ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
25 February 2023, Volume 55 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
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Reports of Empirical Studies
The role of character positional frequency on word recognition during Chinese reading: Lexical decision and eye movements studies
CAO Haibo, LAN Zebo, GAO Feng, YU Haitao, LI Peng, WANG Jingxin
2023, 55 (2):  159-176.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00159
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Understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying word segmentation has been an important focus for research on Chinese reading. Previous research shows that Chinese readers can identify words very efficiently even though the Chinese script does not use spaces between words or other visual cues to demarcate word boundaries. One possibility is that Chinese readers can make use of their knowledge of the positional frequency of characters (i.e., how often they are used as the first or second character in words) to facilitate the word segmentation and recognition. Nevertheless, this potential role for position frequency remains controversial. Accordingly, with the present research we used the lexical decision task and eye movements during reading to investigate the use of positional frequency information about the first and second character of two-character words in both visual word recognition and reading.

Four experiments were conducted to explore the effect of character positional frequency. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we manipulated both first and second character positional frequency (high vs. low) for target words that were of either high or low lexical frequency. Four types of two-character words were selected: (1) H-H: character with high word-beginning and high word-ending positional frequency. (2) H-L: character with high word-beginning and low word-ending positional frequency. (3) L-H: character with low word-beginning and high word-ending positional frequency. (4) L-L: character with low word-beginning and low word-ending positional frequency. Sixty college students were instructed to perform visual lexical decision tasks on words and pseudo-words. The results of response accuracy and latency of correct responses were reported in Table 1 (Experiment 1a) and Table 2 (Experiment 1b). In Experiment 1a, the main effects of first and second character positional frequency were not significant for response accuracy (first character, b = 0.45, SE = 1.29, z = 0.35, p = 0.73, 95% CI = [−2.07, 2.97]; second character, b = 1.38, SE = 1.29, z = 1.07, p = 0.29, 95% CI = [−1.15, 3.19]) and reaction times (first character, b = −0.01, SE = 0.02, t = −0.51, p = 0.62, 95% CI = [−0.04, 0.02]; second character, b = 0.02, SE = 0.01, t = 1.19, p = 0.24, 95% CI = [−0.01, 0.05]). The interaction between first and second character positional frequency was not observed (ps > 0.05). In Experiment 1b, the main effect of first character positional frequency was significant for response accuracy (b = 1.08, SE = 0.09, z = 11.58, p < 0.001, 95% CI = [1.26]) and reaction times (b = 0.10, SE = 0.02, t = 5.22, p < 0.001, 95% CI = [0.13]). Error rates and reaction times were less on high first character positional frequency than those words with low first character positional frequency, regardless of the second character positional frequency conditions. There was no significant main effect of second character positional frequency for response accuracy (b = 0.15, SE = 0.09, z = 1.57, p = 0.11, 95% CI = [−0.04, 0.33]) and reaction times (b = 0.00, SE = 0.02, t = −0.03, p = 0.97, 95% CI = [−0.05, 0.04]), nor interaction between first and second character positional frequency (ps > 0.05). Consequently, this aspect of our findings showed a bias for first character positional frequency to facilitate the lexical recognition.

In Experiment 2a and 2b, we used measures of eye movements to investigate the use of character positional frequency in natural sentence reading. Sixty college students were required to read sentences while their eye movements were recorded using an EyeLink 1000 eye-tracker (sampling rate = 1000 Hz). Mean eye movement measures were reported in Table 3 (Experiment 2a) and Table 4 (Experiment 2b). In Experiment 2a, the main effect of first character positional frequency was not significant for reading times (FFD, b = −0.01, SE = 0.02, t = −0.14, p = 0.89, 95% CI = [−0.04, 0.04]; GD, b = −0.01, SE = 0.03, t = −0.39, p = 0.70, 95% CI = [−0.06, 0.04]; RPD, b = 0.00, SE = 0.04, t = 0.06, p = 0.95, 95% CI = [−0.06, 0.07]; TRT, b =0.03, SE = 0.04, t = 0.67, p = 0.51, 95% CI = [−0.05, 0.11]). The main effect of second character positional frequency was not significant for reading times (FFD, b = 0.00, SE = 0.02, t = 0.21, p = 0.84, 95% CI = [−0.04, 0.05]; GD, b =0.00, SE = 0.03, t = −0.17, p = 0.86, 95% CI = [−0.06, 0.05]; RPD, b = 0.00, SE = 0.04, t = 0.02, p = 0.99, 95% CI = [−0.07, 0.07]; TRT, b = 0.02, SE = 0.04, t = 0.69, p = 0.50, 95% CI = [−0.06, 0.11]). In Experiments 2b, there was main effect of first character positional frequency on fixation durations (GD, b = 0.05, SE = 0.02, t = 2.01, p = 0.05, 95% CI = [0.10]; RPD, b = 0.075, SE = 0.03, t = 2.65, p = 0.01, 95% CI = [−0.06, 0.06]; TRT, b = 0.08, SE = 0.03, t = 3.03, p = 0.004, 95% CI = [0.13]). Reading times were shorter on high first character positional frequency than those words with low first character positional frequency, regardless of the second character positional frequency condition. The main effect of second character positional frequency was negligible (FFD, b = −0.01, SE = 0.02, t = −0.39, p = 0.69, 95% CI = [−0.04, 0.03]; GD, b = −0.02, SE = 0.03, t = −0.60, p = 0.55, 95% CI = [−0.08, 0.04]; RPD, b = 0.01, SE = 0.03, t = 0.01, p = 0.99, 95% CI = [−0.06, 0.06]; TRT, b = −0.02, SE = 0.03, t = −0.49, p = 0.63, 95% CI = [−0.08, 0.05). There were no significant interaction between first and second character positional frequency for either high or low frequency target words (ps > 0.05). The results clearly show that second character positional frequency did not influence fixation durations, while a benefit to reading times for first character positional frequency only.

The results of Experiments 1a and 1b revealed an effect of first character positional frequency in both the accuracy and latency of lexical decisions only for target words with low lexical frequency, and no effect of second character positional frequency regardless of the lexical frequency of the target word. The results of Experiment 2a and 2b showed a clear effect of first character position frequency on reading times (gaze duration, regression path reading time, and total reading time) for target words of low lexical frequency only, and no effect of second character positional frequency for either high or low frequency target words. Participants made shorter reaction times and fixation duration in high character positional frequency condition than in low character positional frequency condition for target words with low lexical frequency.

In sum, findings from both the lexical decision task and measures of eye movements in reading reveal a privileged role for first character positional frequency as a cue to word segmentation and recognition. However, this influence of character positional frequency depends on word frequency, and is only observed for words of lower lexical frequency. We argue that these findings support the augmented addressed morphology model theory of Chinese word recognition, and can help inform the development of a model of character positional processing model in Chinese reading.

