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    The relationship between social media use and fear of missing out: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Yali, LI Sen, YU Guoliang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 273-290.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00273
    Abstract1544)   HTML106)    PDF (992KB)(1594)      

    Social media use and fear of missing out are both common phenomena in our daily life. Numerous studies have discussed the relationship between these two variables, but the results were mixed. Theoretically, there are two main arguments about the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out. To be specific, the social cognitive theory of mass communication suggested that there was a significant positive correlation between the two variables, while the digital goldilocks hypothesis argued that there may be a U-shaped relationship instead of a significant linear correlation between the two. Empirically, the effect sizes of this relationship reported in the existing literature were far from consistent, with r values ranging from 0 to 0.75. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the strength and moderators of the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out.
    Through literature retrieval, 65 studies consisting of 70 independent effect sizes that met the inclusion criteria were selected. In addition, a random-effects model was selected to conduct the meta-analysis in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.3 software, aiming at testing our hypotheses. The heterogeneity test illustrated that there was significant heterogeneity among 70 independent effect sizes, indicating that the random-effects model was appropriate for subsequent meta-analyses. Based on the funnel plot and Egger's test of regression to the intercept, no significant publication bias was found in the included studies.
    The main effect analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between social media use and fear of missing out (r = 0.38). The moderation analyses revealed that the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out was moderated by the indicator of social media use, as well as the type of social media. Specifically, compared with the frequency, the time as well as the intensity of social media use, social media use addiction had the strongest correlation with fear of missing out; compared with Snapchat and Facebook, Instagram had the strongest correlation with fear of missing out. Other moderators such as gender, age, measurement tools of fear of missing out as well as individualism index did not moderate the relation between these two constructs. The results supported the media effect model, which suggested that social media use, especially social media use addiction may be an important risk factor for individuals’ fear of missing out. Longitudinal studies are needed in the future to explore the dynamic relationship between social media use and fear of missing out.

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    Eliminating threat or venting rage? The relationship between narcissism and aggression in violent offenders
    LIU Yuping, LI Shanshan, HE Yun, WANG Doudou, YANG Bo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 244-258.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00244
    Abstract566)   HTML47)    PDF (302KB)(1550)      

    Two studies were conducted to explore the relationship and mechanism between narcissism and aggressive behavior of violent offenders. In study 1, a positive correlation was found between narcissism and aggression by questionnaire (N = 498), trait anger was found to mediate between narcissism and premeditated and impulsive aggression, while psychological entitlement was found to only mediate between narcissism and premeditated aggression. Study 2 conducted behavioral experiments on 90 violent offenders. The results showed that perceived threat and negative emotions played a mediating role between narcissism and aggression, and provoca-tion moderated the mediating role. Grandiose narcissists only showed stronger aggression under provocation, whereas vulnerable narcissists showed stronger aggression under provocation and non-provocation. The study clarifies the relationship between narcis-sism and aggression under different subtypes, highlights the “dark side” of vulnerable narcissism, and provides a reference for the management and prevention of criminals.

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    How to facilitate employee green behavior: The joint role of green transformational leadership and green human resource management practice
    PENG Jian, YIN Kui, HOU Nan, ZOU Yanchun, NIE Qi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (9): 1105-1120.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01105
    Abstract2287)   HTML36)    PDF (599KB)(1111)      

