ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
25 July 2022, Volume 54 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
Reports of Empirical Studies
A method for studying unconscious motion processing based on the camouflage principle
ZHAO Jiaxu, BAO Min
2022, 54 (7):  725-735.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00725
Abstract ( 116 )   HTML ( 16 )  
PDF (796KB) ( 39 )  

The present study introduces a new continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm. We used the principle of alpha blending to keep the color of the target stimuli always consistent with that of the masking stimuli. We randomly recruited eight participants. Their dominant eyes were presented with the regular CFS masks. Meanwhile the non-dominant eyes were presented with ten spatially non-overlapping squares moving at a constant velocity. The results showed that the CFS masks in this new paradigm could efficiently block the conscious processing of the multiple moving targets. Furthermore, the breakthrough rate was the lowest when the colors of the targets were fully consistent with the colors of the CFS masks. This suggests that the new paradigm is more powerful than the traditional CFS paradigm in masking dynamic stimuli. Compared with the prevalent idea of modifying CFS masks, our method is believed to have broader applicability. Therefore, we recommend the new paradigm a useful tool for future investigations of unconscious visual motion information processing.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
Flavors bias attention toward associated colors in visual search
PENG Yubin, WAN Xiaoang
2022, 54 (7):  736-747.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00736
Abstract ( 43 )   HTML ( 15 )  
PDF (373KB) ( 30 )  

People tend to associate colors with specific flavors, establishing color-flavor associations. Moreover, people can generate flavor expectations about foods and beverages based on colors. Recent research has shown that participants can generate color expectations about packaged food based on a flavor label to guide the visual search for this flavor. However, it remains unclear how flavors modulate color processing. Here, we conducted two visual search experiments to address this issue.
In Experiment 1, we used a peristaltic pump to deliver a dose of fruit-flavored beverage or flavorless purified water to the participants’ mouths (see Figure 1), followed by a shaped- based visual search task (see Figure 2). Half of the participants were informed that the strawberry and pineapple flavors were always followed by targets in the associated colors, while the rest of them were informed that the strawberry and pineapple flavors were always followed by targets in the non-associated colors. By contrast, the flavorless water was not predictive of the color of the target. As shown in Figures 3 and 4, compared to the uninformative flavor cue condition, their visual searches were faster when the target appeared in a flavor-associated color (939 ms vs. 1059 ms), F(1, 21) = 30.71, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.59, 95% CI = [-165.39, -75.13], or when the target appeared in a non-associated color but the flavor-associated color was absent from the display (1008 ms vs. 1097 ms), t(21) = 4.39, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.94, 95% CI = [-131.75, -47.12]. By contrast, the flavor cue did not facilitate visual search if the distractor was presented in the flavor-associated color (1122 ms vs. 1097 ms), t(21) = 0.79, p = 0.44, thus indicative of prioritized attention to this associated color.
Considering that the participants were exposed to the flavor labels when they received their instructions at the beginning of Experiment 1, we conducted Experiment 2 to rule out the possible influence of flavor labels. Experiment 2 was performed with the same methods as in Experiment 1 except for one important difference. The participants were not given information regarding the specific flavors. They were only informed that flavors A and B were always followed by red- and yellow-colored targets, respectively. The flavors were always followed by targets in the associated colors for half of the participants and by non-associated colors for the rest of the participants. We obtained similar result patterns as in Experiment 1. As shown in Figures 5 and 6, compared to the uninformative flavor cue condition, their visual searches were faster when the target appeared in a flavor-associated color (899 ms vs. 1004 ms), F(1, 16) = 33.30, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.66, 95% CI = [-143.37, -66.33], or when the target appeared in a non-associated color but the flavor-associated color was absent from the display (905 ms vs. 991 ms), t(16) = 4.05, p = 0.003, Cohen’s d = 0.57, 95% CI = [-143.66, -29.45]. By contrast, the flavor cue did not facilitate visual search if the distractor was presented in the flavor-associated color (979 ms vs. 991 ms), t(16) = 0.43, p > 0.99.
The results of these two experiments consistently revealed an attentional bias toward flavor-associated colors in the shape-based visual search. These findings show how flavor cues could modulate visual information processing. Our findings provide empirical evidence regarding color-flavor interactions by showing the influence of gustatory cues on visual attention, which allows us to further investigate the underlying mechanisms and neural basis of crossmodal influence in future research.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
The impact and mechanism of gaze cues on object-based attention
YAN Chi, GAO Yunfei, HU Saisai, SONG Fangxing, WANG Yonghui, ZHAO Jingjing
2022, 54 (7):  748-760.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00748
Abstract ( 39 )   HTML ( 6 )  
PDF (507KB) ( 18 )  

