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    Confucian ideal personality traits (Junzi personality): Exploration of psychological measurement
    GE Xiaoyu, LI Xiaoming, HOU Yubo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (12): 1321-1334.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01321
    Abstract1552)   HTML57)    PDF (672KB)(1203)      

    Junzi personality is defined as ideal personality traits in Chinese culture (particularly Confucianism), and is a vital key in understanding Chinese cultural psychology. But there are few empirical researches on this variable. In the current study, we combined the theory analysis of classical texts and empirical analysis of psychological measurement. We collected all the Confucius’ statements about Junzi personality from the Analects of Confucius and utilized them to create a preliminary questionnaire. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis, two confirmatory factor analyses, and criteria-related validity analyses, and the total sample size was 1916. We explored the internal structure of Junzi personality in Confucius’ thought, and established the Inventory of Junzi Personality in Confucius’ Thought, which had good reliability and validity. The findings revealed that Junzi personality is composed of five factors: (A) wisdom, benevolence, and courage, (B) respectfulness and propriety, (C) conversancy with righteousness and cherishment of benign rule, (D) refraining from what should not be done, and (E) self-cultivation rather than contentions with others. Additionally, we examined the correlations of Junzi personality with the Big-Five personality, Chinese values, self-consistency and congruence, cooperative and competitive personality tendencies, and prosocial inclinations.

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    The effect of anger on malevolent creativity and strategies for its emotion regulation
    CHENG Rui, LU Kelong, HAO Ning
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (8): 847-860.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00847
    Abstract1017)   HTML66)    PDF (334KB)(1100)      

    The current study aimed to explore the effect of anger on malevolent creativity and its underlying mechanisms and to determine whether such an effect could be modulated by strategies of emotional regulation. Experiment 1 compared the differences of malevolent creativity between individuals in anger, sadness, and neutral emotions and found that individuals in anger produced more and more novel malevolent ideas, emotional arousal, and implicit aggression mediate the effect of anger on the malevolent creative performance. Experiment 2 explored how different emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive inhibition) influenced the malevolent creative performance of angry individuals. It was found that the cognitive reappraisal group and the expression inhibition group had lower levels of malevolent creativity than the control group. Emotional arousal and implicit aggression mediated the effects of two kinds of emotion regulation strategies on malevolent creativity. These results suggest that anger promotes creativity by enhancing implicit aggression and emotional arousal, and the cognitive reappraisal and expression inhibition strategies can be used as effective strategies to weaken the malevolent creativity of the angry individuals.

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    Relationship between narcissism and aggression: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Lihua, ZHU He
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (11): 1228-1243.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01228
    Abstract957)   HTML48)    PDF (260KB)(1398)      

    Aggression and violence are prevalent public health problems, tremendously harming individuals, families and society. Supposedly, low self-esteem is an important cause of aggression. However, some researchers have suggested that aggression may be attributable to threatened egoism, that is, the inflated and narcissistic view of self that is threatened, rather than low self-esteem itself. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between narcissism and aggression. However, these results appear somewhat inconsistent in different studies. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the strength and moderators of the relationship between narcissism and aggression.
    We included Chinese and English literature from 1965 to 2021. A total of 177 independent effect sizes (121 studies, 73687 participants) were found within the criteria of the meta-analysis. On the basis of the characteristics of studies, we selected the random-effects model. After the data was coded, independent effect sizes were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.3 program.
    The results of the funnel plot and Egger test showed no publication bias. Results showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.27, 95% CI [0.25, 0.29]) between narcissism and aggression. Additionally, the moderation analyses revealed that the strength of the relationship was moderated by gender and the modes of reporting narcissism, but not by the modes of reporting aggression or culture. Meanwhile, different types of narcissism related differently to aggression, in that covert narcissism was more positively correlated with aggression compared with overt narcissism, and maladaptive narcissism was more positively correlated with aggression compared with adaptive narcissism.
    Based on the meta-analysis, narcissism and aggression were closely related. The mechanisms of aggression must be identified to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to alleviate the public health problems caused by aggression. Future research could: (1) The present study found that the modes of reporting narcissism play a moderating role in the relationship between narcissism and aggression. Therefore, to gain insights into the reporters’ bias and obtain accurate and complete information regarding narcissism, the data of multiple reporters can be employed. (2) Overt narcissism and covert narcissism are distinct structures, and the existing studies on the relationship between narcissism and aggression have paid less attention to covert narcissism. The present study found that covert narcissism is more likely to be a risk factor for aggression than overt narcissism. Therefore, future research could strengthen the exploration of covert narcissism.

