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CN 11-1911/B

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    How does emotion shape aggressive behavior of violent offenders? An explanation based on emotion regulation theory
    LIU Yuping, ZHOU Bingtao, YANG Bo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 270-280.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00270
    Abstract622)   HTML27)    PDF (361KB)(333)      

    Based on emotion regulation theory, the present study takes violent offenders as participants, and explores the role of emotion in the process of aggression through two studies. Study 1 used the adapted reaction-time competition paradigm to measure aggressive behavior. The results showed that emotion regulation motivation played a complete mediating role between negative affect and aggression, which confirmed that violent offenders would conduct aggressive behavior in order to regulate emotions in negative affectional states. Study 2 further showed that aggression can indeed play a role in regulating emotions. Specifically, in violent offenders, reactive aggression will be accompanied by the improvement of positive affect and the decline of negative affect; after proactive aggression, both positive and negative affect of individuals will increase. The present study confirmed the emotion regulation theory of aggression from two aspects: the expectation of aggression result and the actual effect of aggression, and put forward a new explanation for the role of emotion in the process of aggression. In the future research and practice, individuals should try to avoid adjusting emotions through aggression, and we can guide them to use reasonable ways to adjust emotions to reduce the occurrence of aggressive behavior.

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    The effects of expectation on attention are dependent on whether expectation is on the target or on the distractor
    ZHOU Zinuan, CHEN Yanzhang, FU Shimin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 221-235.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00221
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    Previous studies have shown that both expectation and attention mechanisms can promote perceptual behavior, but it is still controversial on how they interact together and it is unclear on the role of expected subject in their interaction. This research explores the different influences of target expectation and distractor expectation on spatial attention effect through four experiments, by using a paradigm combined spatial cueing and visual search. The results show that: (1) when a target is expected, expectation and attention influenced performance in an interactive way; (2) when a distractor is expected, expectation and attention influenced performance in an independent way; (3) when a target is expected, the change of task difficulty caused by increasing the number of stimuli doesn’t affect the relationship between expectation and attention. This shows that whether spatial expectation affects spatial attentional effect depends on the expected subject——when a target is expected, expectation and attention affect perceptual behavior interactively; when a distractor is expected, expectation and attention affect perceptual behavior independently. Moreover, the relationship between expectation and attention is not influenced by task difficulty.

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    Effects of integration of facial expression and emotional voice on inhibition of return
    ZHANG Ming, WANG Tingting, WU Xiaogang, ZHANG Yue’e, WANG Aijun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (4): 331-342.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00331
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    Inhibition of return (IOR) and emotion have the characteristics of guiding attentional bias and improving search efficiency. However, it is not clear whether there is a certain interaction between IOR and emotional stimuli. The study adopted the cue-target paradigm and used audiovisual dual modality to present emotional stimuli to further investigate the interaction between emotion and IOR. In Experiment 1, emotional stimuli were presented in visual single modality or audiovisual dual modality. Experiment 2 further investigated whether the impact of the audiovisual dual modality emotional stimulus on IOR was caused by the emotional stimulus of the auditory modality, that is, whether the emotional stimulus of the auditory modality was processed. The results showed that congruently emotional stimuli in the audiovisual dual modality can weaken IOR, but there was no interaction between incongruent emotional stimuli in the audiovisual dual modality and IOR, and there was no significant difference in the IOR effect between the single modality and audiovisual dual modality. The results showed that the IOR effect was influenced only when the audiovisual dual modality presented the same emotion, which further supported the perceptual inhibition theory of IOR.

