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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    Situational assessment method of the Chinese people’s holistic thinking characteristics and their application
    KE Xiaoxiao, QI Huizi, LIANG Jiahui, JIN Xinyuan, GAO Jie, ZHANG Mingxia, WANG Yamin
    2021, 53 (12):  1299-1309.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01299
    Abstract ( 365 )   HTML ( 50 )  
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    Developed a new situational assessment method of Chinese thinking characteristics, which was applied to the study of the relationship between holistic thinking characteristics and creativity tendency and tested its reliability and validity. The new method selected the idiom riddles embodying the typical cultural artistic conception and Chinese thinking characteristics as the materials, and used the virtual reality technology to construct an idiom riddle cultural park in which these idioms were designed as situational visible scenarios illustrating their meanings. The corpus of idioms is established by recording the idioms reported in the scene and encoded the types of thinking characteristics of the idioms as a measure of the holistic thinking of the participants. The reliability and validity analysis based on the test data showed that the holistic thinking idiom test system performs well in reliability and validity. The correlation analysis between holistic thinking and creativity tendency showed that holistic thinking is negatively correlated with curiosity in creativity tendency. The study proved for the first time that it is feasible to use virtual reality technology to reconstruct the traditional cultural situation in order to realize the situational assessment of Chinese thinking characteristics. It suggested the application value of the situational assessment based on virtual reality technology in the related research of future.

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    Regular schematic start training in the process of drivers’ selective attention
    YUAN Luyi, CHANG Ruosong, MA Jinfei
    2021, 53 (12):  1310-1320.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01310
    Abstract ( 189 )   HTML ( 20 )  
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    In this study, the inattentional blindness paradigm was combined with the task of traffic violation event recognition, and two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of task specific features (with and without prompt) and rule schemata training (with and without training) on driver recognition of traffic signals and violations. The results show that traffic rule prompt can improve the correct rate of traffic signal recognition for experienced drivers (Experiment 1), but for novice drivers, rule schemata training is needed to achieve the same effect (Experiment 2). The results show that rule schemata priming effect exists in driver’s selective attention, and schemata training can make up for novice driver’s lack of experience.

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    Confucian ideal personality traits (Junzi personality): Exploration of psychological measurement
    GE Xiaoyu, LI Xiaoming, HOU Yubo
    2021, 53 (12):  1321-1334.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01321
    Abstract ( 671 )   HTML ( 29 )  
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    Junzi personality is defined as ideal personality traits in Chinese culture (particularly Confucianism), and is a vital key in understanding Chinese cultural psychology. But there are few empirical researches on this variable. In the current study, we combined the theory analysis of classical texts and empirical analysis of psychological measurement. We collected all the Confucius’ statements about Junzi personality from the Analects of Confucius and utilized them to create a preliminary questionnaire. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis, two confirmatory factor analyses, and criteria-related validity analyses, and the total sample size was 1916. We explored the internal structure of Junzi personality in Confucius’ thought, and established the Inventory of Junzi Personality in Confucius’ Thought, which had good reliability and validity. The findings revealed that Junzi personality is composed of five factors: (A) wisdom, benevolence, and courage, (B) respectfulness and propriety, (C) conversancy with righteousness and cherishment of benign rule, (D) refraining from what should not be done, and (E) self-cultivation rather than contentions with others. Additionally, we examined the correlations of Junzi personality with the Big-Five personality, Chinese values, self-consistency and congruence, cooperative and competitive personality tendencies, and prosocial inclinations.

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    The influence of personality traits and brain functional connectivity on social networks
    LI Yiman, LIU Cheng, ZHUANG Kaixiang, HUO Tengbin, XU Pengfei, LUO Yuejia, QIU Jiang
    2021, 53 (12):  1335-1347.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01335
    Abstract ( 279 )   HTML ( 23 )  
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    Humans are social species that are constantly involved in complex relationships, reacting to the actions of others, and intentionally or unintentionally changing our own behavior. Personality traits reflect the behavioral pattern of an individual's response to the environment, which also includes social behavior. In addition, the brain is also an important factor when discussing social networks. The brain provides biological mechanisms for human behavior, while social networks provide external triggers for these behaviors. Linking personality traits and brain activity to social networks can help us better understand the structure of group relationships, improve our understanding of individual human beings, and help us better predict individual social behaviors and find the rules of information transmission in interpersonal relationships.

    From the perspective of a network, we collected nine social networks from 94 undergraduate students in the same grade according to their different social needs. We used the graph theory and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the influence of personality traits on social networks based on individual popularity and closeness between individuals and the relationship between the similarity of brain resting-state functional connectivity and social distance between individuals. Specifically, regression analysis was carried out, with personality traits as the independent variables and the different degrees of social networks as the dependent variables. Then, a correlation analysis was performed for the social distance and similarity of personality traits. Finally, the correlation between the similarity of the brain networks and social distance was calculated.