    Faced with the problem of critical environmental pollution, organizations are expected to plan and implement environmental management practices. Employees, as the implementers of environmental management practices, have been considered to play a crucial role in organizational green management. Hence, how to facilitate employee green behavior is of particular importance for contemporary organizations. Employee green behavior is defined as a series of workplace behaviors that contribute to environmental sustainability. Given that employee green behavior is relevant to the sustainable development of the organization, this topic increasingly attracts attention and interest from scholars and practitioners alike. In particular, they have focused on how to facilitate employee green behavior.
    Previous research revealed that green (environmentally specific) transformational leadership and green human resource management practice (HRM) played a crucial role in shaping employee green behavior. However, previous studies took an “either…or…” approach to investigate the effects of green transformational leadership and green HRM (separately), ignoring their joint effects. Recent studies indicated a trend to examine the joint role of leadership and HRM. Accordingly, this study explored the joint role of green transformational leadership and green HRM on employee green behavior in the Chinese context. In particular, we proposed two alternative hypotheses. Drawing on the cue consistency theory, we claimed that green transformational leadership and green HRM positively interacted to shape employee green behavior. Based on the leadership substitute theory, we proposed that green transformational leadership and green HRM negatively interacted to shape employee green behavior. Moreover, we proposed that pro-environmental goal clarity mediated the interactive effect of green transformational leadership and green HRM on employee green behavior.
    We conducted two experiments and one survey study to test our hypotheses. In experiment 1a and 1b (a 2 × 2 between-subject design), the ANOVA results showed that green transformational leadership and green HRM positively interacted to shape individual green behavior, which supported the hypotheses based on cue consistence theory. Specifically, under the condition of high green transformational leadership and high green HRM, individuals were more likely to engage in green behavior. Study 2, a field study based on the survey data from 173 leader-employee dyads, not only replicated the findings of study 1a and 1b but also revealed that the interaction of green HRM and green transformational leadership was positively related to employee green behavior through the mediating role of pro-environmental goal clarity.
    This study contributes to the literature in several ways. First, by revealing the positive interactive effect of green transformational leadership and green HRM on employee green behavior, our findings guide us toward a better understanding of how to facilitate employee green behavior from a comprehensive and balanced perspective. Second, by revealing the mediating role of pro-environmental goal clarity, this study contributes to a detailed understanding of how green HRM and green transformational leadership jointly influence employee green behavior. Finally, for practitioners, our results provide some implications on ways to promote employee green behavior, such as adopting green HRM and simultaneously developing the leaders’ green transformational leadership.

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     Mobile phone addiction and sleep quality in adolescents: Mediation and moderation analyses
    LIU Qingqi, ZHOU Zongkui, NIU Gengfeng, Fan Cuiying
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (12): 1524-1536.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01524
    Abstract12534)      PDF (852KB)(1006)      
     Mobile phones have integrated into people’s daily lives. Proper mobile phone use would help individuals meet diverse needs in learning and shopping, as well as in recreation and communication. However, the problem that more and more people are getting addicted to mobile phones has been salient. Studies have revealed that mobile phone addiction would bring about significant adverse impacts on mental health such as depression, anxiety, and even suicidal ideation. Poor sleep quality is also one of the major undesirable outcomes of mobile phone addiction. Research documented that mobile phone addiction significantly predicted sleep quality, and sleep quality deteriorated with increasing level of mobile phone addiction. Prior studies have focused mainly on the direct association between mobile phone addiction and sleep quality, however, little is known about the underlying mediating mechanism (i.e. how mobile phone addiction influences sleep quality) and moderating mechanism (i.e. when mobile phone addiction influences sleep quality). To address these gaps, the present study constructed a moderated mediation model to examine the effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality in adolescents since both the use rate of mobile phone and the occurrence rate of mobile phone addiction are very high among adolescents. Specifically, the present study would examine the mediating role of affect balance in the relation between mobile phone addiction and sleep quality of adolescents, and test whether the direct effect and the indirect effect would be moderated by rumination and mindfulness. A sample of 1258 high school students completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring their mobile phone addiction, sleep quality, affect balance, rumination and mindfulness. All the measures showed good reliability and validity in the present study. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and the SPSS macro PROCESS which was specifically developed for assessing the complex models including both mediators and moderators. The results were as followings: (1) After controlling for gender and grade, mobile phone addiction significantly exerted direct effect on sleep quality and indirect effect on sleep quality through the mediation of affect balance. (2) Both the direct effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality and the indirect effect of affect balance were moderated by rumination, and these two effects were stronger in adolescents with high level of rumination. (3) Both the direct effect and the indirect effect of were moderated by mindfulness, and these two effects were weaker in adolescents with high level of mindfulness. The present study highlights the mediating role of affect balance and the moderating role of rumination and mindfulness in the effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality. It may contribute to a better understanding of the effects as well as its paths and conditions of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality of adolescents. Moreover, it can also provide constructive suggestions for protecting and improving affect balance and sleep quality of adolescents in the mobile Internet era.
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    “You were what you eat”: Food-gender stereotypes and their impact on evaluation of impression
    ZUO Bin, DAI Yuee, WEN Fangfang, GAO Jia, XIE Zhijie, HE Saifei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 259-272.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00259
    Abstract801)   HTML50)    PDF (218KB)(798)      

    Food plays an important role in social life, endowed with cultural and gender connotations. We used two studies to explore ex-plicit and implicit food-gender stereotypes and their influence on person evaluation (i.e., perceived warmth and competence). Study 1 examined the presence of explicit and implicit food-gender stereotypes using nomination, self-reports, and semantic priming para-digms. The results demonstrated participants held explicit food-gender stereotypes that the male preferred masculine food, and the female preferred feminine food, and female participants hold implicit food-gender stereotypes. In Study 2, we used situational ex-periment and implicit relational assessment procedure to measure participants’ evaluation of the stereotype-(in)consistent targets’ warmth and competence. Results showed that participants implicitly elevated the warmth trait of the stereotype-inconsistent male target.