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    Enlightenment values of Erich Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis
    GUO Yong-yu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 205-218.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00205
    Abstract499)           
    Erich Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis theory integrated the basic elements of European cultural traditions, including rationalism, humanism, critical attitude, and Messianism. His main work was to analyze the people in his community and the society in which he lived, with the standards of rationalism and humanism and the methods of psychoanalytic psychology, and to explore the ways of achieving the ideal society and realizing human development. The essence of this work is enlightenment. As a humanistic philosopher in the 20th century, Fromm inherited the unfinished business from those enlightenment philosophers in the 17th and 18th centuries and opened up a way to solve the dilemma of existence debated by his contemporaries, which, in turn, helped modern people overcome the inertia of human nature (i.e., regression toward a child state) and move toward rationality and independence. Grounded in the sense of insecurity that modern people experienced, Fromm deeply analyzed the pathological mechanisms of authoritarianism, nationalism, and consumerism, and suggested a social reform program based on the principles of humanism.
    As mentioned, Fromm profoundly analyzed the psychological mechanisms and the consequences that modern people relied on to alleviate or even eliminate their sense of insecurity by embracing authoritarianism, nationalism, and consumerism. Those behaviors and the underlying psychological constructs are seemingly becoming more serious nowadays, which highlights the depth and foresight of Fromm's theory. Inspired by his theory, researchers have conducted empirical studies on the relevant topics in Fromm's psychology. The findings of those works provide new evidence supporting Fromm's theory that the enlightenment values of his humanistic psychoanalysis are still practically significant for the solution to the challenges to human development in the 21st century.
    In his 40-year academic career, Fromm demonstrated how clearly and steadily his social values and personal academic missions were. Given his contributions, Fromm should be considered an enlightenment scholar. According to Immanuel Kant, enlightenment is defined as “man's emergence from his self-incurred immaturity.” It is so convenient to be immature! Enlightenment requires that we know what we don't know, discover what we haven't discovered, exercise the right to criticism without any constraint, endure the loneliness of independence, and then think of ourselves as mature and responsible human beings. Only if the perfectibility of man indicated by philosophers exists and only if we human beings have room to improve will enlightenment continue to play its role in people's self-realization and function as a premise of human development. Whether an independent person or human beings at large, self-growth never ends on one hand, and to overcome the regressive inertia of human nature never ends on the other. As long as this conflict exists, the task of enlightenment will never be completed, and, in this regard, Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis theory will continue to inspire people with its unique values and perspectives.
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    Kawai vs. Whimsical: The influence of cuteness types of luxury brands on consumers' preferences
    FENG Wenting, XU Yuanping, HUANG Hai, WANG Tao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 313-330.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00313
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    Luxury brands are keen to use cuteness styles to interact with consumers. Based on the theory of ideal self, this paper explores the mechanism and boundary conditions of cuteness style types’ influence on consumers’ preferences for luxury brands through four experiments. Experiment 1 showed that the cuteness styles of luxury brands (kindchenschema/whimsicality) could significantly affect consumers’ brand preferences, and verified the causal chain model of the main effect. Experiment 2 further clarified the boundary of the main effect, and the results showed that the influence of brand cuteness styles on consumers’ preferences only existed in the context of luxury brands. Experiment 3 explored the moderating effect of self-monitoring level on the main effect and found that for individuals with a low level of self-monitoring, the cuteness styles of luxury brands could hardly affect brand preferences in an effective way. Experiment 4 analyzed the moderating effect of individual development stages on the main effect. The results showed that for individuals in adulthood, the whimsical cuteness style could improve the individual’s preferences for luxury brands more than the kindchenschema cuteness style, and for individuals in childhood, the kindchenschema cuteness style was more likely to be favored than the whimsical cuteness style.

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    The relationship between adolescents’ resilience and their malevolent creative behaviors
    WANG Dan, WANG Dianhui, CHEN Wenfeng
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 154-167.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00154
    Abstract433)   HTML19)    PDF (250KB)(295)      

    Malevolent creativity is distinguished from general creativity due to its “harmfulness”. Given that positive personality traits (e.g., resilience) may promote general creativity but inhibit malevolence, it is unclear what the dominant role of resilience in malevolent creativity is. To tackle this issue, two studies were conducted with the hypothesis that higher resilience may predict less malevolent creativity via the weakened malevolence. A moderated mediation model was further proposed to investigate the roles of coping styles and stress in the relationship between adolescents’ resilience and their malevolent creative behaviors. The results showed that: 1) The resilience was negatively correlated with their malevolent creativity behavior; 2) Coping styles played a complete mediating role in the relationship between resilience and malevolent creativity; 3) The mediating effect of positive coping was moderated by stress where stressful situations weakened the inhibitory effect of positive coping on malevolent creativity. These results indicate that cultivating the resilience of young people will resist the adverse effects of stressful situations, and it is necessary to guide the development of their creative ability.