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Unmasking effects of speech emotional prosody and semantics on auditory informational masking
ZHENG Xi, ZHANG Tingting, LI Liang, FAN Ning, YANG Zhigang
2023, 55 (2):  177-191.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00177
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In daily communication, a speaker's voice usually carries a particular emotion. Specifically, emotional information can be transmitted in two ways: the speech’s prosody and its semantic content. Previous studies have found that emotional prosody has the effect of releasing auditory informational masking. The purpose of the present study is a), to test whether the emotional semantic content also has the effect of releasing speech from informational masking, and if so, b) to explore what is the difference between the role of emotional prosody and emotional content in releasing informational masking.

This study consisted of two experiments, each divided into two sub-experiments. A perceived spatial separation paradigm was adopted in all experiments to separate the effects of informational masking from that of energetic masking. Experiment 1 explored the mechanism of emotional prosody in the unmasking of informational masking. A complete within-subject design of 2 (perceived spatial separation: no, have) × 2 (emotional prosody: neutral, happy) × 4 (signal-to-noise ratio: −8 dB, −4 dB, 0 dB, 4 dB) was adopted in both sub-experiments. Experiment 1a employed time-reversed sentences with no semantic intelligibility as masking sounds (with presumed only perceptual informational masking). Experiment 1b used syntactically correct nonsense sentences as masking sounds (with both perceptual and cognitive informational masking). Experiment 2 also contained two sub-experiments; it aimed to examine the role of the emotional semantics of speech in releasing informational masking. A complete within-subject design of 2 (perceived spatial separation: no, have) × 2 (emotional semantics: neutral, positive) × 4 (signal-to-noise ratio: −8 dB, −4 dB, 0 dB, 4 dB) was adopted in both sub-experiments. Experiment 2a employed time- reversed sentences with no semantic intelligibility as masking sounds. Experiment 2b used syntactically correct nonsense sentences as masking sounds.

Experiment 1a showed that the accuracy of recognition of the target sentence uttered in emotional prosody (M = 0.72, 95% CI: [0.75]) was significantly higher than that of the target sentence uttered in neutral prosody (M = 0.69, 95% CI: [0.73]), F (1, 25) = 6.02, p = 0.02, η2p = 0.19. Experiment 1b showed that the accuracy of recognition of the target sentence uttered in emotional prosody (M = 0.61, 95% CI: [0.63]) was significantly higher than that of the target sentence uttered in neutral prosody(M = 0.53, 95% CI: [0.57]), F (1, 30) = 38.15, p < 0.001,η2p = 0.56. There was a marginally significant difference between the results of Experiment 1a and Experiment 1b, t (55) = −1.75, p = 0.086. Experiment 2a showed no significant difference in recognition accuracy between target sentences with emotional semantics and those with neutral semantics, F (1, 29) = 2.60, p = 0.117. Experiment 2b showed that the recognition accuracy of target sentences with emotional semantics (M = 0.61, 95% CI: [0.64]) was significantly higher than that of target sentences with neutral semantics (M = 0.57, 95% CI: [0.59]), F (1, 26) = 19.55, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.43. The study found no significant difference between Experiments 2a and 2b, t (55) = −1.48, p = 0.144.

In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the mechanisms of emotional prosody and emotional semantics are different in releasing speech from informational masking. Emotional prosody of speech can preferentially attract more attention from listeners and reduce perceptual informational masking, but it only has a minor effect on releasing cognitive informational masking. The emotional semantics of speech can preferentially occupy more cognitive processing resources of listeners. Hence, it can reduce the cognitive informational masking; however, it fails to release the perceptual informational masking.

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The influence of emotion regulation flexibility on negative emotions: Evidence from experience sampling
WANG Xiaoqin, TAN Yafei, MENG Jie, LIU Yuan, WEI Dongtao, YANG Wenjing, QIU Jiang
2023, 55 (2):  192-209.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00192
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In our complex social environments, life situations are ever-changing. When dealing with these changes, there is no one-size-fits-all response or regulatory strategy suitable for all situations. Emotion regulation flexibility (ERF)—a framework for understanding individual differences in adaptive responding to ever-changing life contexts—emphasizes that individuals can flexibly deploy and adjust emotion regulation strategies according to specific characteristics of stressful situations in daily life. To achieve regulatory efficacy, it is important that one can utilize a balanced profile of ER strategies and select strategies that fit well with particular stressful situations. Specifically, using multiple ER strategies in daily life, rather than relying on only single-strategies, would indicate higher ERF. Additionally, based on leading models of strategy-situation fit, certain ER strategies are more appropriate for high versus low intensity stressful events. For instance, distraction involves with shielding oneself from negative stimuli and replacing them with irrelevant things, which may have a greater regulatory effect in high-intensity negative situations. Conversely, strategies such as reappraisal, which involves the processing of negative situations through deep cognitive change, may be more effective in lower-intensity negative situations and as a cornerstone of longer-term ER. We used the experience-sampling method (ESM) to quantify individual’s ERF; more specifically we assess participants for 1) having more or less balanced ER strategy profiles and 2) showing greater strategy-situation fit, in regard to the use of distraction versus reappraisal in the regulation of high-intensity versus low-intensity negative life events. To test the adaptive value of ERF on negative emotions and mental health, we investigated the influence of ERF on depressive and anxiety symptoms in two samples. We hypothesized that individuals with a more balanced profile of ER strategy use and a great level of strategy-situation fit would have higher levels of mental health, indicated by low levels of anxiety and depressive feelings.

In sample 1, two hundred eight college students finished the ESM procedure (2859 beeps). Intensity of negative situations was measured by self-reported negative feelings for the time points where participants reported an adverse event. Simultaneously, we assessed participants’ use of two ER strategies (i.e., distraction and reappraisal). Considering the negative impact of COVID-19 on people’s daily life, we collected another sample (sample 2, 3462 beeps) with one hundred people who lived in Hubei Province, where Wuhan was in lockdown during the severe phase of COVID-19 (March 7-13, 2020). We measured intensity of negative situations (by averaging individuals’ negative feelings), as well as the use of two ER strategies at corresponding time points. After completing the ESM procedure, the participants were asked to fill out a series of emotional health questionnaires, including Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Spielberger State Anxiety Scale. Multilevel models were used to fit the covariation between the use of distraction versus reappraisal ER strategies and the intensity of negative events. Additionally, we used multiple level regression models to test whether high level of strategy-situation fit would result in lower negative feelings. To test whether a single-strategy preference would lead to higher levels of anxiety and depressive feelings compared to a multiple-strategy preference, latent profile analyses (LPA) was used.