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    Does conformity lead to gains? The effect of workplace ostracism on performance evaluation from a self-presentational view
    JIANG Ping, ZHANG Lihua
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 400-412.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00400
    Abstract609)   HTML36)    PDF (254KB)(788)      

    There are some inconsistent conclusions about the effect of workplace ostracism on employee performance, which indicates that there are potential mechanisms in this field to be explored. Therefore, based on the self-presentation theory, this research built and tested a conditional indirect effect model to explore how and when individuals who suffered from workplace ostracism might obtain higher performance evaluation. Based on an experimental study and a field sample of supervisor-employee dyads, the results supported our theoretical hypotheses that workplace ostracism was positively related to facades of conformity. Besides, the relationship between workplace ostracism and facades of conformity was stronger when employees were high in collectivism values. However, when supervisors themselves also hold high collectivism values, employees’ facades of conformity are positively related to supervisors’ evaluations of job performance. Moreover, workplace ostracism has a conditional, positive indirect effect on supervisor’s evaluations of employee performance via employee facades of conformity, such that the indirect effect is positive when both employee and supervisors’ collectivism values are high.

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    Neural mechanism underlying the effects of object color on episodic memory
    ZHOU Wenjie, DENG Liqun, DING Jinhong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 229-243.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00229
    Abstract764)   HTML64)    PDF (909KB)(707)      

    Color diagnosticity is the degree to which a color is associated with or symbolizes a particular object. Typical color is often as-sociated with high color diagnostic objects and activates the visual (perceptual) or semantic (conceptual) knowledge in long-term memory. However, the relationship between different processing levels (perceptual and conceptual) of object color information and episodic memory retrieval components (familiarity and recollection) remains poorly understood. It is hypothesized that color infor-mation can facilitate memory encoding at the perceptual level but inhibit it at the conceptual level. In recognition retrieval, color has a greater impact on familiarity and recollection at the perceptual level, while at the conceptual level, recollection is more affected than familiarity.
    In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) and a study-test paradigm were used to investigate the effects of color consis-tency (visual color input and object color knowledge) on episodic memory encoding and retrieval by using pictures and names of objects with high color diagnosticity. Twenty-seven college students participated in experiment 1. During the study phase, a picture of an object in its diagnostic color (such as a red apple) or non-diagnostic color (such as purple banana) was presented on a white background for 500ms. The participants were asked to determine whether the color of the object in each picture was consistent with its actual (diagnostic) color. During the test phase, participants provided old/new judgments about the objects that had appeared in the study phase and the equal number of new items. Twenty-five college students participated in experiment 2. A similar procedure was used for experiment 2, except that items were the names of the objects in their diagnostic or non-diagnostic color rather than pictures. During both experiments, the participants responded by pressing a mouse button. Their reaction time and EEG (electroencephalo-graphy) were recorded.
    The results of experiment 1 showed that, during the encoding phase, color-inconsistent objects were identified less accurately and more slowly, and this triggered a larger N400 than the color-consistent ones. During the retrieval phase, the color-consistent ob-jects were recalled more quickly and accurately, and this triggered larger FN400 (frontal negativity) values than the color-inconsistent objects. However, the opposite effects were observed in experiment 2. Color-inconsistent object names were identified more quickly and accurately, and they elicited the same ERP wave as the color-consistent names. During the recognition stage, the color had an effect only during the period of late positive components (LPCs).
    In conclusion, color was found to have different effects on encoding and retrieval of episodic memory at both the perceptual and semantic levels. (1) Color had different effects on item coding at the perceptual and semantic levels. Color consistency was found to help the viewer identify objects at the perceptual level, but it hindered object identification at the semantic level. (2) Color congru-ence was here found to promote familiarity and recollection in object retrieval (perceptual level), but it only improved recollection of an object’s name (conceptual level). (3) The consistency effect in the processing of object name recognition showed that color was closely related to object name, and it also affected the semantic representation of objects, which further supported the spreading acti-vation model.