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    The influence of concreteness on emotional nouns valence processing: An ERP study
    LUO Wenbo, QI Zhengyang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 111-121.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00111
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    Concreteness and abstractness are the poles of the same characteristic of the lexicon, and they are important factors that directly affect word processing. In this study, we employed the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm and EEG technology to explore the influence of concreteness on the emotional nouns processing within limited attention resources. The results showed that ERP components in the early and late stages of noun processing were modulated by valence, and emotional nouns elicited larger N170 and LPC amplitudes than neutral nouns. In addition, ERP components in the early and late stages of noun processing were modulated by concreteness, and concrete nouns elicited larger N170 and LPC amplitudes than abstract nouns. Concreteness affected the late stage of emotional noun processing. LPC amplitude distinguished abstract words with different emotional valence, while it only differentiated emotional concrete nouns from non-emotional concrete nouns, which indicated that abstract nouns may carry more emotional information than concrete nouns, reflecting elaborate emotion processing.

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    The influence of language and context on sensorimotor simulation of concrete concepts
    SHI Rubin, XIE Jiushu, YANG Mengqing, WANG Ruiming
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (6): 583-594.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00583
    Abstract391)   HTML51)    PDF (229KB)(218)      

    Sensorimotor simulation in concrete concept processing is the core process of concept representation. In our study, the influence of linguistic factors (language type: first language and second language) and situational factors (perceptual situation: spatial perceptual situation and semantic perceptual situation) on sensorimotor simulation in concrete concept processing were investigated.
    In Experiment 1, the semantic relevance judgment paradigm is used to test whether sensorimotor simulation is involved in the second language processing and whether there is any difference between the first language and second language processing. The results of Experiment 1 show that sensorimotor simulation has participated in the second language processing. However, there is an accuracy advantage in the sensorimotor simulation in the first language. In Experiment 2, two experiments are conducted to test the influence of the perceptual situation on sensorimotor simulation. Experiment 2a tests the influence of perceptual situations on sensorimotor simulation by changing the intensity of individual perception in the vertical spatial axis. The results show that the sensorimotor simulation was found in both strong and weak spatial perception. The effect of semantic processing level on perceptual motion simulation is tested in Experiment 2b. The experiment manipulates the level of semantic processing by using the semantic relevance judgment task and true-and-false word judgment task. The results show that sensorimotor simulation participates in the processing of concepts, while semantic situations did not modulate this effect. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual processing.
    The present study conducted two experiments to test the role of sensorimotor simulation in conceptual processing. Results found that sensorimotor simulation participates in the conceptual representation, supporting the perceptual symbol theory. Furthermore, sensorimotor simulation takes place in both Chinese and English. This finding extends the perceptual symbol theory. Finally, results found that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual representation and is not affected by spatial information and semantic processing.

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    Does male beauty really work: The impact of male endorsements on female consumers’ evaluation of female-gender-imaged product
    WANG Lili, DONG Menglu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 192-204.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00192
    Abstract389)   HTML15)    PDF (353KB)(279)      

    Nowadays, using male spokespersons to endorse female-gender-imaged products has become an important advertising strategy and has penetrated into many female-gender-imaged products, especially thanks to celebrity influence. Does it really work? This paper aims to explore the relationship between the gender of female-gender-imaged product spokesperson and female consumer’s product evaluation. The results of four experiments show that when male spokespersons endorse female-gender-imaged products, female consumers would significantly downgrade their evaluation of the products compared to female spokespersons, which is mediated by a sense of gender-identity threat. In addition, when the participants are manipulated to increase gender affirmation, the main effect would be strengthened. This paper empirically examines the possible negative effect of male endorsement of female-gender-imaged products, expanding the downstream results of product gender attribute research based on gender-identity congruency theory.

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    Transition of latent classes of children’s mathematics anxiety in primary school and the distinctive effects of parental educational involvement: A three-wave longitudinal study
    SI Jiwei, GUO Kaiyue, ZHAO Xiaomeng, ZHANG Mingliang, LI Hongxia, HUANG Bijuan, XU Yanli
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (4): 355-370.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00355
    Abstract371)   HTML13)    PDF (316KB)(145)      

    In this study, latent transition analysis was used to investigate the transitions between different subtypes of primary school children's mathematics anxiety and the role of parental educational involvement in the transitions between different subtypes of primary school children's mathematics anxiety. 1720 third and fourth graders in county primary schools were selected as participants, and their mathematics anxiety and perceived parental educational involvement were measured three times, with an interval of one year each time. The results show that: (1) There were three different subgroups of mathematics anxiety in primary school children, including the low mathematics anxiety group, the high mathematics evaluation anxiety group and the high mathematics acquisition anxiety group; (2) As time went by the high mathematics evaluation anxiety group tended to change to the low mathematics anxiety group, the high mathematics acquisition anxiety group tended to change to the high mathematics evaluation anxiety group, and the low mathematics anxiety group were relatively stable; (3) The predictive effect of paternal/maternal educational involvement on the transitions of children's mathematics anxiety subgroups is distinctive for different mathematics anxiety subgroups. The above findings provide an important reference for further understanding the formation mechanism of mathematics anxiety and the formulation of intervention measures.