Eye contact plays an important role in social interaction and in capturing and maintaining attention. However, it is not clear how the eye contact interacts with objects to guide attentional allocation. Therefore, using the two-rectangle paradigm and faces or objects with different gaze directions (direct or averted gaze), the aim of our study is to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of eye contact on object-based attention by manipulating the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). In Experiment 1, it was found that the effect of eye contact on object-based effect only appeared in 300 ms SOA condition. The difference of object-based effect between direct and averted gaze came from the fact that participants reacted more quickly to the target in the invalid same condition of direct gaze than averted gaze, which suggested that direct gaze could capture rather than maintain our attention, resulting in a larger object- based effect. In Experiment 2, the contrast of the faces was reversed, but the difference of object-based effect between direct and averted gaze disappeared, thus excluding the effect of low-level physical characteristics. In Experiment 3, two eyes were overlaid with the cups as the stimuli to explore whether the gaze effect could be extended to other objects. The result was the same as Experiment 1. The results of this study showed that eye contact could interact with objects to guide attention distribution, and direct gaze could capture our attention. However, the object-based effect of eye contact was changeable in different SOA conditions. Our results supported the sensory enhancement theory.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
Online construction of spatial representation of numbers: Evidence from the SNARC effect in number processing in interferential situations
WANG Qiangqiang, ZHANG Qi, SHI Wendian, WANG Zhiwei, ZHANG Pengcheng
2022, 54 (7):  761-771.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00761
Abstract ( 50 )   HTML ( 8 )  
PDF (188KB) ( 25 )  

When randomly and centrally presenting different numbers on the display and asking participants to classify the probe numbers by pressing specified key of keyboard according to numerical magnitude or parity or numerical other natures, participants invariably respond faster to small numbers with the left key pressing than the right key pressing. However, participants respond faster to large numbers with the right key pressing than the left key pressing. This phenomenon was the spatial-numerical association of the response code (SNARC) effect. Although previous studies believed that the SNARC effect was the product of the spatial representation of numbers in individuals’ brains, it is unclear whether the spatial representation of numbers takes place in individuals’ long-term memory or their working memory. The spatial representation of numbers in long-term memory was caused by individuals’ early cultural experience, especially their reading and writing direction, and even influenced by genetic factors; however, the spatial representation of numbers in working memory was influenced by situational factors such as the provisional order of numbers, cognition tasks, interferential stimuli and was constructed online. When randomly presenting the numbers and other symbols in one experiment and asking participants to classify the numbers and other symbols depending on specific natures, the spatial representation of numbers in long-term memory was not influenced by the randomly presented context. However, the spatial representation of numbers in working memory was influenced by it. Therefore, it can be inferred that the SNARC effect was induced by other spatial representations of numbers in long-term memory or the spatial representation of numbers in working memory in the numbers and symbols randomly presented context.
Therefore, this study randomly presented numbers and letters or Chinese characters and explored the rapid presentation stimulus classification paradigm, in which participants were asked to classify numbers depending on the numerical magnitude and classify letters depending on the letters’ sequence in the alphabet or classify Chinese characters depending on the Chinese characters’ composition among the two experiments to investigate the encoding mechanism of the SNARC effect in processing numbers in the numbers and letters or Chinese characters randomly presented context to reveal whether the SNARC effect was caused by either the spatial representation of numbers in the mental number line of long-term memory, or the spatial representation of numbers in working memory. In addition, both the ratio of numbers to letters and to Chinese characters were manipulated in this study to investigate whether the SNARC effect on processing numbers in interferential situations was moderated by either the ratio of numbers to letters or to Chinese characters. The results show that (1) when both the ratio of numbers to letters were equal, no SNARC effect was captured in the processing of numbers in interferential situations; however, when both the ratio of numbers to letters were “6 to 1” and “1 to 6, ” the SNARC effect appeared in the processing of numbers in interferential situations. That is, an inverted U-shaped relationship existed between the alphanumeric ratio and SNARC effect. (2) The inverted U-shaped relationship between the alphanumeric ratio and SNARC effect can also extend to the processing of numbers in mixed number and Chinese character situations.
In conclusion, these results show that (1) randomly presenting the interference stimulus and numbers in one experiment can influence the SNARC effect in processing numbers by task switching. (2) The SNARC effect in processing numbers was moderated by the ratio of numbers to interference stimuli in interferential situations, regardless of the interference stimulus used. These results imply that spatial representations of numbers are constructed online by humans through statistical learning, and the results support the working memory account for the SNARC effect.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
The effect of secondary task on power-space interactions during the performance of a semantic category judgment task
ZHU Lei, SAI Xueying, Mulati Jiadela
2022, 54 (7):  772-778.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00772
Abstract ( 21 )   HTML ( 6 )  
PDF (213KB) ( 7 )  