Results from the LPA indicated that there were five emotion regulation profiles in sample 1 (AIC = 3597.30, BIC = 3751.48, Entropy = 0.84, BLRT_p = 0.009) and six profiles in sample2 (AIC = 1595.19, BIC = 1754.71, Entropy = 0.95, BLRT_p = 0.001). In sample 1, results from One-way ANOVA showed that there were significant difference between five profiles in both depression (F (4, 206) = 5.44, p < 0.001) and anxiety (F (4, 206) = 5.68, p < 0.001) (See Figure 1 a-b). In sample 2, results from One-way ANOVA also showed that there were significant difference between six profiles in both depression (F (5, 95) = 2.74, p = 0.024) and anxiety (F (5, 95) = 2.98, p = 0.015) (See Figure 1 c-d). Specifically, individuals with preferences for rumination and express suppression reported higher levels depression and anxiety than individuals with a multi-strategy preference in two independent samples. In the multilevel models, results of the two independent samples both suggested that there were significant association between strategy-situation fit and depression and anxiety (Depression: Sample 1 [B = −0.01, p = 0.047, f 2 =0.03]; Sample 2 [B = −0.01, p = 0.017, f 2 = 0.03], see Table 1; Anxiety: Sample 1 [B = −0.00, p = 0.591]; Sample 2 [B = −0.01, p < 0.001, f 2 = 0.05], see Table 3). Furthermore, simple slope tests showed that individuals who were more inclined to use a higher level of distraction in response to high-intensity negative situations (e.g., adverse events or during COVID-19) and of reappraisal during low-intensity situations (i.e., high level of ERF) reported lower levels of depression (Sample 1 [B = 0.14, p = 0.003]; Sample 2 [B = 0.13, p < 0.001], See Table 2, Figure 2 a-b and Figure 3 a-b) and anxiety (Sample 1 [B = 0.04, p = 0.356]; Sample 2 [B = 0.26, p < 0.001] See Table 4, Figure 2 c-d and Figure 3 c-d). On the converse, individuals who tended to use more distraction in low intensity situations and more reappraisal in high intensity situations, (i.e., those showing lower ERF) reported a higher level of negative feelings.

Together, our findings revealed a negative relationship between ERF and mental health problems in two samples, suggesting that having balanced ER profiles and flexibly deploying strategies in specific life contexts may have adaptive value in facilitating positive mental health. This work deepens our understanding of the interaction between ER strategies and situational demands, paving the way for future intervention research to help alleviate negative emotions associated with affective disorders or the experience of major traumatic events (such as epidemics, earthquakes, etc.).

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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex plays a critical role on implicit emotion regulation: A tDCS study
GAO Kexiang, ZHANG Yueyao, LI Sijin, YUAN Jiajin, LI Hong, ZHANG Dandan
2023, 55 (2):  210-223.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00210
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Emotion regulation is crucial to mental health and social life. Traditional view conceived emotion regulation as a deliberative process. However, there is growing evidence that emotion regulation can implement at an implicit level without or with limited involvement of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) that is responsible for cognitive control. Unlike explicit emotion regulation, we have few knowledge on the neural mechanisms underlying implicit emotion regulation. Here, we investigated the effect of excitatory the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to provide causal evidence for the key role of the vmPFC in implicit emotion regulation.

This study had a mixed design, with group (anodal vs. sham) as the between-subject factor and priming type (reappraisal vs. baseline) as the within-subject factor. A total of 80 participants were recruited and randomly assigned to the anodal group and the sham tDCS group. The task was divided into two blocks, i.e., the implicit reappraisal block and the baseline block (Figure 1A). The order of the two blocks was counterbalanced within the participants in each group. At the beginning of each block, participants were required to complete a tDCS session (1.5 mA; 10 min for the active group and 1 min for the sham group). The anodal electrode was placed in the middle of Fz and Fpz and the ground electrode was placed under the chin). Then, participants completed six sessions of sentence unscramble task (10 trials per session) to prime the emotion regulation goal (Figure 1B). Each session of the sentence unscramble task was followed by a picture viewing task (5 trials) to evoke negative emotions (Figure 1C). The self-reported emotion rating and EEG signals were recorded during the picture viewing task. Half an hour after the end of the picture viewing task, participants were asked to rate the valence (1 = very unpleasant; 9 = very pleasant) of all viewed images in the picture viewing task.

The results showed that the experimental group (n = 40) reported lower negative emotional experience (experimental group: M = 0.32, SE = 0.01, control group: M = 0.28, SE = 0.01; F(1, 78) = 4.2, p = 0.043, ηp2 = 0.051) and showed lower LPP amplitudes (experimental group: M = 0.80 µV, SE= 0.26, control group: M = 1.99 µV, SE = 0.26; F(1, 78) = 11.0, p = 0.001, ηp2 = 0.124; Figure 2AC) when the vmPFC was activated in the cognitive reappraisal block compared to the control group (n = 40), indicating that excitatory vmPFC could effectively facilitate the ability of implicit emotion regulation. Furthermore, we also found that excitatory vmPFC can reduce the P1 amplitude (experimental group: M = 4.71 µV, SE = 0.40, control group: M = 6.12 µV, SE = 0.40; F(1, 78) = 6.1, p = 0.016, ηp2 = 0.072; measured as the average amplitude of O1, O2) under both baseline and reappraisal conditions.

The above results indicated that activating the vmPFC could not only facilitate implicit emotion regulation but also reduce early attention distribution to negative stimuli. This study is the first attempt to use the tDCS technique to investigate priming-induced implicit emotion regulation. The results directly reveal the causal relationship between the vmPFC and implicit cognitive reappraisal, suggesting this brain region as a potential target of neural modulation to enhance the ability of implicit emotion regulation in clinical populations.

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Dynamic information processing under self and another’s perspectives: A behavioral oscillation study
SUN Chu, GENG Haiyan
2023, 55 (2):  224-236.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00224
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Social interactions require individuals to take the perspectives of others and recognize that the views and beliefs of others are sometimes different from their own, these usually happen implicitly, concurrently with the processing of the self-perspective. Previous studies suggested that individuals obtain the mental state of others by imagining that they are in the body of others. This embodied experience when taking others’ perspective arises from the neural mechanisms of shared self and other representations. An interesting but unanswered question is, if self-processing shares neural representations with other-processing, how individuals simultaneously process the self and others’ perspectives in a social interaction. A possible hypothesis is that the brain processes these two types of information alternately and periodically, and when the alternation is fast enough, the two processes can appear to be simultaneous, and formulate behavioral oscillations, similar to that found in other cognitive processes such as attention and priming. Therefore, with three experiments, the current study explored whether there is a behavioral oscillation when individuals process information from the self-perspective and another person’s perspective.