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    Mobile phone addiction and depression: Multiple mediating effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information
    HOU Juan, ZHU Yingge, FANG Xiaoyi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 362-373.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00362
    Abstract796)   HTML90)    PDF (455KB)(683)      

    In order to investigate the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression, the multiple mediating effects of social anxiety and negative emotional information attentional bias on this relationship were discussed by integrating both emotional and cognitive factors. In study 1, 545 college students completed the Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. In study 2, 51 college students were selected to use the questionnaire method and the 2(the emotion types of matching facial expression: negative and neutral) × 2(the location of the probe point: the same side as the negative emotion face and the opposite side of the negative emotion face) within-subjects design. The results showed that: (1) there were significant positive correlations between mobile phone addiction, social anxiety and depression, and social anxiety played a completely mediating role between mobile phone addiction and depression; (2) social anxiety and negative emotional information attentional bias played a chain-mediating role in the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression, while negative emotional information attentional bias had no significant mediating effect between mobile phone addiction and depression. Specifically, mobile phone addiction affects depression in two ways: one is the single mediating effect of social anxiety, the other is the chain mediating effect of social anxiety → attention bias of negative emotional information.

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    Green nudging
    Bonini Nicolao, Hadjichristidis Constantinos, Graffeo Michele
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (8): 814-826.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00814
    Abstract3688)      PDF (276KB)(648)      

    Our current lifestyle is not sustainable. One way to increase sustainability is by developing greener technologies. Another, complementary way, is by altering people’s attitudes, habits, and behaviors. Here we discuss six techniques that aim to gently push or nudge people towards more pro-environmental choices and behaviors. These techniques range from ones that can be applied from a distance, e.g., techniques which could inform the construction of communication messages, to ones that involve changes in the context where the choice takes place. Therefore, the present review can be of interest to practitioners such as marketers, policymakers, and consumer representatives. For each technique, we discuss its theorized cognitive and/or emotional underpinnings. Furthermore, we identify gaps in the literature and ways in which future research could fill these gaps.

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     Effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in intervention for anxiety: A meta-analysis
    REN Zhihong, Zhang Yawen, JIANG Guangrong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (3): 283-305.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00283
    Abstract7246)      PDF (2406KB)(561)      
     Mindfulness meditation (MM) has enjoyed a growing popularity in healthcare in recent years when bio-psycho-social approaches are becoming more and more emphasized in modern medicine. There has been mounting empirical evidence showing MM’s significant effectiveness in alleviating anxiety for both nonclinical and clinical populations. However, the effect size of the available empirical investigation results has remained inconsistent and possible moderators have yet to be explored comprehensively. In order to determine the immediate and long-term efficacy of MM in overcoming anxiety, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a systematic and comprehensive review of the published studies on mindfulness-based interventions for anxiety. We also examined whether some characteristics of research participants (e.g. age, geographic areas) and interventions (e.g. format, duration, at-home practice), and specifics of the study (i.e. types of control, quality of the study) and data analysis (e.g. attrition rate) moderate the magnitude of the effectiveness of MM interventions (11variables). The review was performed following the rigorous PRISMA Protocol. Published studies using randomized controlled trial were selected from major databases worldwide to include investigations conducted in both Western and Eastern countries. Databases used include VIP Journal Integration Platform, Wan fang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed. Keywords used are mindfulness, meditation, MBSR, MBCT, anxi*, mood, intervention, therapy, program. Using the random effect model, we pooled the effect size (Hedge’s g), and conducted a publication bias evaluation, a moderating effect analysis and an interaction analysis in CMA 3.3. Results of our analyses revealed fifty-five RCTs from both Eastern and Western countries (k = 68 samples, N = 4595 participants). Mindfulness meditation for treating anxiety is shown to be efficacious with a medium to large immediate effect (g = 0.60), but the effect is not reliably shown at follow-up assessments. The post-heterogeneity test result suggests that using the random effect model is reasonable. Univariate meta-regression analysis yielded that study quality, geographic areas, participants’ age, intervention format (Group vs. Individual), amount of at-home practice, and attrition rate shown in data analysis remarkably influenced the effect size of MM’s immediate effect, while types of control, health condition, mindfulness practice experience, intervention duration, or statistical analysis methods used (ITT vs. PP) did not appear to moderate MM’s immediate effectiveness for reducing anxiety. Additionally, geographic areas affect the effect size the most. Multiple meta-regression models suggested that type of control and geographic areas, as well as statistical analysis methods significantly moderate the effect size of intervention effectiveness. Overall, the study results demonstrated high immediate effect of mindfulness-based practices for alleviating anxiety, but the effect did not seem to last. In addition, geographic area turns out to be the strongest moderator, and practitioners in the East seem to benefit more than those who are in the West. Study quality, participants’ age, mindfulness practice experience, intervention format, at-home practice quantity and attrition rate also affect the effect size to a certain extent. Future research is warranted to improve methodological quality of outcome studies, to provide more clear and replicable evidence of MM efficacy, and to explore more underlying moderators for the intervention effect size, such as participant satisfaction and so forth.
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    The effect of anger on malevolent creativity and strategies for its emotion regulation
    CHENG Rui, LU Kelong, HAO Ning
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (8): 847-860.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00847
    Abstract459)   HTML35)    PDF (334KB)(502)      