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    How does emotion shape aggressive behavior of violent offenders? An explanation based on emotion regulation theory
    LIU Yuping, ZHOU Bingtao, YANG Bo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 270-280.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00270
    Abstract927)   HTML40)    PDF (361KB)(669)      

    Based on emotion regulation theory, the present study takes violent offenders as participants, and explores the role of emotion in the process of aggression through two studies. Study 1 used the adapted reaction-time competition paradigm to measure aggressive behavior. The results showed that emotion regulation motivation played a complete mediating role between negative affect and aggression, which confirmed that violent offenders would conduct aggressive behavior in order to regulate emotions in negative affectional states. Study 2 further showed that aggression can indeed play a role in regulating emotions. Specifically, in violent offenders, reactive aggression will be accompanied by the improvement of positive affect and the decline of negative affect; after proactive aggression, both positive and negative affect of individuals will increase. The present study confirmed the emotion regulation theory of aggression from two aspects: the expectation of aggression result and the actual effect of aggression, and put forward a new explanation for the role of emotion in the process of aggression. In the future research and practice, individuals should try to avoid adjusting emotions through aggression, and we can guide them to use reasonable ways to adjust emotions to reduce the occurrence of aggressive behavior.

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    Enlightenment values of Erich Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis
    GUO Yong-yu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 205-218.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00205
    Abstract893)           
    Erich Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis theory integrated the basic elements of European cultural traditions, including rationalism, humanism, critical attitude, and Messianism. His main work was to analyze the people in his community and the society in which he lived, with the standards of rationalism and humanism and the methods of psychoanalytic psychology, and to explore the ways of achieving the ideal society and realizing human development. The essence of this work is enlightenment. As a humanistic philosopher in the 20th century, Fromm inherited the unfinished business from those enlightenment philosophers in the 17th and 18th centuries and opened up a way to solve the dilemma of existence debated by his contemporaries, which, in turn, helped modern people overcome the inertia of human nature (i.e., regression toward a child state) and move toward rationality and independence. Grounded in the sense of insecurity that modern people experienced, Fromm deeply analyzed the pathological mechanisms of authoritarianism, nationalism, and consumerism, and suggested a social reform program based on the principles of humanism.
    As mentioned, Fromm profoundly analyzed the psychological mechanisms and the consequences that modern people relied on to alleviate or even eliminate their sense of insecurity by embracing authoritarianism, nationalism, and consumerism. Those behaviors and the underlying psychological constructs are seemingly becoming more serious nowadays, which highlights the depth and foresight of Fromm's theory. Inspired by his theory, researchers have conducted empirical studies on the relevant topics in Fromm's psychology. The findings of those works provide new evidence supporting Fromm's theory that the enlightenment values of his humanistic psychoanalysis are still practically significant for the solution to the challenges to human development in the 21st century.
    In his 40-year academic career, Fromm demonstrated how clearly and steadily his social values and personal academic missions were. Given his contributions, Fromm should be considered an enlightenment scholar. According to Immanuel Kant, enlightenment is defined as “man's emergence from his self-incurred immaturity.” It is so convenient to be immature! Enlightenment requires that we know what we don't know, discover what we haven't discovered, exercise the right to criticism without any constraint, endure the loneliness of independence, and then think of ourselves as mature and responsible human beings. Only if the perfectibility of man indicated by philosophers exists and only if we human beings have room to improve will enlightenment continue to play its role in people's self-realization and function as a premise of human development. Whether an independent person or human beings at large, self-growth never ends on one hand, and to overcome the regressive inertia of human nature never ends on the other. As long as this conflict exists, the task of enlightenment will never be completed, and, in this regard, Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis theory will continue to inspire people with its unique values and perspectives.
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    The double-edged-sword effect of empathy: The secondary traumatic stress and vicarious posttraumatic growth of psychological hotline counselors during the outbreak of COVID-19
    LAI Lizu, REN Zhihong, YAN Yifei, NIU Gengfeng, ZHAO Chunxiao, LUO Mei, ZHANG Lin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (9): 992-1002.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00992
    Abstract791)   HTML38)    PDF (235KB)(679)      