There is mounting evidence suggesting that power is represented as vertical space in our brain, specifically, as verbal-spatial coding (amodal representation) and visuospatial coding (modal representation). These two types of coding are context-dependent, and the activation of which type depends on the current task. Previous studies have found that a semantic category judgment task mainly activates verbal-spatial coding. However, it is still unclear whether a semantic category judgment task also activates visuospatial coding when verbal-spatial coding is excluded. Thus, the present study aimed to explore this issue using a dual-task paradigm. Results showed that power-space interactions occurred under single-task conditions, and under dual-task conditions, the interactions were affected only by a visual-spatial secondary task. Our findings suggest that the semantic category judgment task also relies on visuospatial coding, and further support the idea that a power-space representation is context-dependent.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
Exploring the representational mechanism of implicit sequence learning: Evidence from eye movements
LU Zhanglong, LIU Mengna, LIU Yujie, MA Panpan, ZHANG Ruiping
2022, 54 (7):  779-788.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00779
Abstract ( 21 )   HTML ( 3 )  
PDF (237KB) ( 20 )  

As one of the most fundamental research questions in implicit learning, how implicit sequence learning is represented remains elusive. Using eye tracking technology, three experiments were conducted to explore the representation mechanism of implicit sequence learning. Results showed that sequence learning occurred 1) under the conditions of mixed saccade of perceptual sequence and mixed saccade of reaction sequence. 2) under the condition of prosaccade and anti-saccade; and 3) occurs with and without distracted anti-saccade, and there is no significant difference in sequence learning amount between them. The whole study shows that the representation of implicit sequence learning depends on sequence information.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
Influence of voluntary action, nature of outcomes on sense of agency under different predictability
Bu Yu-Bo, Li Li-Hong, Lv Xiang-Ling, Guo Hong-Yuan, An Can-Ling, Wang Ling-Yun
2022, 54 (7):  789-798.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00789
Abstract ( 69 )   HTML ( 5 )  
PDF (637KB) ( 27 )  

The current study investigates on influence of levels of voluntary action, nature (self-interest, altruistic, neutral) and predictability of action-outcomes on sense of agency (SoA) by interval estimation. Results showed that participants' SoA was enhanced when they had more freedom to act, regardless of nature and predictability of outcomes. Under obedient condition, i.e. low level of voluntary action, SoA was enhanced by self-interest outcomes versus altruistic outcomes when outcomes were predictable, nevertheless, when outcomes were unpredictable, there was no difference of the SoA under the condition of self-interest outcomes or altruistic outcomes, but both were weaker than neutral ones. It reveals the crucial role of subjective intention of action in the generation of SoA. At the same time, under the low level of voluntary action, whether the result of action for self-interest or altruistic moral attribute can be predicted has different influence on the individual's SoA. The results show that the action with self-interest or altruistic moral attribute has a top-down regulating effect on SoA, and this regulating effect is more prominent in the low voluntary action.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
Toddlers' anxiety predicts their creativity at the age of five: The chain mediation effects of general cognition and mastery motivation
CHENG Tong, CHENG Nanhua, WANG Meifang, WANG Zhengyan
2022, 54 (7):  799-812.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00799
Abstract ( 57 )   HTML ( 6 )  
PDF (254KB) ( 47 )  