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    Indulge in self-admiration or offer help to others? The influence of employee narcissism on prosocial behavior
    LIU WenXing, ZHU YangHao, BAI Yang, WANG HaiJiang, HAN Yi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 300-312.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00300
    Abstract352)   HTML13)    PDF (210KB)(250)      

    By integrating the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept and trait activation theory, this study explores the mechanism of narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry on employees? prosocial behavior, and further analyzes the mediating role of employee relational approach motivation and relational avoidance motivation, and the moderating role of task interdependence. Through the analysis of 235 data from two-stage of paired employees and colleagues, the results show that: narcissistic admiration has a significant positive impact on employees? prosocial behavior, while narcissistic rivalry has a significant negative impact on employees? prosocial behavior. Relational approach motivation plays a mediating role between narcissism admiration and employees’ prosocial behavior, while relational avoidance motivation does not play a mediating role between narcissistic rivalry and employees’ prosocial behavior. Task interdependence not only positively moderates the direct effect of narcissism admiration on employees’ relational approach motivation, but also positively moderates the indirect effect of narcissism admiration on prosocial behavior through relational approach motivation.

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    The essence of bounded rationality and debate over its value
    LIU Yongfang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (11): 1293-1309.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.01293
    Abstract340)   HTML49)    PDF (257KB)(154)      

    Bounded rationality is not the optimization under constraints, not to mention the irrationality. In essence, it is an objective description of the level of human rational evolution and development so far, that is, human beings are rational either in the attitude to reality or in the ability to recognize and transform reality. However, limits to human rationality are observed. Bounded rationalists question popular rationalism in contemporary social science and the reliability of the methodology and knowledge system derived from it, but they do not question rationality itself. They eliminate the dualism thinking mode of rationalism or irrationalism in history, which provides us with a new perspective to understand the nature of rationality from the resource-based, quantitative, and dynamic developmental views. Bounded rationality is defective in the sense of value rationality, but reasonable in the sense of instrumental rationality. Therefore, it is necessary to find a proper equilibrium point between them. The concept of bounded rationality in psychology and its extensive influence have led to another human rational revolution after the “probability revolution” of the Renaissance. It is one of the most important contributions made by this discipline to the treasure house of human thought and knowledge. It not only has far-reaching historical significance but also has interdisciplinary methodological significance.

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    The hierarchies of good and evil personality traits
    JIAO Liying, XU Yan, TIAN Yi, GUO Zhen, ZHAO Jinzhe
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (7): 850-866.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00850
    Abstract336)   HTML21)    PDF (624KB)(98)      

    The question of good and evil is an important topic in people's social life. What is the first information that people care about when they perceive others, and do they weigh different types of good and evil traits? Based on the perspective of personality psychology, this study explored the issue through four studies. Firstly, the paper explored the differences between good and evil when the moral concept of personality is activated, and then examined the differences in the core degree of different types of good and evil traits by using representativeness, desirability, the scope of trait, and importance as the measurement indicators. The results show that the hierarchies of good and evil personality traits are embodied in two aspects: (1) the hierarchy between good and evil personalities, in the moral category of personality, there exists the priority effect of the good personality; (2) the hierarchies within good and evil personalities, The core of good from the inside to out is: conscientiousness and integrity, benevolence and amicability, tolerance and magnanimity, altruism and dedication; the core of evil from the inside to out is: atrociousness and mercilessness, faithlessness and treacherousness, calumniation and circumvention, mendacity and hypocrisy. The study helps to further understand the Chinese view of good and evil, and provides a new way of thinking for the exploration of the field of good and evil.

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    The interplay of maternal sensitivity and infant temperament and attention in predicting toddlers’ executive function: A two-year longitudinal study
    ZHANG Qing, WANG Zhengyan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 141-153.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00141
    Abstract320)   HTML22)    PDF (365KB)(347)      

    To explore the early mechanisms behind the development of execution function (EF) in toddlerhood from an intrinsic and environmental perspective, 163 mother-child dyads were invited to the laboratory for assessments. At 6 months, we evaluated maternal sensitivity by observing the free, interactive process between mother and children. Infant temperament was assessed by the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised-Short Form (IBQR-SF) reported by the mother. And infant attention was assessed by a Peak Look Duration task at six months. At 24 months, toddlers' EF was measured by a battery of EF tasks, including Multilocation Search, Shape Stroop, Reverse Categorization, and Delay of Gratification tasks. The results indicated that: (1) Peak look duration could predict working memory task and Delay of Gratification task performance at 24 months. (2) High levels of maternal sensitivity significantly predicted better EF performance among children with low levels of surgency in infancy. However, there was no link between maternal sensitivity and EF among children with medium-to-high levels of surgency in infancy. (3) Maternal sensitivity positively predicted EF performance among children with high levels of peak look duration in infancy. However, maternal sensitivity negatively predicted EF performance among children with low levels of peak look duration in infancy. Overall, our findings indicate the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the development of EF in toddlers and provide key insights into parenting.

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    An effect of menstrual cycle phase on episodic memory
    LI Jianhua, XIE Jiajia, ZHUANG Jin-Ying
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (5): 466-480.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00466
    Abstract317)   HTML33)    PDF (1203KB)(294)      

    Evolutionary psychology research suggests that sex hormones may influence episodic memory, though the specific mechanisms of such an influence are not clear. In this study, we compared episodic memory performance in a What-Where-When (WWW) test (dependent variables) between the late follicular phase (late-FP) and mid-luteal phase (mid-LP) of the menstrual cycle (independent variable) in Experiment 1. We combined the WWW task with event-related potential (ERP) analysis in Experiment 2 to explore neurological mechanisms of menstrual cycle effects on episodic memory. In Experiment 1, 33 women with a stable menstrual cycle completed the WWW test in the late-FP and mid-LP (balanced order). The test included the O task (memorizing objects), P task (memorizing positions), OO task (memorizing objects and their presentation order), OP task (memorizing objects and their presentation position), and PO task (memorizing presentation order and position). PO task accuracy was significantly better in the mid-LP than in late-FP. In Experiment 2 (total N = 28, 16 with ERP data), frontal-lobe P300 and LPC amplitudes were found to be significantly larger during the mid-LP than in the late-FP. Sensitivity correlated directly with P300 amplitudes in right frontal electrodes. The ERP data suggested that good PO task performance in the mid-LP may benefit from enhanced cognitive control. In conclusion, the present study supports the possibility that the menstrual cycle may influence integration of spatial position and temporal sequence of objects in episodic memory, with memory performance being better during the mid-LP than during the late-FP. This effect on episodic memory may be due to enhanced cognitive control.

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    “Attraction of the like”: How does coworkers’ proactive behavior stimulate employees’ motivation and job performance?
    ZHANG Ying, DUAN Jinyun, WANG Fuxi, QU Jinzhao, PENG Xiongliang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (5): 516-528.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00516
    Abstract302)   HTML22)    PDF (267KB)(184)      

    Previous studies on proactivity usually focus on employees themselves, ignoring the important management practice and theoretical perspective that coworkers in teams or organizations will have an impact on employees’ behaviors. Therefore, based on social learning theory, this study explores the influence of coworkers’ proactive behavior on employees’ autonomous motivation and job performance, and the moderating effect of employees’ proactive personality. Through two studies, including a multi-time, leader-subordinate dyads questionnaire (Study 1) and a situational experiment (Study 2), this paper finds that coworkers’ proactive behavior can stimulate employees’ autonomous motivation, and then improve job performance. Moreover, employees’ proactive personality strengthens the positive effect of coworkers’ proactive behavior on employees’ autonomous motivation. This study not only shifts the existing research perspective on proactive behavior to coworkers in theory, but also provides practical guidance on how to better motivate employees.

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    Influence of empathic concern on fairness-related decision making: Evidence from ERP
    HE Yijuan, HU Xinmu, MAI Xiaoqin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (4): 385-397.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00385
    Abstract300)   HTML31)    PDF (444KB)(250)      

    Using event-related potential (ERP) and ultimatum game (UG), this study investigated the influence of empathic concern on fairness-related decision making. The experiment adopted a 2 (state empathic concern: empathy vs. non-empathy) × 3 (fairness: fair vs. disadvantageous unfair vs. advantageous unfair) within-subject design. A total of 37 participants participated in the experiment, and they were asked to choose whether to accept offers from different proposers as responders. Behavior results showed that the acceptance rate of empathy condition was higher than that of non-empathy condition for disadvantageous unfair offers, and the opposite result was observed for advantageous unfair offers. ERP results revealed that for disadvantageous unfair offers, the non-empathy condition elicited a more negative-going anterior N1 (AN1) than the empathy condition, and the empathy condition elicited a larger P2 amplitude than the non-empathy condition. In the empathy context, the disadvantageous unfair condition elicited more negative-going medial frontal negativity (MFN) than the advantageous unfair and fair condition. P3 of fair condition was larger than that of disadvantageous unfair condition, which was not modulated by empathy. These results indicated that empathy modulated not only fairness-related decision making behavior, but also early attention and motivation as well as later cognitive and emotional processing in fairness. However, the higher cognitive processes characterized by P3 were only modulated by fairness but not affected by empathy.

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    The neural basis of the continued influence effect of misinformation
    JIN Hua, JIA Lina, YIN Xiaojuan, YAN Shizhen, WEI Shilin, CHEN Juntao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (4): 343-354.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00343
    Abstract294)   HTML24)    PDF (2255KB)(206)      

    In this study, the differences between the activation and functional connectivity conditions of related brain regions by task-fMRI were analyzed to reveal the neural basis of the CIEM and provided more evidence for the hypothesis of mental-model-updating and memory-retrieval-failure. The results showed that the inference scores of retraction condition were significantly higher than that of control condition, and the CIEM exists. In the encoding phase, the activation of left middle temporal gyrus in retraction condition was significantly weaker than that in control condition. While in the retrieval phase, the activation of middle frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus was weaker in retraction, and the functional connectivity between middle frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus was stronger in retraction. The results suggest that the above brain regions may be involved in the formation of the CIEM, and provide evidence from the neural level that the hypothesis of mental-model-updating and memory-retrieval-failure may explain the different phases of the CIEM formation.

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    Normative misperception in third-party punishment: An explanation from the perspective of belief in a just world
    YANG Shasha, CHEN Sijing
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 281-299.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00281
    Abstract283)   HTML23)    PDF (428KB)(167)      

    Punishment decisions might be guided by the norm of punishment; that is, people will implement their punishment according to the perceived prevalence of punishment in a similar social midst. However, there may be differences between an individual’s perception of norms and actual norms, which is called normative misperception. This article uses four experiments to explore the existence, the direction, and the cause of the normative misperception in third-party punishment, as well as its influence on people’s punitive behaviors.

    In Experiment 1, 449 participants were randomized in a four-group factorial design (punishing before estimating, estimating before punishing, punishing only, and estimating only). Experiment 1 consisted of 6 rounds of dictator game, in which participants made punishment decisions for 6 offers and/or estimated the average punishment level of other participants in each offer. Experiment 2 aimed to establish the causal relationship between the normative misperception and the punishment by directly manipulating the normative misperception. Specifically, 134 participants were randomly divided into the overestimation group and underestimation group. After receiving the feedbacks, participants made a punishment decision for an unfair offer and estimated the level of punishment of others in this offer. The purpose of Experiment 3 was to test the model of belief in a just world (BJW)-normative misperception-punishment, as well as the moderating effect of perceived social distance (PSD), with a within-participants design involving 164 participants. The procedure was similar to that of Experiment 1, except that we measured participants’ BJW and PSD before and after the game, respectively. In Experiment 4, we manipulated participants’ BJW through reading materials to test the causal relationship between BJW and the normative misperception.

    The results of Experiment 1 showed that there is an underestimated normative misperception in third-party punishment, which leads to a lower level of punishment. Experiment 2 proved that there exists a causal relationship between normative misperception and punishment by directly manipulating the independent variables. Experiment 3 demonstrated that BJW might be an underlying cause of the normative misperception, while PSD moderates the effect of BJW on the normative misperception. Finally, Experiment 4 showed the causal relationship between BJW and the normative misperception, providing additional evidence to the results of Experiment 3.

    To sum up, we have found evidence of normative misperception in third-party punishment through 4 experiments. This underestimated misperception might be affected by dual reference points: BJW (internal) and PSD (external). It also shows to a certain extent that third-party punishment is a norm-maintaining behavior rather than a gain-based strategic behavior.