    It is of great theoretical and practical significance to pay attention to the mental health of psychological hotline counselors during the epidemic period of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19), and to explore the internal mechanisms of the negative and positive impacts of empathizing with trauma clients for trauma workers. In this study, Participants were 776 counselors (with an average age of 42.57 years and an average counseling experience of 12.44 years) who worked on the online mental health service platform which was established in Central China Normal University by the Ministry of Education (MOE-CCNU) during the epidemic period of COVID- 19 in China. Empathy, mindfulness, searching for meaning, secondary traumatic stress (STS), and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG) were measured by questionnaires. The results of latent variable structural equation model show that: (1) the empathy of counselors positively predicts STS and VPTG; (2) mindfulness partially mediates the relationship between empathy and STS, while searching for meaning partially mediates the relationship between empathy and VPTG; (3) empathy also positively predicts VPTG through the mediating paths of STS, STS-searching for meaning, mindfulness-STS, and mindfulness-STS-searching for meaning, respectively. The results suggest that we should treat the negative and positive effects of empathy dialectically and pay attention to the transformation from negative reactions to positive growth, which can not only deepen the theory of empathy and its influence, but also provide enlightenment for related research and implication.

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    The effects of expectation on attention are dependent on whether expectation is on the target or on the distractor
    ZHOU Zinuan, CHEN Yanzhang, FU Shimin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 221-235.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00221
    Abstract755)   HTML49)    PDF (360KB)(536)      

    Previous studies have shown that both expectation and attention mechanisms can promote perceptual behavior, but it is still controversial on how they interact together and it is unclear on the role of expected subject in their interaction. This research explores the different influences of target expectation and distractor expectation on spatial attention effect through four experiments, by using a paradigm combined spatial cueing and visual search. The results show that: (1) when a target is expected, expectation and attention influenced performance in an interactive way; (2) when a distractor is expected, expectation and attention influenced performance in an independent way; (3) when a target is expected, the change of task difficulty caused by increasing the number of stimuli doesn’t affect the relationship between expectation and attention. This shows that whether spatial expectation affects spatial attentional effect depends on the expected subject——when a target is expected, expectation and attention affect perceptual behavior interactively; when a distractor is expected, expectation and attention affect perceptual behavior independently. Moreover, the relationship between expectation and attention is not influenced by task difficulty.

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    The relationship between adolescents’ resilience and their malevolent creative behaviors
    WANG Dan, WANG Dianhui, CHEN Wenfeng
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 154-167.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00154
    Abstract748)   HTML35)    PDF (250KB)(819)      

    Malevolent creativity is distinguished from general creativity due to its “harmfulness”. Given that positive personality traits (e.g., resilience) may promote general creativity but inhibit malevolence, it is unclear what the dominant role of resilience in malevolent creativity is. To tackle this issue, two studies were conducted with the hypothesis that higher resilience may predict less malevolent creativity via the weakened malevolence. A moderated mediation model was further proposed to investigate the roles of coping styles and stress in the relationship between adolescents’ resilience and their malevolent creative behaviors. The results showed that: 1) The resilience was negatively correlated with their malevolent creativity behavior; 2) Coping styles played a complete mediating role in the relationship between resilience and malevolent creativity; 3) The mediating effect of positive coping was moderated by stress where stressful situations weakened the inhibitory effect of positive coping on malevolent creativity. These results indicate that cultivating the resilience of young people will resist the adverse effects of stressful situations, and it is necessary to guide the development of their creative ability.

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    Kawai vs. Whimsical: The influence of cuteness types of luxury brands on consumers' preferences
    FENG Wenting, XU Yuanping, HUANG Hai, WANG Tao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 313-330.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00313
    Abstract744)   HTML48)    PDF (339KB)(709)      

    Luxury brands are keen to use cuteness styles to interact with consumers. Based on the theory of ideal self, this paper explores the mechanism and boundary conditions of cuteness style types’ influence on consumers’ preferences for luxury brands through four experiments. Experiment 1 showed that the cuteness styles of luxury brands (kindchenschema/whimsicality) could significantly affect consumers’ brand preferences, and verified the causal chain model of the main effect. Experiment 2 further clarified the boundary of the main effect, and the results showed that the influence of brand cuteness styles on consumers’ preferences only existed in the context of luxury brands. Experiment 3 explored the moderating effect of self-monitoring level on the main effect and found that for individuals with a low level of self-monitoring, the cuteness styles of luxury brands could hardly affect brand preferences in an effective way. Experiment 4 analyzed the moderating effect of individual development stages on the main effect. The results showed that for individuals in adulthood, the whimsical cuteness style could improve the individual’s preferences for luxury brands more than the kindchenschema cuteness style, and for individuals in childhood, the kindchenschema cuteness style was more likely to be favored than the whimsical cuteness style.