Early childhood anxiety is a common mental health problem that affects the development of the individual central executive function, which reflects the process of creative problem-solving. In this study, a longitudinal study was designed to explore the long-term effect of preschool children's anxiety on their creativity as well as the potential mechanism. Ninety-six families (42 boys and 54 Girls) from BEIJING participated in the study. At the age of 1 and 2, the mother filled in the Social Assessment Scale for children aged 12-36 months of Chinese version and the family Basic Information Questionnaire. The Bayley Scale for Infant and Child Development was used to assess children's general cognitive abilities at age 2; at age 3, mothers reported their children's mastery of motivation; and at age 5, the Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement was used to assess children's creativity. The results show that: (1) toddlers' anxiety (general anxiety and separation anxiety) can negatively predict their creativity at the age of 5; (2) general cognition and mastery motivation play an important role in linking toddlers' anxiety (general anxiety and separation anxiety) and preschoolers' creativity; (3) toddlers' general anxiety in early childhood can also have a negative effect on their creativity at 5 years old indirectly through their motivation.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
The developmental cascades of prosocial behavior tendency, internalizing and externalizing problems for early adolescence in China: A within-person analysis
DUAN Wenting, SUN Qiwu, WANG Ming, WU Caizhi, CHEN Zhenzhen
2022, 54 (7):  813-827.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00813
Abstract ( 49 )   HTML ( 4 )  
PDF (393KB) ( 20 )  

Understanding the developmental cascades of prosocial behavior, internalizing and externalizing problems is of great value in promoting adolescent mental health. The 3-year longitudinal data of 894 junior school students were analyzed at the within-person level, and compared with the traditional cross-lagged panel model. The results showed that: (1) at the within-person level, prosocial behavior tendency had moderate or weak co-variation with internalizing and externalizing problems, and T1 prosocial behavior tendency negatively predicted T2 internalizing problems, T2 prosocial behavior tendency negatively predicted T3 externalizing problems, which has a weak effect. (2) for girls, T2 internalizing problems positively predicted T3 externalizing problems, while for boys, internalizing problems and externalizing problems did not predict each other; (3) four factors of prosocial behavior tendency (public, compliant, emotional and altruistic) negatively predicted internalizing problems in T2, which have a weak effect. (4) the results obtained by within-person analysis are different from those by traditional cross-lagged analysis, and different models have different results. Conclusion: the development of prosocial behavior tendency in early adolescence reduces internalizing and externalizing problems, which has gender difference. The analysis at the within-person level has great value in the research of adolescent psychopathology development.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
The reciprocal relationship between peer victimization and internalizing problems in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
LIAO Youguo, CHEN Jianwen, ZHANG Yan, PENG Cong
2022, 54 (7):  828-849.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00828
Abstract ( 47 )   HTML ( 3 )  
PDF (350KB) ( 31 )  

The purpose of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between peer victimization and internalizing problems in children and adolescents, and to test the applicability of interpersonal risk model, symptom-driven model and interaction model. A total of 89 articles were included, including 99 independent effects, involving 70,598 subjects. The results of random effects model analysis showed that peer victimization can predict internalizing problems (β = 0.097, 95% CI [0.083, 0.110]), and internalizing problems can also predict peer victimization (β = 0.119, 95% CI [0.104, 0.135]), results support the interaction model of peer victimization and internalizing problems. Among the predictors of internalizing problems, age and type of victimization had moderating effects, measurement interval, type of victimization, assessment method and type of problems played a moderating role in the prediction of internalizing problems to peer victimization, and neither Chinese nor Western culture type played a moderating role in the interaction model, all the moderating factors played similar roles in the bidirectional relationship between peer victimization and its subtypes of overt victimization, relational victimization and internalizing problems.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
The hierarchies of good and evil personality traits
JIAO Liying, XU Yan, TIAN Yi, GUO Zhen, ZHAO Jinzhe
2022, 54 (7):  850-866.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00850
Abstract ( 100 )   HTML ( 11 )  
PDF (624KB) ( 38 )  

The question of good and evil is an important topic in people's social life. What is the first information that people care about when they perceive others, and do they weigh different types of good and evil traits? Based on the perspective of personality psychology, this study explored the issue through four studies. Firstly, the paper explored the differences between good and evil when the moral concept of personality is activated, and then examined the differences in the core degree of different types of good and evil traits by using representativeness, desirability, the scope of trait, and importance as the measurement indicators. The results show that the hierarchies of good and evil personality traits are embodied in two aspects: (1) the hierarchy between good and evil personalities, in the moral category of personality, there exists the priority effect of the good personality; (2) the hierarchies within good and evil personalities, The core of good from the inside to out is: conscientiousness and integrity, benevolence and amicability, tolerance and magnanimity, altruism and dedication; the core of evil from the inside to out is: atrociousness and mercilessness, faithlessness and treacherousness, calumniation and circumvention, mendacity and hypocrisy. The study helps to further understand the Chinese view of good and evil, and provides a new way of thinking for the exploration of the field of good and evil.

Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
Share: