members of low-status groups to support the existing social order in opposition to their interests. Each of these theories has both its strength and its weakness. Thus it is reasonable to integrate the ideas from these theories. It is argued that there is an interaction between social identity and social dominance orientation in explaining outgroup favoritism among the members of low-status groups.
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    The Formation and Development of Filial Piety: A View of Parent-Child Interaction among Different Cultures
    LI Wan-Yu;KOU Yu
    2011, 19 (7):  1069-1075. 
    Abstract ( 1509 )   PDF (143KB) ( 2363 )  
    Filial piety has been formed in the process of interaction with parents. During child-rearing stage, parenting goals influence children’s filial piety through their autonomy tendencies, and infuential effect varies among different family models; during aged-parent stage, the intergenerational reciprocal cultures shape parent-child filial attitudes, including parental expectation and adult-child filial piety. Meanwhile, parent-child relationship adjusts the two influencing paths. More attention should be paid to the influence of reconstruction of family models and intergenerational reciprocal models on parent-child filial attitude, and intervention should be taken to improve children’s filial piety in China.
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    Gender Difference on the Raven Progressive Matrices
    LI Chun-Hua;LUO Xian-Ming;WANG Teng-Fei;XU Fen
    2011, 19 (7):  1076-1082. 
    Abstract ( 1348 )   PDF (145KB) ( 2028 )  
    Was there gender difference on the Raven Progressive Matrices? In contrast to early studies, a series of recent researches showed that gender difference did exist in Raven Progressive Matrices. And the difference varied as children develop. Ideas about how to explain this difference fall into two types: one type said that the difference was just introduced by factors other than g, g itself has no gender difference. The other type said that the difference may be contributed partly to other factors, while there is also gender difference in g factor. And the difference resulted from primarily physical difference between boys and girls, for example, maturation speed and brain size. That’s why this difference varied with age. We discussed the potential reasons for the inconsistent conclusions on gender difference.
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    Handling Missing Data: Expectation-Maximization Algorithm and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Algorithm
    MU Shou-Kuan;ZHOU Wei
    2011, 19 (7):  1083-1090. 
    Abstract ( 1446 )   PDF (271KB) ( 3678 )  
    Dataset with missing data is quite common in psychological research, which usually creates major problems in statistical inference. Maximum Likelihood Estimator and Multiple Imputation based on Bayesian Estimator are most important methods of handling missing data. Expectation-Maximization Algorithm, included in Maximum Likelihood Estimator is quite advantageous to flexible use and accurate results, while Markov Chain Monte Carlo Algorithm may achieve multiple imputation more easily and can be applied to handling missing data in complex situations. Finally, suitable statistical software is discussed in the field of psychological study.
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