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    The hierarchies of good and evil personality traits
    JIAO Liying, XU Yan, TIAN Yi, GUO Zhen, ZHAO Jinzhe
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (7): 850-866.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00850
    Abstract729)   HTML41)    PDF (624KB)(251)      

    The question of good and evil is an important topic in people's social life. What is the first information that people care about when they perceive others, and do they weigh different types of good and evil traits? Based on the perspective of personality psychology, this study explored the issue through four studies. Firstly, the paper explored the differences between good and evil when the moral concept of personality is activated, and then examined the differences in the core degree of different types of good and evil traits by using representativeness, desirability, the scope of trait, and importance as the measurement indicators. The results show that the hierarchies of good and evil personality traits are embodied in two aspects: (1) the hierarchy between good and evil personalities, in the moral category of personality, there exists the priority effect of the good personality; (2) the hierarchies within good and evil personalities, The core of good from the inside to out is: conscientiousness and integrity, benevolence and amicability, tolerance and magnanimity, altruism and dedication; the core of evil from the inside to out is: atrociousness and mercilessness, faithlessness and treacherousness, calumniation and circumvention, mendacity and hypocrisy. The study helps to further understand the Chinese view of good and evil, and provides a new way of thinking for the exploration of the field of good and evil.

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    Emotional bias of trait anxiety on pre-attentive processing of facial expressions: ERP investigation
    LI Wanyue, LIU Shen, HAN Shangfeng, ZHANG Lin, XU Qiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00001
    Abstract724)   HTML65)    PDF (674KB)(602)      

    In order to explore the processing mode of emotional stimuli in the pre-attentive stage of people with high trait anxiety and clarify their emotional bias characteristics, this study used the deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm to explore the influence of trait anxiety on the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. The results showed that for the low trait anxiety group, the early EMMN induced by sad faces was significantly larger than that induced by happy faces, while for the high trait anxiety group, the early EMMN induced by happy and sad faces was not significantly different from each other. Moreover, the EMMN amplitude of happy faces in high trait anxiety group was significantly larger than that in low trait anxiety group. The results show that personality traits are an important factor affecting the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. Different from ordinary participants, people with high trait anxiety have similar processing patterns for happy and sad faces in the pre-attentive stage, which may make it difficult for them to effectively distinguish happy and sad faces.

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    The relationship between positive parenting and adolescent prosocial behavior: The mediating role of empathy and the moderating role of the oxytocin receptor gene
    ZHANG Wenxin, LI Xi, CHEN Guanghui, CAO Yanmiao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (9): 976-991.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00976
    Abstract721)   HTML24)    PDF (516KB)(952)      

    Plenty of studies have shown that maternal positive parenting promotes adolescents’ prosocial behavior, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The participants were 1082 mother-offspring dyads (adolescents’ mean age: 12.32 ± 0.48 years, 50.3% females) recruited from the community which was followed for two years. Under the framework of “gene-environment-endophenotype- behavior”, this study investigated the mediating role of empathy in the relationship between maternal positive parenting and adolescents’ prosocial behavior, and the moderating role of OXTR gene rs53576 polymorphism. The results showed that cognitive empathy, but not emotional empathy, mediated the association between positive parenting and prosocial behavior. Specifically, positive parenting was positively associated with cognitive empathy, which in turn was positively associated with adolescents’ prosocial behavior. Further, this mediation was moderated by the OXTR gene rs53576 polymorphism. For adolescents with AA and GG genotypes, positive parenting was related to higher levels of cognitive empathy, which increased prosocial behavior. However, this mediation effect was not observed among adolescents with AG genotype. In addition, the results revealed evidence for an overdominance model for OXTR rs53576 polymorphism. Moreover, the G×E interaction predicted cognitive empathy but not prosocial behavior. These findings add to our understanding of how empathy and genetic factors contribute to adolescents’ prosocial behavior within the family context.