    The current study aimed to explore the effect of anger on malevolent creativity and its underlying mechanisms and to determine whether such an effect could be modulated by strategies of emotional regulation. Experiment 1 compared the differences of malevolent creativity between individuals in anger, sadness, and neutral emotions and found that individuals in anger produced more and more novel malevolent ideas, emotional arousal, and implicit aggression mediate the effect of anger on the malevolent creative performance. Experiment 2 explored how different emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive inhibition) influenced the malevolent creative performance of angry individuals. It was found that the cognitive reappraisal group and the expression inhibition group had lower levels of malevolent creativity than the control group. Emotional arousal and implicit aggression mediated the effects of two kinds of emotion regulation strategies on malevolent creativity. These results suggest that anger promotes creativity by enhancing implicit aggression and emotional arousal, and the cognitive reappraisal and expression inhibition strategies can be used as effective strategies to weaken the malevolent creativity of the angry individuals.

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    The status quo and characteristics of Chinese mental health literacy
    JIANG Guangrong, LI Danyang, REN Zhihong, YAN Yupeng, WU Xinchun, ZHU Xu, YU Lixia, XIA Mian, LI Fenglan, WEI Hui, ZHANG Yan, ZHAO Chunxiao, ZHANG Lin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (2): 182-198.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00182
    Abstract415)   HTML17)    PDF (496KB)(491)      

    A systematic nationwide sampling survey was conducted for the purpose of understanding the mental health literacy of the Chinese adults. The results indicated that the mental health literacy levels among adults in different cities were low to moderate. The influences of the demographic variables (e.g., geographical distribution, gender, and age) on mental health literacy were small but significant. Regarding the structure of mental health literacy, mental health maintenance and promotion literacy was better than mental illness coping literacy, and self-help literacy was better than helping others literacy. The survey found that the knowledge had relatively high individual differences, whereas attitudes and behaviors had relatively low individual differences, concerning the contents of the mental health literacy. In addition, among the social influencing factors of mental health literacy, the socio-economic status was the most effective one, which showed a large effect size in the knowledge and a small to medium effect size in the attitudes and behavior tendency. These findings implicate that improving mental health literacy is an arduous task, and improving the literacy of coping with mental illness should be the focus and breakthrough point of the current practice of mental health literacy promotion.

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    Mediating roles of gratitude, social support and posttraumatic growth in the relation between empathy and prosocial behavior among adolescents after the Ya’an earthquake
    Wenchao WANG, Xinchun WU
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (3): 307-316.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00307
    Abstract9058)      PDF (787KB)(491)      

    Empathy refers to the traits, or tendencies, of a person to affectively experience emotions of concern at the suffering of others and to cognitively adopt another person’s perspective. Possession of empathy has been assumed to encourage prosocial behavior. The mechanisms by which empathy affects prosocial behavior for adolescent survivors of disaster, however, are unclear. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was considered a common positive change following trauma events and was identified as having a high prevalence rate in various trauma types. After experiencing natural disasters, individuals with high empathy are more vulnerable to their adverse environment and the traumatic situations of others. This results in more psychological pressure and fear, and these pressures and negative emotions force individuals to think about the meaning of trauma, thus promoting the generation of PTG. The emergence of PTG brings positive behavioral change among survivors after the disaster. Therefore, it was suggested that empathy may exert indirect effects on prosocial behavior through PTG.
    According to current theories, empathy has different emotional and cognitive components. When individuals empathize with others, these components are activated, which may lead to gratitude and, in turn, result in prosocial behavior. As a moral barometer, gratitude informs the beneficiary that a benefactor has bestowed a gift. The prosocial behavior of a benefactor toward a beneficiary is thought to produce gratitude within the beneficiary. This then stimulates the beneficiary’s prosocial behavior, further strengthening the benefactor’s own prosocial behavior.
    Furthermore, traumatized survivors with greater empathy may improve communication with others, increase the sense of intimacy, and perceive more support from others—meaning that empathy may lead individuals to have more social support. Social support refers to an individual’s perception of the support provided by others. That perception can be influenced by gratitude. Adolescents with low social support are more likely to interpret other people’s ambiguous actions as aggressive. Thus, stable social relationships seem to promote PTG and prosocial behavior. Taken together, it is possible that empathy can promote prosocial behavior through gratitude, social support, and PTG in post-disaster contexts. The utility of these predictions, however, was unclear.
    To examine the relation between empathy, gratitude, social support, PTG and prosocial behavior, this study used an interpersonal reactivity index scale, gratitude questionnaire, social support questionnaire, posttraumatic growth inventory and prosocial behavior questionnaire to assess 542 adolescents following Ya’an earthquake. The results indicated that after controlling the trauma exposure, empathy have a positive association with prosocial behavior through the following routes: three one-mediator paths of gratitude, social support and PTG, respectively; three two-mediator paths of gratitude via PTG, social support via PTG and gratitude via social support, and one three-mediator path from gratitude to PTG via social support. These findings suggested that following a natural disaster, adolescent survivors’ empathy may have an indirect and positive relation with prosocial behavior by gratitude, social support and PTG.

