ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (2): 209-222.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00209

• 研究构想 • 上一篇    下一篇


万金1,2,3, 周雯珺1,2, 周海明4, 李平平1, 时勘5()   

  1. 1华东交通大学经济管理学院;
    3华东交通大学 高铁与区域发展研究院, 南昌 330013
    4山东科技大学公共课教学部, 泰安 271000
    5温州大学温州发展模式研究院, 浙江 温州 325035
  • 收稿日期:2022-07-12 出版日期:2023-02-15 发布日期:2022-11-10
  • 通讯作者: 时勘
  • 基金资助:

The impact of psychological detachment on work engagement: Promotion or inhibition?

WAN Jin1,2,3, ZHOU Wenjun1,2, ZHOU Haiming4, LI Pingping1, SHI Kan5()   

  1. 1School of Economics and Management, East China Jiaotong University;
    2Jiangxi Institute of Talent and Industry Integration Development;
    3High speed rail and Regional Development Research Institute, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, China
    4Public Course Teaching Department, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Taian 271000, China
    5Wenzhou Development Mode Research Institute, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China
  • Received:2022-07-12 Online:2023-02-15 Published:2022-11-10
  • Contact: SHI Kan


心理脱离是指非工作时间内个体在时空和心理两个层面均从工作中脱离出来, 不被工作相关问题所干扰, 并停止对工作的思考。主流研究认为心理脱离对工作投入具有正向影响, 但也有研究发现两者为负向关系。不同研究结果的矛盾是由于未区分心理脱离状态和心理脱离行为、下班时间和工作间歇心理脱离, 或是由于心理脱离程度差异造成, 或是两者间存在方向相反的作用机制, 或受其他变量的调节?目前的研究尚未给出一个整合的解释。因此, 本研究提出应区分心理脱离行为和心理脱离状态, 先综合采用质性与定量分析检验各自的内涵, 在此基础上依据工作要求?资源模型(Job Demands-Resources Model, 简称JD-R模型)构建一个综合模型, 采用经验取样法和情景实验法, 分别考察下班时间和工作间歇中的心理脱离行为和心理脱离状态对工作投入的影响及机制, 并考察任务紧急性和职业使命感等任务和个体特征的调节作用。预期对以往的矛盾结论给予一个整合的理论解释, 并提出相关的心理脱离管理对策, 以提升员工心理脱离状态, 从而促进其工作投入。

关键词: 心理脱离, 工作投入, 经验取样法, 情景实验法, 工作要求?资源模型


Employees are the creators of organizations’ core competencies, and whether they can actively engage in work is critical to the development of organizations. So improving employees' work engagement is of great significance for both individual and organizational development. However, as competition intensifies and the pace of work accelerates, the boundary between work and non-work becomes increasingly blurred. It’s easier to physically get off work, but harder to mentally get off work, which can easily cause physical and mental exhaustion and reduce work engagement. Therefore, it is an important way to improve work engagement by helping employees to put down work during non-working hours which can avoid physical and mental exhaustion and replenish physical and mental energy as much as possible. Psychological detachment refers to the mental state in which an individual is detached from work during non-working hours, not being disturbed by work-related problems and stopping thinking about work. Mainstream studies believe that psychological detachment has a positive effect on work engagement, but there are contradictory conclusions regarding the impact of psychological detachment on work engagement. Therefore, there is still a lack of solid scientific evidence for psychological detachment as a means to improve employee work engagement.

Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, this study constructs a comprehensive model to investigate the effect, mechanism and boundary conditions of psychological detachment on work engagement, so as to provide an integrated explanation for previous contradictory conclusions. The theoretical contributions of this study are mainly reflected in the following aspects: First, the concept of psychological detachment behavior is introduced to emphasize the distinction between psychological detachment behavior and psychological detachment state. Psychological detachment in previous studies refers to the state of psychological detachment, but the existing measurement items are easily understood as psychological detachment behavior. Psychological detachment state can help individuals recover psychological resources, but psychological detachment behavior is an individual’s emotional and cognitive regulation behavior which needs to consume psychological resources. Therefore, this study defines the connotation of psychological detachment behavior and psychological detachment state, which is helpful to reveal the influence of the two on work engagement respectively, and can also provide a more accurate concept for subsequent research. Second, based on the job demand-resource model, an integrated multiple mediating and moderating model is constructed, which can explain the contradictory conclusions about the relationship between psychological detachment and work engagement in previous studies. This study believes that this contradictory conclusion is not only caused by the failure to distinguish psychological detachment behavior from psychological detachment state, but also that there are independent positive and negative mechanisms between psychological detachment and work engagement, and the relationship is moderated by work situations and personal characteristics. Therefore, based on the job demand-resource model, this study establishes an integrated explanatory model to deepen the understandings of the effect, mechanism and boundary conditions of psychological detachment, especially to reveal the negative mechanism of psychological detachment on work engagement. Third, it reveals the difference between psychological detachment after work and psychological detachment during work breaks. Most studies have investigated the influence of psychological detachment after work on the next day’s work engagement. In addition to using the experience sampling method to explore it, we also plan to investigate the influence of psychological detachment during work breaks on the subsequent work engagement of the same day by adopting the vignette experiment method. It can reveal the differences in the effects and mechanisms of psychological detachment during and after work breaks, and deepen the understandings of the effects and mechanisms of psychological detachment between the two periods.

The conclusion can provide managers and employees with specific suggestions on psychological detachment according to different working situations and different individual characteristics, which can help employees maintain health and vitality, improve work engagement, and provide psychological capital for efficient operation and sustainable development of organizations.

Key words: psychological detachment, work engagement, experience sampling method, vignette experiment method, job demands-resources model