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    Does male beauty really work: The impact of male endorsements on female consumers’ evaluation of female-gender-imaged product
    WANG Lili, DONG Menglu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 192-204.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00192
    Abstract705)   HTML30)    PDF (353KB)(535)      

    Nowadays, using male spokespersons to endorse female-gender-imaged products has become an important advertising strategy and has penetrated into many female-gender-imaged products, especially thanks to celebrity influence. Does it really work? This paper aims to explore the relationship between the gender of female-gender-imaged product spokesperson and female consumer’s product evaluation. The results of four experiments show that when male spokespersons endorse female-gender-imaged products, female consumers would significantly downgrade their evaluation of the products compared to female spokespersons, which is mediated by a sense of gender-identity threat. In addition, when the participants are manipulated to increase gender affirmation, the main effect would be strengthened. This paper empirically examines the possible negative effect of male endorsement of female-gender-imaged products, expanding the downstream results of product gender attribute research based on gender-identity congruency theory.

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    The effect of environmental disorderliness on variety seeking behavior and its mechanism
    WANG Yan, JIANG Jing
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (1): 78-90.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00078
    Abstract684)   HTML32)    PDF (213KB)(444)      

    Environmental disorderliness resulting from product abundance and excessiveness has become ubiquitous and cannot be avoided. However, the research on the influence of environmental disorderliness on consumers' product choices is limited, and this paper attempts to fill in this gap. Specifically, this paper innovatively proposes that environmental disorderliness has a positive effect on consumers’ variety-seeking behavior, which is sequentially mediated by self-efficacy threat and perceived preference uncertainty. Through one pilot and four experiments, this paper finds that environmental disorder can enhance variety-seeking behavior in real environment, offline shopping environment, working environment, and online product display situation. Disorderly environment will threaten consumers' self-efficacy, which further increases their perceived uncertainty about future preference, and consequently bolsters their variety-seeking tendencies in the subsequent consumption choices.

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    The effect of the angry emoji position on consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger
    WU Ruijuan, CHEN Jiuqi, LI Yan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1133-1145.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01133
    Abstract663)           
    Emoji are widely adopted in smartphones, for input methods, and on social networks. As ubiquitous characters, emoji transcend linguistic borders and are gaining worldwide popularity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the position of the angry emoji in negative online consumer reviews on the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger. The present study first proposed the main location effect of the position of the angry emoji on the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger. That is, compared with the angry emoji at the end of a sentence, the angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to a stronger perception of anger. Based on visual information processing of the location effect, the current research proposed that the position salience perception and the sentiment-strengthening perception of the angry emoji serially mediated the above main effect. Further, we hypothesized that word review extremity moderated the effect of the position of the angry emoji on the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger.
    For this paper, we conducted one eye-tracking experiment and three laboratory experiments. In Study 1, we conducted a pretest, which was the eye-tracking experiment. The product used in the pretest was a thermos mug. Study 1 was a 3 (one emoji at the end of a sentence vs. one in the middle of a sentence vs. no emoji) × 2 (feature description: feature one precedes feature two vs. feature two precedes feature one) between-subjects design. The product used in Study 1 was a laptop. Study 2 was a 2 (the position of the angry emoji at the end vs. in the middle of a sentence) × 2 (feature description: feature one precedes feature two vs. feature two precedes feature one) between-subjects design. Study 2 used a gel-ink pen refill as the target product. In Study 2, we measured the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger, the angry emoji sentiment-strengthening perception, and the position salience perception created by the angry emoji. Study 3 was a 2 (the position of the angry emoji at the end vs. in the middle of a sentence) × 2 (word review extremity: moderate vs. extreme) between-subjects design. Study 3 used a coat as the target product.
    The results of the pretest demonstrated the effectiveness of visual information processing on the location effect. The position of the angry emoji influenced the participants’ attention. The angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to higher fixation counts and longer fixation durations. The results of Study 1 demonstrated the main effect in this paper, which was that an angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to a stronger perception of the sender’s anger than did an angry emoji at the end of a sentence. The results of Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1 and tested the serial-mediating roles of the position salience perception and the sentiment- strengthening perception of the angry emoji. The results of Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 and tested the moderating role of word review extremity in the relationship between the position of the angry emoji and the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger. When we considered the extreme word review, the influence of the position of the angry emoji on the sender’s perception of anger was not significant; however, when we considered the moderate word review, the angry emoji in the middle of a sentence significantly enhanced the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger.
    The current research extended the extant literature in several dimensions. First, it supplemented the literature in the field of marketing on the effects of the emoji on consumers’ responses. Second, it supplemented the literature of application contexts and the influence of the location effect. Third, the present research provided empirical evidence for emoji functions. Fourth, the present study supplemented the literature of online consumer reviews.
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    The influence of emotion regulation flexibility on negative emotions: Evidence from experience sampling
    WANG Xiaoqin, TAN Yafei, MENG Jie, LIU Yuan, WEI Dongtao, YANG Wenjing, QIU Jiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2023, 55 (2): 192-209.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00192
    Abstract628)   HTML31)    PDF (601KB)(354)      