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    Emotional bias of trait anxiety on pre-attentive processing of facial expressions: ERP investigation
    LI Wanyue, LIU Shen, HAN Shangfeng, ZHANG Lin, XU Qiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00001
    Abstract536)   HTML54)    PDF (674KB)(472)      

    In order to explore the processing mode of emotional stimuli in the pre-attentive stage of people with high trait anxiety and clarify their emotional bias characteristics, this study used the deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm to explore the influence of trait anxiety on the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. The results showed that for the low trait anxiety group, the early EMMN induced by sad faces was significantly larger than that induced by happy faces, while for the high trait anxiety group, the early EMMN induced by happy and sad faces was not significantly different from each other. Moreover, the EMMN amplitude of happy faces in high trait anxiety group was significantly larger than that in low trait anxiety group. The results show that personality traits are an important factor affecting the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. Different from ordinary participants, people with high trait anxiety have similar processing patterns for happy and sad faces in the pre-attentive stage, which may make it difficult for them to effectively distinguish happy and sad faces.

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    Self-affirmation buffering by the general public reduces anxiety levels during the COVID-19 epidemic
    Shifeng LI, Yiling WU, Fumin ZHANG, Qiongying XU, Aibao ZHOU
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (7): 886-894.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00886
    Abstract3175)   HTML24)    PDF (495KB)(466)      

    In December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. COVID-19 is characterised by fever and severe acute respiratory symptoms in early stages, which can rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome that is associated with high mortality. As of 9 February 2020, 40171 cases have been confirmed cumulatively and 23589 suspected cases were collected in China. The wide and rapid spread of COVID-19 has intensely captured public attention, leading to increased mental health stress. Timely mental health care and intervention during the outbreak of COVID-19 is urgently needed not only for confirmed or suspected patients and frontline medical workers, but also for the general public.

    Previous studies showed that af?rmation of personal values can buffer psychological stress responses in various threat situations. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether an intervention involving re?ection on personal values was capable of buffering psychological stress responses during the outbreak. We recruited 220 participants who completed a questionnaire on their personal values. Those in the self-affirmation group were asked to choose and write their thoughts and feelings of a personal value that made them feel important to themselves while those in the control condition were asked to do the same for a personal value that they thought was important to others. Both groups completed a Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) prior to and 7 days after intervention.

    We used two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) to evaluate the buffer effect of value af?rmation on stress responses with time of assessment as a within-subjects factor and intervention group as a between-subjects factor for anxiety and depression. Our results revealed a significant interaction between time and intervention for the reduction of anxiety. Further simple effect analysis demonstrated that the control group showed heightened levels of anxiety 7 days after intervention compared with before, whereas participants who af?rmed their values did not show any increase. This effect remained significant after controlling for sex, age, educational level, and annual family income. However, no significant differences were found for depression.

    The present study demonstrates for the first time that an experimental intervention involving the af?rmation of personal values can buffer psychological stress response during the COVID-19 epidemic. Specifically, participants who affirmed their values did not show increased levels of anxiety compared with control participants. Self-affirmation is easy to accomplish since it does not require professional guidance or a distinct environment and occupies little time, it would be a convenient strategy for the public to cope with psychological stress during the outbreak.