This study adopted a novel face-orientation judgement task to detect spontaneous visual perspective taking (VPT) and its behavioral oscillations. In this task, A top view image of an agent was presented, followed shortly by a central face of different orientations, briefly presented also on the computer screen. Participants were asked to make a quick judgement on the orientation of the central face presented. The accuracy of the judgment was used as the indicator of the participants’ performance. Experiment 1 tested whether participants recognize better the upright faces under the perspective of the agent (i.e. another person), due to spontaneous VPT. Experiment 1 used a 2 (agent orientation) × 3 (face orientation) within-subject design. The agent orientation had two levels: face to the central face and back to the central face. The face orientation had three levels: an upright face under the self-perspective (US), an upright face under another’s perspective (UO), and a non-upright face under both the self- and other- perspectives (NB). Figure 1 is an illustration of the procedure of Experiment 1. Experiment 2 used two face orientations (US vs. UO) with the agent-face SOA, the elapsed time between the appearance of the agent and the face, ranging 0.2~1.2 s across 30 equidistant conditions to explore whether the participants’ face recognition showed behavioral oscillations over time. Figure 2 is an illustration of the procedure of Experiment 2. Experiment 3 extended the agent-face SOA (0.2~2.2 s) to observe the behavioral oscillation over a longer period time.

In Experiment 1, the main effect of agent orientation was not significant, F (1, 22) = 3.84, p = 0.063, the main effect of face orientation was significant, F (2, 21) = 49.50, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.83, participants’ judgement was the best for the US faces (M = 0.98, SE = 0.01), followed by the UO faces (M = 0.80, SE = 0.02), and then the NB faces (M = 0.76, SE = 0.02), all paired comparisons were significant (US vs. UO: p < 0.001; US vs. NB: p < 0.001; UO vs. NB: p = 0.012). More important, the interaction between the agent orientation and the face orientation was significant, F (2, 21) = 8.30, p = 0.002, ηp2 = 0.44. When the agent faced to the central face, participants’ judgement was better for the UO faces (M = 0.83, SE = 0.02) compared to the NB faces (M = 0.76, SE = 0.02), SE = 0.02, p < 0.001; but when the agent was back to the central face, there was no significant difference between UO faces (M = 0.77, SE = 0.02) and NB faces (M = 0.77, SE = 0.03), SE = 0.02, p = 1. The results of Experiment 1 were shown in Figure 3. In Experiment 2, the Fourier transform and permutation tests showed that the accuracy rate of UO face as a function of agent-face SOA had an oscillation frequency of about 1 Hz. Paired t-tests on normalized curves found that the judgement of US faces was better than UO faces in the SOA of 0.2~0.5 s, but a revered pattern was found for the 0.7~1 s interval. The results of Experiment 2 were shown in Figure 4. In Experiment 3, by using the same statistical method as in Experiment 2, the results showed that both the accuracy rate of US faces and UO faces had an oscillation frequency of about 1 Hz. The distribution of the phase difference between the two curves of each participant in the range of 0.5~1.5 Hz did not follow a uniform distribution (using Rayleigh test, p = 0.040), but concentrated around 180 degree (M = 186.96, SD = 73.98), indicating that the enhanced processing in another’s perspective is accompanied by the weakened processing in the self-perspective, and vice versa. The results of Experiment 3 were shown in Figure 5.

We found that individuals showed behavioral oscillations with a frequency of about 1 Hz when processing information in the self-perspective and another’s perspective. These results help us understand how individuals process information about themselves and others in social interactions: individuals will focus their cognitive resources only on one perspective at a time, rather than allocating between the two perspectives at the same time. Through the rapid switching between the two perspectives, the simultaneous processing of the two can be achieved, and the possible confusion caused by the shared-representation mechanism can be effectively avoided. To our knowledge, these findings demonstrate for the first-time evidence of behavioral oscillations in social cognition, further illustrating the pervasiveness of behavioral oscillations in cognitive processing.

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The effective learning of discrete trial teaching: Evidence from pre-service teachers of children with autism
MA Shucai, LI Mengchun, QIAO Yu, HE Huan, LUO Manling
2023, 55 (2):  237-256.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00237
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Under the background of the continuous increase in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) year by year as well as policy promotion and institutional guarantee of the inclusive education mode of learning in regular class, which covered every children with any kind of disability, children with ASD has become the new growth point of this kind of inclusive education. More and more autistic children are going to regular schools, although there was no accurate data on children with autism attending regular classes in China. However, the fact was that regular education teachers were generally lack of knowledge and skills in ASD and evidence-based educational interventions, which seriously undermines the results of this kind of inclusion education for these children. Setting up practice-oriented general education courses related to evidence-based education interventions in normal universities and providing pre-service teachers of autistic children with knowledge of evidence-based education interventions and cultivating their ability to faithfully implement these methods was an important entry point to fundamentally reverse this situation. The reality of both class periods being less and education internship opportunities being relative lack, made the question how practice-oriented general curriculum teaching can promote related teachers to take effective and efficient means of training or technology, which will assist pre-service teachers with autonomously learning evidence-based education interventions so that they can implement them with high fidelity, became the primary real problem today’s normal universities must be responded.

Among thousands of evidence-based interventions, the Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) got its evidence-based position for double advantage. First, All kinds of children, including the autistics and even their typical peers, could get many gains from the experiences of DTT intervention. The significant intervention improvements was occurred in areas such as intellectual skills, daily living skills, recognition and language skills, Motor and imitation skills, Symptoms of autism, problem behaviors, the numbers of supportive needs and so on. Besides this benefit to children with ASD, another advantage of DTT was it can be mastered and implemented with high fidelity by variety of stakeholders, including pre-service teachers from variety of contexts, such as school, community, institution, clinics and families and so on. It is therefore imperative for the pre-service teachers to find an efficient and effective self-instruction procedure based on their daily learning environment, help them acquire the core knowledge and skills of DTT, and enable them to apply these knowledge and skills to the life of autistic children for the sake of solving practical problems. In addition, do the advantages of channel effect and asynchronous training strategies still exist stably in the self-instruction of DTT skills of these pre-service teachers? The question remains untested.

In order to answer these questions, based on the existing researches, and with more detailed and intuitive real teaching videos replacing animation materials of relevant studies, the current study attempted to use pre-service teachers who never contacted with children with ASD as participants to exam what influences will be brought by different presenting modes of learning materials on their acquisition of DTT. By means of separately applying a self-paced repeating loop procedure of “learning→test→answer→feedback” and a role playing plus a self-paced repeating loop procedure of “learning→test→answer→feedback”, researchers conducted three experiments, respectively exploring what kinds of knowledge learning effect and practical operation transformation effect that pre-service teachers will perform, under the visual single-channel pattern (word, PPT) and audio-visual dual-channel pattern (real teaching video).