    In our complex social environments, life situations are ever-changing. When dealing with these changes, there is no one-size-fits-all response or regulatory strategy suitable for all situations. Emotion regulation flexibility (ERF)—a framework for understanding individual differences in adaptive responding to ever-changing life contexts—emphasizes that individuals can flexibly deploy and adjust emotion regulation strategies according to specific characteristics of stressful situations in daily life. To achieve regulatory efficacy, it is important that one can utilize a balanced profile of ER strategies and select strategies that fit well with particular stressful situations. Specifically, using multiple ER strategies in daily life, rather than relying on only single-strategies, would indicate higher ERF. Additionally, based on leading models of strategy-situation fit, certain ER strategies are more appropriate for high versus low intensity stressful events. For instance, distraction involves with shielding oneself from negative stimuli and replacing them with irrelevant things, which may have a greater regulatory effect in high-intensity negative situations. Conversely, strategies such as reappraisal, which involves the processing of negative situations through deep cognitive change, may be more effective in lower-intensity negative situations and as a cornerstone of longer-term ER. We used the experience-sampling method (ESM) to quantify individual’s ERF; more specifically we assess participants for 1) having more or less balanced ER strategy profiles and 2) showing greater strategy-situation fit, in regard to the use of distraction versus reappraisal in the regulation of high-intensity versus low-intensity negative life events. To test the adaptive value of ERF on negative emotions and mental health, we investigated the influence of ERF on depressive and anxiety symptoms in two samples. We hypothesized that individuals with a more balanced profile of ER strategy use and a great level of strategy-situation fit would have higher levels of mental health, indicated by low levels of anxiety and depressive feelings.

    In sample 1, two hundred eight college students finished the ESM procedure (2859 beeps). Intensity of negative situations was measured by self-reported negative feelings for the time points where participants reported an adverse event. Simultaneously, we assessed participants’ use of two ER strategies (i.e., distraction and reappraisal). Considering the negative impact of COVID-19 on people’s daily life, we collected another sample (sample 2, 3462 beeps) with one hundred people who lived in Hubei Province, where Wuhan was in lockdown during the severe phase of COVID-19 (March 7-13, 2020). We measured intensity of negative situations (by averaging individuals’ negative feelings), as well as the use of two ER strategies at corresponding time points. After completing the ESM procedure, the participants were asked to fill out a series of emotional health questionnaires, including Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Spielberger State Anxiety Scale. Multilevel models were used to fit the covariation between the use of distraction versus reappraisal ER strategies and the intensity of negative events. Additionally, we used multiple level regression models to test whether high level of strategy-situation fit would result in lower negative feelings. To test whether a single-strategy preference would lead to higher levels of anxiety and depressive feelings compared to a multiple-strategy preference, latent profile analyses (LPA) was used.