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     Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: The halo effect and generalization effect in the facial attractiveness evaluation
    HAN Shangfeng, LI Yue, LIU Shen, XU Qiang, TAN Qun, ZHANG Lin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (4): 363-376.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00363
    Abstract11115)      PDF (1140KB)(463)      
     Even though people usually agreed that “a book should not be judged by its cover”, researches had repeatedly demonstrated that individuals spontaneously and very swiftly formed impression on others based merely on the appearance of their faces. Facial attractiveness is an important content in the first perception. Which had been linked to outcomes as diverse as mate choice, job hunting, and cooperation. Given these real world consequences of the first impressions, it is important to understand how these impressions are formed. Some studies found that facial physical characteristics, such as symmetry, averageness and sexual dimorphism, had a great impact on facial attractiveness. While different individuals have different experience, when faced with the same face in the same context, different individuals have different evaluations on facial attractiveness. Some researchers put forward a new theory, namely, the observer hypothesis, which demonstrated that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, the processing of unfamiliar facial attractiveness remained unclear. The goal of the current study was to explore how we processed the impression of unfamiliar facial attractiveness. 19 males and 27 females took part in the experiment one and 16 males and 22 females participated in the experiment two, each experiment contained two phases that were learning tasks and evaluation tasks. In the learning phase, participants firstly learned to associate faces with negative, neutral, or positive trait words or imaged the behavior of the individuals to form different impression, which was contribute to the same valence between the neutral face and trait words or sentence. When participants could evaluate the valence of the face correctly, they could proceed to the next phase. In the experiment one, 13 males and 25 females had passed learning phase and evaluated the original faces and the unfamiliar faces. In the experiment two, 12 males and 17 females had done the learning task and evaluation task successfully. And in the evaluation phase, extend of warmth, competence and facial attractiveness of the unfamiliar faces, which had 50% similarity with the learned faces, were evaluated. Both of the two experiments had the same results, which showed that there are two ways to form unfamiliar facial attractiveness: (1) the first one is that generalization effect occurred after halo effect, compared with negative familiar faces, positive familiar faces were evaluated more attractive, so did the unfamiliar faces that were familiar with positive familiar faces; (2) the second one is that halo effect occurred after generalization effect, unfamiliar faces which were similar with positive familiar faces were not only evaluated more positive but also more attractive. The results suggested that generalization effect occurred after halo effect and halo effect occurred after generalization effect were the two ways to form unfamiliar facial attractiveness. In conclusion, halo effect and generalization effect play an important role in the processing of unfamiliar facial attractiveness.
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    Passive use of social network site and its relationships with self-esteem and self-concept clarity: A moderated mediation analysis
    LIU Qingqi, NIU Gengfeng, Fan Cuiying, ZHOU Zongkui
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (1): 60-71.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00060
    Abstract3737)      PDF (942KB)(458)      

    Activities on social network site can be classified into two main types: active use and passive use. Previous studies revealed that active use of social network site, such as self-presentation and self-disclosure, could enhance social capital, self-esteem and life satisfaction, as well as reduce loneliness. On the contrary, passive use of social network site could exert adverse effects on emotional well-being and life satisfaction, and might lead to depression. However, little is known about the effect of passive use of social network site on self-concept, in particular, effects on self-esteem and self-concept clarity. Passive use of social network site exposes individuals to a lot of positive information of others, which may result in upward social comparison. Upward social comparison in turn negatively impacts individuals’ self-esteem and self-concept clarity. But individuals are not equally influenced by upward social comparison. Optimism, as an important personality trait, may impact the way individuals process information of upward social comparison and thus alleviates the negative effects of upward social comparison. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the mediating roles of upward social comparison in the effects of passive use of social network site on self-esteem and self-concept clarity. The study would also test whether the mediating effects of upward social comparison would be moderated by optimism. A sample of 1208 undergraduate students (mean age = 19.86; SD = 1.26) were recruited for the study to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring their passive use of social network site, upward social comparison on social network site, self-esteem, self-concept clarity and optimism. All the measures showed good reliability and validity in the present study. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and SPSS macro PROCESS which was specifically developed for assessing the complex models including both mediators and moderators with the bias-corrected percentile Bootstrap method. The results were as followings: (1) After controlling for gender, grade and mean time of social network site use per day, passive use of social network site had no significant direct effect on self-esteem. But it could negatively predict self-esteem through the mediation of upward social comparison. (2) Passive use of social network site had significant effect on self-concept clarity, and could also negatively predict self-concept clarity through upward social comparison. (3) The mediating effects of upward social comparison in the association between passive use of social network site and self-esteem and between passive use of social network site and self-concept clarity were both moderated by optimism. The indirect effects were stronger for individuals with a low level of optimism. (4) For individuals with a high level of optimism, the direct effect of upward social comparison on self-esteem and the mediating effect of upward social comparison in the association between passive use of social network site and self-esteem were not statistically significant. But the direct effect of upward social comparison on self-concept clarity and the mediating effect of upward social comparison in the association between passive use of social network site and self-concept clarity were both significant. The present study highlights the mediating effect of upward social comparison and the moderating effect of optimism in the effect of passive use of social network site on self-esteem and self-concept clarity. It may contribute to a better understanding of the effects, mechanisms, and the conditions of passive use of social network site on self-esteem and self-concept clarity.