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    The forward testing effect in spatial route learning
    MA Xiaofeng, LI Tiantian, JIA Ruihong, WEI Jie
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (12): 1433-1442.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.01433
    Abstract280)   HTML43)    PDF (196KB)(99)      

    The forward testing effect describes how testing previously learned material could improve participants long-term memory for later learning of new material when continuously exposed to various information. This has been verified using different language materials. However, the effect of forward testing on spatial path learning requires further study.
    This study selected 112 participants randomly and conducted two experiments to explore the forward test effect of visuospatial route learning in different directions in the same scene (Experiment 1). Further, it investigated the forward test effect of visuospatial route learning in various settings (Experiment 2). The spatial route information memory method was adopted based on the extensive experimental procedure formed by the forward test effect. Through a sequence of sites in a virtual route setting, participants were required to comprehend and recollect the structures that passed on the route. Furthermore, the exercise ended with a sequential recall test. A total of 52 participants were randomly assigned to the test and repeated study groups in Experiment 1. Eight common landmark buildings, such as hospitals and schools, were selected to form four different route information. After learning approximately 1~3 pieces of route information, the repeated study group re-learned the route information. Further, the test group recalled the order of the buildings passing through the route information as required. When learning about Route 4 regarding either the test condition or the re-learn condition, it was necessary to recall the order in which the route passed through buildings. The forward test effect of memorizing route information in different scenarios was explored in Experiment 2 with 60 participants. Unlike Experiment 1, the participants in Experiment 2 learned four different routes, each containing a different building. The experimental procedure was the same as that used in Experiment 1.
    The results of experiment 1 using a 2 (group: test group, repetitive learning group) × 2 (test results: correct rate, interference rate) analysis of variance (ANOVA), which showed a significant interaction between groups and test results [F(1, 50) = 32.157, p < 0.001, η2= 0.39, see Figure 4]. Further simple effect analysis found that, the recall accuracy of spatial path information in the test group was significantly higher than in that the repeated-learning group (0.74 vs 0.32, t (50) = 5.95, p < 0.001, d = 0.64). Moreover, the active interference generated when recalling the fourth path information was considerably lower than that in the repeated-learning group (0.07 vs 0.16, t (50) = 2.831, p = 0.007, d = 0.37). The results of Experiment 2 showed that there was a positive test effect for different scene background information. 2 (groups: test group, repetitive learning group) × 2 (test results: correct rate, interference rate) analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant interaction between groups and test results. The interaction between group and test results was significant [F(1, 58) = 45.483, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.44, see Figure 7], the recall accuracy of spatial path information in the test group was significantly higher than in that the repeated-learning group (0.53 vs 0.24, t (58) = 5.40, p < 0.001, d = 0.57). The proactive interference in route information 4 under test condition was significantly lower than that repeated-learning condition (0.07 vs 0.27, t (58) = 5.612, p < 0.001, d = 0.59). This further proves that the application background of the forward test effect in route-information learning was extensive. More importantly, by comparing the two experimental results horizontally, it was found that different interference levels of previous information have different effects on learning following new information (Experiment 1: Figure 3 reports changes in the correct recall rate as well as the interference rate of the test group after each test in routes1-4.The recall accuracy of route 1~4 was 0.62, 0.38, 0.56, 0.74. F(3, 75) = 9.41, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.27. The proactive interference rate of route 2~4 was 0.14, 0.13, 0.07. F(2, 50) = 3.28, p = 0.046, η2 = 0.12. Experiment 2: The recall accuracy of route 1~4 was 0.70, 0.59, 0.73, 0.53. F (3, 87) = 4.57, p = 0.005, η2 = 0.14. And the proactive interference rate of route 2~4 was 0.02, 0.04, 0.07. F(2, 58) = 4.32, p = 0.018, η2 = 0.13, see Figure 6). This is manifested in the difference in the interference rate caused by the difficulty of “isolation” among materials, including the trend that the correct rate decreases when the interference rate increases and the correct rate increases when the interference rate decreases. All of these directly reveal the forward direction−the importance of counteracting proactive interference in testing the effects.
    In summary, this study verified the existence of the forward test effect in the path learning of different directions in the same scene and the path learning in various settings. Extending the study of the forward testing effect on learning visuospatial path information will enrich the exploration of the forward testing effect in spatial memory. Additionally, this study found that different levels of interference from previously learned information affect the subsequent learning of new information. The findings provide direct experimental evidence for proactive interference reduction theory.

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