Experiment 1 recruited 24 students from Northwest Normal University, and tested the effect of audiovisual dual-channel materials on the DTT learning effect of pre-service teachers from the perspective of the presentation models of learning materials. Experiment 2 repeated the general method of Experiment 1 with another 24 participants recruited from the same university, aiming at exploring whether the distribution way of the test materials would affect the results of the Experiment 1. Considering that DTT is a very practical skill, researchers conducted Experiment 3 with another 6 participants, with the purpose of exploring whether audiovisual dual-channel materials had learning advantages at the level of practice application.

The results of Experiment 1 showed that the presentation models of learning materials had a significant impact on the independent learning effect of pre-service teachers in Discrete Trial Teaching: The audio-visual dual-channel material (real teaching video) which is composed of “subtitle + picture + sound explanation” produced the most desirable results (p < 0.05, Table 1). Between the rest two of visual single-channel materials, the PPT material which is composed of “text + image” had a slight advantage over the Word text material. The result of Experiment 2 was consistent with that of Experiment 1, which excluded the influence of the distribution of test materials on the experimental results (p < 0.05, Table 2). At the same time, it was further verified that PPT material had more advantages than Word text material. The results of Experiment 3 further proved that the advantages of real teaching videos were still existed, F(2, 4) = 30.33, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.86 (see Figure 1, Table 3).

These findings suggested that the effective and efficient way for pre-service teachers to learn Discrete Trial Teaching will appear at the moment when the learning content was presented in audio-visual dual channels, both at the level of theory learning (Experiment 1, Experiment 2, Experiment 3) and implementation (Experiment 3). The field of pre-service teachers' evidence-based practices training also has modality effect. The real instruction video had learning advantage, regardless of its level of declarative knowledge or operational and procedural knowledge for evidence-based practices. Besides enriching the existing research literature, the implications of these findings were as followed: (1) provided further supporting evidence for the existence of modality effects; (2) extended modality effects into the learning field of evidence-based practices; (3) brought certain inspiration and practical value to teaching reform and innovation for pre-service teachers' capacity of evidence-based education; (4) lay a foundation for improving the quality and level of inclusion education for children with ASD on the supply side of the universities that cultivate teachers for the first line of education systems.

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Effects of family supportive supervisor behavior on employee outcomes and mediating mechanisms: A meta-analysis
LI Chaoping, MENG Xue, XU Yan, LAN Yuanmei
2023, 55 (2):  257-271.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00257
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Family supportive supervisor behavior (FSSB) has important impacts on employees’ performance, behavior, and well-being. However, FSSB's incremental predictive effects and its mechanisms have not received enough attention in the literature. Conservation of resources theory, social exchange theory, and affective event theory all can provide distinctive theoretical arguments, while meta-analysis offers a methodological tool to analyze these two issues. We thus conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the incremental predictive effects of FSSB on employees' task performance, innovative behavior, and life satisfaction as well as mechanisms inherently embedded in those three theoretical perspectives.

In this study, we used four methods to search and screen studies about FSSB. Following these steps, 164 qualified articles were included. These articles comprise 204 independent studies and 340 effect sizes, with a total sample size of 91145. Based on these studies, we conducted publication bias analysis, main effect analysis, relative weight analysis, incremental validity analysis, and meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM). Specifically, we first used Begg's intercept, Egger’s regression, and fail-safe number to test publication bias. Second, Hunter and Schmidt’s method was used to analyze the main effects of FSSB. Third, we conducted relative weight analysis and incremental validity analysis to examine the relative validity of FSSB. Finally, MASEM was conducted.

As shown in Table 1, the results suggested that the meta-analytic relationships examined are robust to publication bias. Main effect analysis showed that FSSB was positively correlated with employees' task performance ($\bar{ρ}$= 0.34, 95% CI = [0.40]), innovative behavior ( $\bar{ρ}$= 0.33, 95% CI = [0.40]), and life satisfaction ($\bar{ρ}$ = 0.33, 95% CI = [0.39]). Table 2 summarizes the analyses of the incremental validity of FSSB over GSSB. The results showed that FSSB strongly predicted employees' task performance (β = 0.28, p < 0.001, ΔR2 = 0.05), innovative behavior (β = 0.24, p < 0.001, ΔR2 = 0.04), and life satisfaction (β = 0.22, p < 0.001, ΔR2 = 0.03), even after controlling for the effects of general supportive supervisor behavior (GSSB). As displayed in Figure 1, the results of path analysis showed that work-to-family conflict functioned as a mediator linking FSSB with task performance and life satisfaction. The indirect effects were 0.03 and 0.07, with 95% Monte Carlo confidence intervals (CIs) [0.04] and [0.09], respectively. LMX mediated the relationships linking FSSB with task performance, innovative behavior, and life satisfaction. The indirect effects were 0.16, 0.11, and 0.27, with 95% Monte Carlo CIs [0.18], [0.14], and [0.30], respectively. Affective commitment played a positive mediating role in the relationships linking FSSB with task performance and innovative behavior. The indirect effects were 0.04 and 0.16, with 95% Monte Carlo CIs [0.05] and [0.18], respectively.

Our meta-analytic findings demonstrated that FSSB was more strongly associated with task performance, innovative behavior, and life satisfaction than GSSB. In addition, we compared three distinct pathways by which FSSB influenced the above three outcomes, including work-to-family conflict, LMX, and affective commitment. Specifically, FSSB significantly predicted task performance via all of these three mediators. The association between FSSB and innovative behavior was mediated by LMX and affective commitment. Work-to-family conflict and LMX served as mediators in the link between FSSB and life satisfaction. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the construct validity and influence mechanisms of FSSB, but also produce meaningful practical implications for leaders regarding how to lead in more effective ways to facilitate better employee outcomes.

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Innovation expectation discrepancy and team radical innovation: A self-regulatory perspective
LIU ZhiQiang, XU YuPing, XU JianWei, ZHOU Rong, LONG LiRong
2023, 55 (2):  272-285.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00272
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In today’s competitive marketplace, organizations considerably rely on radical innovation in a team to gain and maintain competitive advantages. Although scholars have studied the mechanism by which such innovation forms from different perspectives, few studies have focused on the potential impact of innovation expectation discrepancy and the self-regulation processes of team leaders. Drawing on self-regulation theory, the current research investigated creative process engagement among leaders as a vital mechanism through which innovation expectation discrepancy affects team radical innovation. We also examined the co-moderating effect of the perceived overqualification of leaders and criteria for organizational promotion on the relationship between innovation expectation discrepancy and team radical innovation. The research model is summarized in Figure 1.

To test our hypothesized model, we carried out an experiment (Study 1) and a field survey (Study 2). In Study 1, participants were randomly allocated to one of 68 teams, which were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (performance above expectations, below expectations, no discrepancy). Innovation expectation discrepancy was manipulated via expert evaluations of the outcomes of a creative task executed by different teams. Table 1 displays means and standard deviations by condition. The results indicated that innovation expectation discrepancy has a U-shaped impact on a team leader’s creative process engagement (H1: β = 1.06, p < 0.001). Such engagement mediates the U-shaped relationship between innovation expectation discrepancy and team radical innovation (H2: performance below expectations, instantaneous indirect effect = -1.22, 95% CI = [-3.50, -0.15]; no discrepancy, instantaneous indirect effect = -0.18, 95% CI = [-1.45, 0.41]; performance above expectations, instantaneous indirect effect = 0.87, 95% CI = [2.01]).

In Study 2, our sample comprised 76 R&D teams from various organizations. Means, standard deviations, and correlations for the main variables appear in Table 2. The results replicated the U-shaped relationship between innovation expectation discrepancy and creative process engagement (H1: β = 0.30, p < 0.001) and the indirect U-shaped relationship between innovation expectation discrepancy and team radical innovation via creative process engagement (H2: Table3). In addition, perceived overqualification and organizational promotion criteria jointly moderate the U-shaped effect of innovation expectation discrepancy on team radical innovation via creative process engagement (H3: Table3). Compared with the situation of high perceived overqualification and absolute promotion criteria and the situation of low perceived overqualification and relative promotion criteria, the indirect effect of innovation expectation discrepancy on team radical innovation through creative process engagement is stronger when perceived overqualification is high and the organization implements relative promotion criteria. Beyond our expectations, there is no significant difference in the impact of innovation expectation discrepancy on team radical innovation in the case of high perceived overqualification and relative promotion criteria and in the case of low perceived overqualification and absolute promotion criteria.

Our study contributes to the literature in several distinct ways. First, it derived novel insights into the cultivation of radical innovation in a team by focusing on the effects of innovation expectation discrepancy from the perspective of a team leader. Second, this study enriched extant knowledge about how team leaders promote radical innovation through self-regulation. Specifically, it identified the creative process engagement of a leader as an important mechanism by which innovation expectation discrepancy affects team radical innovation. Third, this research found that when organizations implement relative promotion criteria and a team leader’s perceived overqualification is high, the impact of innovation expectation discrepancy on team radical innovation via creative process engagement can be strengthened, which helps companies determine how to achieve radical innovation in teams.

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Sleep deprivation and post-purchase regret: Evidence from a large-scale individual-level data
GONG Shiyang, ZHANG Yibo, GAO Yuetao
2023, 55 (2):  286-300.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00286
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Sleep deprivation is becoming a common problem, but little research has been done to link sleep deprivation to consumer behavior. This study investigates the relationship between sleep deprivation and post-purchase regret by analyzing a large-scale individual-level dataset (N = 1,625,472) from a leading online retailing website in China. Drawing on ego depletion theory, we postulate that when consumers are sleep-deprived while shopping (past midnight), they are more likely to make impulsive or unplanned purchases, resulting in a higher likelihood of post-purchase regret.

We measure consumer post-purchase regret by product return. First, we use Logit regressions to analyze the relationship between sleep deprivation and product return choice. The results show that sleep deprivation is positively associated with product return choice (b = 0.0136, p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval = [0.0150]), suggesting that consumers had a higher probability of returning an item when they made a purchase after midnight (between 12:00a.m. and 5:59a.m., see Table 1). The regression results for other control variables are as expected: price is positively related to product return choice (b = −0.0006, p = 0.006); both the ratio (b = −0.0438, p < 0.001) and the amount (b = −0.0006, p = 0.006) of the promotion offer decrease product return; website sales period is positively related to product return (b = 0.0109, p < 0.001); gender is not significantly related to product return (b = −0.0003, p = 0.525); experienced consumer has a higher likelihood of returning product (b = 0.0098, p < 0.001).

Second, we use Cox proportional-hazards regressions to analyze the relationship between sleep deprivation and product return duration. The results show that sleep deprivation is associated with a significantly higher risk of product return, with a corresponding hazard ratio greater than 1 (hazard ratio = 1.2144, 95% confidence interval = [1.1924, 1.2369], see Table 2).

Third, we explore the boundary conditions of the relationship between sleep deprivation and product return. As shown in Table 3, the price of the product positively moderates the relationship between sleep deprivation and product return choice (b = 0.0030, p < 0.001), whereas the promotion offer ratio negatively moderates the relationship between sleep deprivation and product return choice (b = −0.0227, p = 0.032).

The study suggests several managerial implications. First, companies could adjust the timing of intensive promotion activities from midnight to the evening (e.g., 8:00p.m. to 11:59p.m.). Such adjustment may prevent consumers from staying up late at midnight to shop, thereby reducing their impulsive and unplanned actions and post-purchase regret. Second, companies could provide more central cues (e.g., product information, promotion information, etc.) to stimulate rational decision-making processing for those consumers who shop after midnight. Finally, for consumers who are predicted high risk of post-purchase regret, companies can send targeted messages to better communicate the value of the product and reduce their propensity to return the product.

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The effect of mortality salience on consumers' preference for experiential purchases and its mechanism
LI Bin, ZHU Qin, HE Ruwan, LI Aimei, WEI Haiying
2023, 55 (2):  301-317.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00301
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Inevitably, consumers will be exposed to death-related information in their daily lives. For example, they are informed about deaths and injuries caused by accidents, terrorism and disasters on social media. They may also encounter the experiences of deceased friends and relatives or the news of unfortunate strangers. Especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, consumers are more frequently exposed to death cues. Researches have shown that consumers' decision-makings and purchasing behaviors shift when dealing with death threats. Compared to material consumption, experiential consumption delivers greater and persistent well-being and it is emerging as an extremely important consumption pattern. It is unclear, however, whether these mortality cues will exert positive or negative effects on consumers’ preference for experiential purchases. Based on the meaning maintenance model, 4 studies were conducted to examine how mortality salience influences consumers' preference for experiential purchases.

In Study 1a and Study 1b, we experimentally manipulated mortality salience and examined its effect on consumers’ preference for experiential purchases. Study 1a (N = 140) was a single factor (mortality salience) between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to different groups to imagine about incurable infectious disease or dental surgery. The results showed that in the control condition, the proportion of material purchases (66.2%) was significantly higher than that of experiential purchases (33.8%), while the proportion of material (50.0%) and experiential purchases (50.0%) in the mortality salience condition was equally chosen (χ2(1) = 11.31, p = 0.001; Table 1). The results of Multinomial Logistics Regression Analysis also indicate that mortality salience significantly positively affects the preference for experiential purchases (B = 0.97, SE = 0.34, Wald χ2 = 8.34, p = 0.004).