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    Processing of visual negation
    Dexian HE, Jinhui LI, Miao ZHOU, Yajue CHEN, Yu CHEN, Xianyou HE
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (11): 1249-1258.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01249
    Abstract1583)      PDF (252KB)(435)      

    Previous research focused on the processing of verbal negation, while there was very little research in the area of visual negation. In this study, the lexical decision paradigm was used to explore the mental simulation of visual negation processing in early, middle, and late processing stages to reveal the mechanism of visual negation. To achieve this goal, we performed three experiments. In each experiment on each trial subjects first viewed a picture, and then after a interstimulus interval (ISI) that varied by experiment, viewed a word and had to decide if the word was consistent with the picture or not.

    Experiment 1 explored the mental simulation of visual negation in early stage of processing using a short 250ms ISI. Participants reacted more quickly to the negative probes which represented the actual final states, as compared with the affirmative probes which represented the negated states. This implies that, in the early stage of the visual negation processing, the final state has already been simulated in the participants’ representation. Although the results did not confirm the two-step-simulation hypothesis, it supported the suppression / retention hypothesis.

    Experiment 2 examined the mental simulation of visual negation in middle stage of processing using a 750ms ISI. The pattern of results was very similar to Experiment 1: participants reacted more quickly to the negative probes that represented the actual final states, as compared with the affirmative probes that represented the negated states. These results imply that the final state was simulated in the participants’ representation during the middle stage of processing.

    Experiment 3 explored the late stage of processing using a 1500ms ISI. The results pattern replicated those of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, that is, the reaction time to negative probes was significantly faster than to affirmative probes. The results demonstrated that in the late stage of the visual negation processing, participants simulated the actual final state of the visual negative pictures but not the negated state of the visual negative pictures. Again, it disconfirmed the two-step simulation hypothesis, but supported the suppression / retention hypothesis.

    In sum, taken together the findings from the three experiments, we can draw the following conclusions. The actual state was simulated during the processing of visual negation similarly across the early, middle, and late visual processing stages. These results support the theory that simulation occurs in a single step (the one-step simulation view) rather than the two-step simulation view. Second, the suppression / retention hypothesis for the negated information processing in visual negation has been strongly supported.

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    The influence of concreteness on emotional nouns valence processing: An ERP study
    LUO Wenbo, QI Zhengyang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 111-121.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00111
    Abstract382)   HTML34)    PDF (2347KB)(428)      

    Concreteness and abstractness are the poles of the same characteristic of the lexicon, and they are important factors that directly affect word processing. In this study, we employed the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm and EEG technology to explore the influence of concreteness on the emotional nouns processing within limited attention resources. The results showed that ERP components in the early and late stages of noun processing were modulated by valence, and emotional nouns elicited larger N170 and LPC amplitudes than neutral nouns. In addition, ERP components in the early and late stages of noun processing were modulated by concreteness, and concrete nouns elicited larger N170 and LPC amplitudes than abstract nouns. Concreteness affected the late stage of emotional noun processing. LPC amplitude distinguished abstract words with different emotional valence, while it only differentiated emotional concrete nouns from non-emotional concrete nouns, which indicated that abstract nouns may carry more emotional information than concrete nouns, reflecting elaborate emotion processing.

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    The effects of employee mindfulness on spouse family satisfaction and work engagement
    NI Dan, LIU Chenlin, ZHENG Xiaoming
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (2): 199-214.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00199
    Abstract327)   HTML17)    PDF (313KB)(410)      

    Based on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, the data of 114 employees of a commercial bank and their spouses were collected by experience sampling methodology. The results showed that, at the within-person level, employee mindfulness was positively related to their spouse family satisfaction and work engagement the next morning via employee strategic emotional connecting display. Spouse family negative emotional expression at the between-person level moderated the relationship between employee mindfulness and employee strategic emotional connecting display, and the mediating effect of employee strategic emotional connecting display; that is, the higher level the spouse family negative emotional expression, the weaker the effects of employee mindfulness on employee strategic emotional connecting display and the mediating effect of employee strategic emotional connecting display.

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