    Results from the LPA indicated that there were five emotion regulation profiles in sample 1 (AIC = 3597.30, BIC = 3751.48, Entropy = 0.84, BLRT_p = 0.009) and six profiles in sample2 (AIC = 1595.19, BIC = 1754.71, Entropy = 0.95, BLRT_p = 0.001). In sample 1, results from One-way ANOVA showed that there were significant difference between five profiles in both depression (F (4, 206) = 5.44, p < 0.001) and anxiety (F (4, 206) = 5.68, p < 0.001) (See Figure 1 a-b). In sample 2, results from One-way ANOVA also showed that there were significant difference between six profiles in both depression (F (5, 95) = 2.74, p = 0.024) and anxiety (F (5, 95) = 2.98, p = 0.015) (See Figure 1 c-d). Specifically, individuals with preferences for rumination and express suppression reported higher levels depression and anxiety than individuals with a multi-strategy preference in two independent samples. In the multilevel models, results of the two independent samples both suggested that there were significant association between strategy-situation fit and depression and anxiety (Depression: Sample 1 [B = −0.01, p = 0.047, f 2 =0.03]; Sample 2 [B = −0.01, p = 0.017, f 2 = 0.03], see Table 1; Anxiety: Sample 1 [B = −0.00, p = 0.591]; Sample 2 [B = −0.01, p < 0.001, f 2 = 0.05], see Table 3). Furthermore, simple slope tests showed that individuals who were more inclined to use a higher level of distraction in response to high-intensity negative situations (e.g., adverse events or during COVID-19) and of reappraisal during low-intensity situations (i.e., high level of ERF) reported lower levels of depression (Sample 1 [B = 0.14, p = 0.003]; Sample 2 [B = 0.13, p < 0.001], See Table 2, Figure 2 a-b and Figure 3 a-b) and anxiety (Sample 1 [B = 0.04, p = 0.356]; Sample 2 [B = 0.26, p < 0.001] See Table 4, Figure 2 c-d and Figure 3 c-d). On the converse, individuals who tended to use more distraction in low intensity situations and more reappraisal in high intensity situations, (i.e., those showing lower ERF) reported a higher level of negative feelings.

    Together, our findings revealed a negative relationship between ERF and mental health problems in two samples, suggesting that having balanced ER profiles and flexibly deploying strategies in specific life contexts may have adaptive value in facilitating positive mental health. This work deepens our understanding of the interaction between ER strategies and situational demands, paving the way for future intervention research to help alleviate negative emotions associated with affective disorders or the experience of major traumatic events (such as epidemics, earthquakes, etc.).

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    Effects of integration of facial expression and emotional voice on inhibition of return
    ZHANG Ming, WANG Tingting, WU Xiaogang, ZHANG Yue’e, WANG Aijun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (4): 331-342.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00331
    Abstract622)   HTML74)    PDF (410KB)(375)      

    Inhibition of return (IOR) and emotion have the characteristics of guiding attentional bias and improving search efficiency. However, it is not clear whether there is a certain interaction between IOR and emotional stimuli. The study adopted the cue-target paradigm and used audiovisual dual modality to present emotional stimuli to further investigate the interaction between emotion and IOR. In Experiment 1, emotional stimuli were presented in visual single modality or audiovisual dual modality. Experiment 2 further investigated whether the impact of the audiovisual dual modality emotional stimulus on IOR was caused by the emotional stimulus of the auditory modality, that is, whether the emotional stimulus of the auditory modality was processed. The results showed that congruently emotional stimuli in the audiovisual dual modality can weaken IOR, but there was no interaction between incongruent emotional stimuli in the audiovisual dual modality and IOR, and there was no significant difference in the IOR effect between the single modality and audiovisual dual modality. The results showed that the IOR effect was influenced only when the audiovisual dual modality presented the same emotion, which further supported the perceptual inhibition theory of IOR.

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    The meaning of the body: Enactive approach to emotion
    YE Haosheng, SU Jiajia, SU Dequan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (12): 1393-1404.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01393
    Abstract583)   HTML40)    PDF (154KB)(984)      

    The emotion theory of enactivism looks at the dynamic function of emotion from the perspective of “sense-making”, and advocates that emotion and cognition are intertwined and closely related to the bodily activities of organisms adapting to the environment. Emotion is the emotion of the body, and the body is the body in emotional experience. The body plays a constitutive role in emotional experience. According to this view, emotion is a positive action tendency, which is an embodied action based on understanding the meaning of environment. Emotion does not occur in the skull of an organism, but in the interaction and coupling of brain, body and environment. Because cognition and emotion are unified in the activities of organism sense-making from the perspective of enactivism, the 4E attribute of cognition must also be reflected in emotion, which makes emotion and affection also have the characteristics of embodiment, embedding, extension and enaction. The enactive theory of emotion provides a new perspective for understanding emotion and then the essence of consciousness.

