ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

Acta Psychologica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (12): 1321-1334.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01321

• Reports of Empirical Studies • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Confucian ideal personality traits (Junzi personality): Exploration of psychological measurement

GE Xiaoyu, LI Xiaoming, HOU Yubo()   

  1. School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2020-12-29 Published:2021-12-25 Online:2021-10-26
  • Contact: HOU Yubo
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31671159)


Junzi personality is defined as ideal personality traits in Chinese culture (particularly Confucianism), and is a vital key in understanding Chinese cultural psychology. But there are few empirical researches on this variable. In the current study, we combined the theory analysis of classical texts and empirical analysis of psychological measurement. We collected all the Confucius’ statements about Junzi personality from the Analects of Confucius and utilized them to create a preliminary questionnaire. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis, two confirmatory factor analyses, and criteria-related validity analyses, and the total sample size was 1916. We explored the internal structure of Junzi personality in Confucius’ thought, and established the Inventory of Junzi Personality in Confucius’ Thought, which had good reliability and validity. The findings revealed that Junzi personality is composed of five factors: (A) wisdom, benevolence, and courage, (B) respectfulness and propriety, (C) conversancy with righteousness and cherishment of benign rule, (D) refraining from what should not be done, and (E) self-cultivation rather than contentions with others. Additionally, we examined the correlations of Junzi personality with the Big-Five personality, Chinese values, self-consistency and congruence, cooperative and competitive personality tendencies, and prosocial inclinations.

Key words: Junzi personality, Confucianism cultural psychology, Confucius, the Analects of Confucius, indigenous psychology