And by changing the manipulation and measurement method, Study 1b (N = 252) repeated the the main effect with a single factor (mortality salience) between-subjects design, where participants were instructed to write about death or dental pain. It was found that preference for experiential product was significantly higher in the mortality salient condition (M = 6.76, SD = 3.11) than in the control condition (M = 5.83, SD = 2.49, t(250) = 3.13, p = 0.002, d = 0.33).

Study 2 (N =219) was designed to test the mediating role of meaning in life. Participants were required to read a news report concerning traffic accident or dental surgery, and then finish the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Consistent with Study 1a, the proportion of material purchases (65.8%) in control condition was significantly higher than that of experiential purchases (34.2%), while the proportion of material (54.4%) and experiential purchases (45.6%) in the mortality salience condition was not significant (χ2(1) = 8.78, p = 0.003; Table 2). We further adopted a mediating effect test after controlling for the impacts of covariates. The results showed that mortality salience significantly influenced meaning in life (β = −0.29, p < 0.001), and changes consumers’ preference for experiential purchases (β = 0.23, p = 0.006). When mortality salience and meaning in life predicted preference for experiential purchases at the same time, the effect of mortality salience on preference for experiential purchases remains significant (β = 0.18, p = 0.031; Figure 1). With a PROCESS Model 4, with 5000 bootstrapping samples, it was found that the indirect effect of mortality salience on preference for experiential purchases via meaning in life was significant (SE = 0.08, 95% CI = [0.162]).

Study 3 (N = 166) was a 2 (mortality salience vs. control condition) × 2 (social support: high level vs. low level) between-subjects design. Participants were provided a news report pertaining to the global fatalities under the COVID-19 pandemic in mortality salience condition, and pertaining to global tourism during the pandemic period in the control condition. Social support was manipulated by writing in detail a difficult situation “in which your family or friends accompanied you”, or “in which you had to face all by yourself”. Consistent with our previous studies, compared to control condition (M = 3.50, SD = 0.31), the preference for experiential purchases of participants in mortality salience condition was significantly higher (M = 4.61 SD = 0.31, F(1, 156) = 6.35, p = 0.013, η² = 0.039); the indirect effect of mortality salience on preference for experiential purchases via meaning in life was also significant (SE = 0.22, 95% CI = [0.577]). We conducted a 2 (mortality salience vs. control condition) × 2 (social support: high level vs. low level) ANOVA on meaning in life. The interaction effect was significant (F(1, 158) = 4.59, p = 0.034, η² = 0.028).More specifically, we find that under the low social support condition, participants reported less meaning in life when they experienced mortality salience (F(1, 158) = 11.55, p = 0.001). However, no significant difference exists between mortality salience and control condition under high social support condition (F(1, 158) = 0.11, p > 0.05; Figure 2). The results of Process Model 7 with 5000 bootstrapping samples further reveled that social support significantly moderated the mediating effect of meaning in life between mortality salience and preference for experiential purchases (SE = −0.354, 95% CI = [−0.901, −0.002]). Under low social support condition, the mediating effect of meaning in life was significant (SE = 0.392, 95% CI = [0.879]). Under the high social support condition, the mediating effect of meaning in life was not significant (SE = 0.039, 95% CI = [−0.226, 0.369]; Figure 3).

The main results of this study are as follows: (1) Exposed to mortality salience will lead to stronger preference for experiential purchases. (2) The effects seem to be driven by meaning in life, whereby exposure to mortality salience undermines consumers' meaning in life, and consumers will gravitate towards experiential consumption to enhance their impaired meaning. (3) Social support moderates the effect of mortality salience on meaning in life. Only when consumers received low level of social support, will mortality salience reduce their meaning in life. (4) Social support moderates the mediating effect of meaning in life on mortality salience and preference for experiential purchases. Specifically, meaning in life mediates the effect of mortality salience on preference for experiential purchases only when consumers received low social support. To enhance the overall validity, we performed a single-paper meta-analysis (SPM) on the four studies (Table 3). The SPM showed that consumers had greater preference of experiential purchase when exposed to mortality salience (Estimate β = 0.30, SE = 0.07, z = 4.178, p < 0.001), which strengthened the robustness of our general conclusion.

This research yields practical implications by demonstrating that mortality salience exerts positive effect on consumers' preference for experiential purchases, which enables us to identify the changes in consumption patterns and mindset under the pandemic, providing references for marketing and promotion strategies.

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The terror management and sorrow management of death consciousness
HUANG Chengli, HU Chao
2023, 55 (2):  318-335.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00318
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Deep in our consciousness, we all know that we will die someday. The management of mortality and death-related emotions influences our behavior profoundly. The Terror Management Theory (TMT) and Death Reflection (DR) theory postulate different ways to manage Mortality Salience (MS), i.e., reminding people of their mortality. While the TMT proposes a series of external defenses to restrain the fear of mortality, the DR theory focuses on inner growth when contemplating our mortality. On the other hand, the role of emotion in managing mortality is unclear. Firstly, does MS lead to any change in emotion? Secondly, if MS does influence emotion, what are the main emotional reactions? Thirdly, what role do emotions play in MS effects on psychological constructures? We proposed the “Sorrow Management Theory” (SMT) based on the reflective function of sadness. We hypothesized that MS should induce both fear and sadness because death implies not only the destruction of the self but also the separation from the world. Correspondingly, fear and sadness should lead to two different modes of response to MS, i.e., “Terror Management” and “Sorrow Management”, respectively. Also, we hypothesize that fear should mediate the relationship between MS and external defenses, while sadness should mediate between MS and internal growth.

We conducted three experiments to compare “Terror Management” and “Sorrow Management”. In Experiment 1, we explored the emotional changes during and after MS, using various emotion measurement methods (i.e., physiological skin conductance response, heart rate, facial expressions, and self-report emotion). Eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to the traditional MS or DR paradigm. In Experiment 2, we explored the effects of different types of death management (i.e., “sorrow management” and “terror management”) on external defenses (i.e., worldview defense and extrinsic life goal structure) and internal growth (i.e., intrinsic life goal structure). Altogether 152 participants were randomly assigned to the traditional MS paradigm, DR paradigm, or control condition. The mediating role of emotions (fear, sadness) was also explored. In Experiment 3, we explored further the effects of terror management and sorrow management on external defenses (i.e., self-esteem striving and extrinsic life goal structure) and internal growth (i.e., intrinsic life goal structure). Altogether 182 participants were randomly assigned to the traditional MS paradigm or control condition with sad or fearful background music.