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    Spillover effects of workplace ostracism on employee family life: The role of need for affiliation and work-home segmentation preference
    DENG XinCai, HE Shan, LYU Ping, ZHOU Xing, YE YiJiao, MENG HongLin, KONG Yurou
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1146-1160.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01146
    Abstract567)   HTML21)    PDF (280KB)(774)      

    Previous studies have shown that workplace ostracism harms many aspects of organizations, but little is known about the spillover effects of workplace ostracism on the outside of the organizations, especially in the family domain. Based on the conservation of resource theory, this study constructs a moderated mediation model to explore the spillover effects and specific mechanism of workplace ostracism on employee’s family depreciation and family satisfaction. The results show that: (1) workplace ostracism had a significant positive effect on family undermining and a significant negative effect on family satisfaction; (2) work stress mediated the relationship between workplace ostracism with family undermining and family satisfaction; (3) need for affiliation moderated the effect of workplace ostracism on work stress, and moderated the mediating effect between workplace ostracism and family undermining, family satisfaction; (4) work-home segmentation preference moderated the effect of work stress on family undermining and family satisfaction, and moderated the mediating effect of work stress on family undermining and family satisfaction.

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    The effects of the parent-child relationship and parental educational involvement on adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation: The roles of defeat and meaning in life
    HU Yiqiu, ZENG Zihao, PENG Liyi, WANG Hongcai, LIU Shuangjin, YANG Qin, FANG Xiaoyi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2023, 55 (1): 129-141.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00129
    Abstract567)   HTML52)    PDF (251KB)(339)      

    Because of their high incidence as well as high risk, adolescent psychological problems have been a constant pressing topic of governmental, psychological, sociological, and medical interest for research. Adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation not only have serious impacts on an individual social functioning, the burden of disease and economic pressures caused by self-harming incidents also make it vital to explore the factors affecting these behaviors and their developmental mechanisms. Ecosystem theory emphasizes the role and significance of the environment in the process of individual development, believing that individual development is the result of one’s interactions with the surrounding environment. As the innermost structure in the ecosystem, family is the environment that is most relevant for individuals, having the greatest influence. In this study, two important components of the parent-child subsystem parent-child relationship (child) and educational involvement (parent) were introduced to explore their combined effects on adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation from a binary perspective. The roles of defeat and sense of meaning in life were also investigated from an integrated motivational-volitional model perspective.

    The current study built a moderated mediation model exploring the combined effects of the parent-child relationship on adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation. A total of 930 middle school students (501 boys, 429 girls; average age = 15.24 ± 1.66 years) and their parents participated in this investigation. After given their informed consent, both parents and students completed the Short Form of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, the Four-item Depressive Symptom Index − Suicidality Subscale, the Parent-Child Intimacy Questionnaire, Parental Involvement in Primary School Children Education, the Defeat Scale, and the Chinese Meaning in Life Questionnaire. SPSS 26.0, AMOS 23.0, and Mplus 7.0 were used to analyze the data.

    The results indicated that: (1) Compared to individuals with a low parent-child relationship and low educational involvement, adolescents with a high parent-child relationship and high educational involvement had lower levels of defeat (S = −4.37, p< 0.001, 95% CI= [−5.57, −3.32]). Compared to adolescents with a low parent-child relationship and high educational involvement, individuals with a high parent-child relationship and low educational involvement showed lower levels of defeat (S = −3.40, p< 0.001, 95% CI = [−4.53, −2.21]);

    (2) Defeat partially mediated the relationship between the parent-child relationship and educational involvement and adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation (Direct effectsdepression = 0.22, 95% CI = [0.16, 0.27], indirect effectsdepression = 0.19, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.24]; Direct effectsself-injury = 0.14, 95% CI = [0.07, 0.20], indirect effectsself-injury = 0.10, 95% CI = [0.06, 0.14]; Direct effectssuicidal ideation = 0.21, 95% CI = [0.15, 0.28], indirect effectssuicidal ideation = 0.12, 95% CI = [0.08, 0.17]); (3) The second half of the mediation model was moderated by meaning in life, that is, with the increase of meaning in life, the effect of defeat on depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation gradually decreased.

    Based on ecosystem theory and integrated motivational-volitional model, and using innovative polynomial regression and response surface analysis, the current study investigated the influence of the parent-child relationship and parents' educational involvement on adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation, as well as the mediating and moderating effects of defeat and meaning in life. The results providing additional evidence for the relevant developmental theories of depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation. This study also offers more insight into potential psychological crisis behavioral interventions.

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