In Experiment 1, in regard to self-reported emotions, the increase in sadness and fear were the primary emotional reactions after MS, t (81) = 10.39, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.15; t (81) = 8.20, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.91, respectively. The absolute values of Cohen’s d for MS effects on other basic emotions (i.e., joy, disgust, anger, surprise) were all smaller than 0.49. Additionally, the paradigm (traditional MS vs. DR) × emotion category (sadness vs. fear) × period (pre-test vs. post-test) interaction was significant on emotion value, F (1, 79) = 10.84, p = 0.001, ηp2 = 0.12. People in the DR paradigm (M = 2.24, SD = 1.53) reported more increased sadness than in the traditional MS paradigm (M = 1.03, SD = 1.03), p < 0.001, 95% CI = [1.71]. However, there was no significant difference in the increased fear between the traditional MS paradigm (M = 1.00, SD = 1.01) and DR paradigm (M = 1.17, SD = 1.36), p = 0.702, 95% CI = [−0.42, 0.62]. Moreover, sadness is a more prevalent feeling than fear among participants in the traditional MS or DR paradigm based on their choice between sadness or fear as the dominant emotion, χ2 (1, 82) = 47.82,p < 0.001. For physiological response, the skin conductance response (SCR) was significantly higher in the arousal period (M = 1.72, SD = 0.95) than in the baseline period (M = 1.06, SD = 0.72), t (81) =11.47, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.28; the heart rate (HR) was significantly higher in the arousal period (M = 77.71, SD = 12.64) than in the baseline period (M = 73.48, SD = 12.53), t (81) = 3.68, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.41. However, there was no significant difference in the changed SCR or HR (arousal period minus baseline period) between the two paradigms, ps > 0.05. In terms of facial expressions, sadness and fear were significantly different between the answering period (i.e., answering about the death-related questions) and thinking period (i.e., thinking about the death-related questions), F (1, 80) = 48.32, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.38. Specifically, sadness during the thinking period (M = 4.88, SD = 5.19) was significantly greater than during the answering period (M = 3.00, SD = 4.59), p < 0.001, 95% CI = [0.80]; in contrast, fear was significantly less during the thinking period (M = 3.06, SD = 6.15) than during the answering period (M = 4.02, SD = 6.78), p < 0.001, 95% CI = [−0.75, −0.26].

In Experiment 2, there was no significant difference between the two paradigms on external defenses (i.e., worldview defense, extrinsic life goal structure) or internal growth (i.e., intrinsic life goal structure), ps > 0.05. Nevertheless, the self-reported fear significantly mediated the effect of MS on external defense (i.e., extrinsic life goal structure) (see Figure 1), B = 0.23, SE = 0.08, 95% CI = [0.39].

In Experiment 3, the MS effects on internal growth (i.e., intrinsic life goal structure) differed significantly under different background music, F (1, 177) = 4.00, p = 0.047, ηp2 = 0.02. Specifically, participants in the traditional MS paradigm (M = 29.31, SD = 3.22) attached more importance to intrinsic life goal structure than participants in the control group (M = 27.79, SD = 3.11) when the background music was sad, p = 0.008, 95% CI = [1.94]. However, the MS effect on the intrinsic life goal structure was insignificant when the background music was fearful, p > 0.05. Besides, the type of background music (i.e., sad, fearful) functioned as a moderator in the relationship between MS and intrinsic life goal structure (see Figure 2), B = 0. 56,t = 2.02,p = 0.045. Specifically, MS prompted participants to place more emphasis on intrinsic life goal structure under the sad background music, simple slope = 0. 52,t = 2.62,p = 0. 009,95% CI = [0.91]; but not under the fearful background music, simple slope = −0.04,t = −0.20,p = 0.840,95% CI = [−0.43, 0.35].

In conclusion, these results indicated that MS elicited both sadness and fear, and sadness was more prevalent among Chinese participants. Moreover, death reflection elicited more sadness than traditional mortality salience. Fear functioned as a mediator in the relationship between MS and external defense. Finally, MS could promote internal growth when sadness (but not fear) is the dominant emotion. The current study deepens the understanding of the role of emotions (especially sadness) in MS’s effect on life goal structure, expanding the existing Terror Management Theory. The present study also provides preliminary empirical evidence for the SMT, informing the practice of psychological rescue in epidemics and other social disasters.

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Activation of group faultlines and its negative effects: Why does Xining political reform move from similar to opposing ambitions?
LI Yongrui, WANG Ming, SONG Jiayu
2023, 55 (2):  336-352.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00336
Abstract ( 25 )  
Over the past five decades, the study of diversity in work groups and organizations has become a significant domain. However, in previous research, the overall consensus seems to imply a tenuous direct relationship between diversity and performance-based outcomes. The concept of group faultlines advocates deconstructing the relationship of group diversity and process with performance output at different levels from a dynamic perspective, which is of great significance for studying group diversity. At the same time, the group faultlines construct fits well with the multiple interpersonal interactions and evolutionary characterization of top management team (TMT) that determines the outcome of organizational change, and thus provides new research perspectives. However, literature on group faultlines has two deficiencies: (1) Group members are regarded as equivalent beings; (2) and the research paradigm is not sufficiently compatible with the mechanism of group faultlines activation and evolution. What activates group faultlines? How do activated group faultlines affect the group process and organizational performance output of the TMT? These issues require urgent empirical exploration and verification.
This study investigates factors that activate the group faultlines and its mechanism affecting group processes and organizational performance output. The normative qualitative research method is used based on the Compilation of Wang Anshi Chronicles, which is associated with the relevant historical materials on the Song Dynasty and later research comments. The observation period is selected as from the time Wang Anshi first attempted to provide a skip level proposal to Emperor Song Shenzong until his second resignation as the Prime Minister of the Song Dynasty as the observation period. The interaction process, results, and causes of 52 key figures with close interaction with Wang Anshi during this period are analyzed.
Results confirm that: (1) The evolution and failure of the Xining Reform can be illustrated by the activation of group faultlines and its negative effects; (2) Wang Anshi, with his key position, different aspects of his interpersonal interaction style are the key variables that activate various group faultlines in the Xining Reform; (3) The convergence and divergence between Wang Anshi and his direct superior Song Shenzong, fellow reformers, and cooperative partners activated the group faultlines, which led to positive-negative effects and interactive evolution characterization, determining the organizational performance output.
Therefore, this study focuses on which variables and their interaction mechanism in a specific field activate the group faultlines, and then determines the group process and organizational performance output, thereby enriching and developing group faultlines theory. This study presents the following conclusions and contributions. (1) The existence of inequivalence of group members. (2) The interpersonal interaction style of key staff is an important variable that activates group faultlines. (3) Group faultlines activation and evolution can perfectly deconstruct the process of organizational change and its ultimate success or failure. (4) Group faultlines theory is a new perspective that is worthy of further research on TMT. Thus, this study provides empirical evidence and theoretical guidance for the (self-)management of multiple interpersonal interactions in TMT in organizational change.
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