    The results showed that (1) individuals with high conscientiousness were more popular in social networks requiring “trust” traits, while individuals with high agreeableness were more popular in social networks requiring “fun” traits. These findings showed that in the same group, there are different social networks according to social needs, and the popularity of individuals in different social networks was not similar as it will be affected by the corresponding personality traits; (2) In the social networks requiring “shared interests & values”, personality similarity and social distance between individuals were significantly negatively correlated. Personality similarity promotes interpersonal communication between individuals, which may be realized through interpersonal attraction induced by the similarity of values and interests; (3) In the same social network, there is a significantly negative correlation between similarities in functional connections (FCs) and social distance among individuals, and these FCs are mainly concentrated in the frontoparietal task control network and the dorsal attention network. The similarity of resting brain FCs among individuals may promote interpersonal communication, possibly due to the similarity of individuals in cognitive control and environmental processing bias, which increases the interpersonal attraction and shortening the social distance between individuals.

    The results revealed the influence of personality traits on the structure of different social networks, the relationship between personality trait similarity among individuals, and the similarity between resting brain networks and social distance, which has important implications for understanding the structure of social networks, the formation rules, and the information transmission rules among them. In addition, this study discussed the relationship between the similarity of resting-state FC and social distance, providing new evidence for studies on brain synchronization in interpersonal communication and brain imaging evidence for the study of the relationship between the similarity of personality traits and social distance.

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    Effect of ambivalent attitudes on post-decision self-evaluation: Two-stage moderation effect with a mediator
    LIN Rang, YANG Yimiao
    2021, 53 (12):  1348-1360.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01348
    Abstract ( 199 )   HTML ( 25 )  
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    Ambivalent attitudes not only affect information search, attitude formation and decision-making behavior, but also affect self-evaluation after decision-making. The present research constructed a model of the relationship between ambivalent attitudes and post-decision self-evaluation based on the mediating effect of uncertainty and the moderating effect of decision-making difficulty level and outcome valence. Three experiments were designed to manipulate ambivalent attitudes through conflict situations including the choice of a university and employment enterprises. SPSS 20.0 software was used to analyze the data, and we found that ambivalent attitudes had a positive effect on self-evaluation after decision-making, and that decision-making difficulty level and outcome valence moderated the mediating effect of uncertainty on the relationship between ambivalent attitudes and self-evaluation after decision-making. Ambivalent attitudes and levels of decision-making difficulty had an effect on uncertainty, uncertainty and outcome valence had an effect on self-evaluation after decision-making, and ambivalent attitude and the difficult level of decision-making had conflicting dual effects on self-evaluation after the decision-making as a result of the separation effect of uncertainty. When negative results were obtained, compared to individuals with low decision-making difficulty level, ambivalent attitudes of those with high decision-making difficulty level had a positive effect on self-evaluation after decision-making through uncertainty; when positive results were obtained, compared to individuals with high decision-making difficulty level, ambivalent attitudes of individuals with low decision-making difficulty level had a positive effect on self-evaluation after decision-making through uncertainty.

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    Negativity bias in emergent online events: Occurrence and manifestation
    ZHANG Mei, DING Shuheng, LIU Guofang, XU Yazhen, FU Xinyuan, ZHANG Wei, XIN Ziqiang
    2021, 53 (12):  1361-1375.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01361
    Abstract ( 265 )   HTML ( 23 )  
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    In the generation and dissemination of network emergencies, people tend to pay more attention to the processing and transmission of negative information, and have a negative bias. According to the characteristics of the brewing, outbreak and spread stages of events, this study constructs a psychological mechanism model, and tests the emergence and development of negative bias in information content, information processing and information transmission through three studies. The results show that negative bias is generated not only in the source discourse of network emergencies, but also in the process of individual information processing and interpersonal information transmission, which is manifested in the better memory effect and higher discrimination of individuals on negative words, as well as the selective transmission of negative information and negative interpretation of fuzzy information by netizens. The current research is conducive to understanding the regular pattern of information dissemination of network emergencies, scientifically coping with public opinion crisis and innovating network governance.

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    Does distrust motivate or discourage employees? The double-edged sword effect of feeling ability-distrusted by supervisors
    LU Hailing, YANG Yang, WANG Yongli, ZHANG Xin, TAN Ling
    2021, 53 (12):  1376-1392.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01376
    Abstract ( 252 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    Feeling ability-distrusted by supervisors is an important part of trust research. Previous research has revealed that feeling ability-distrusted by supervisors is detrimental to employees’ self-concept. Nevertheless, this prevailing assumption leaves our understandings of trust incomplete. Traditional Chinese management practice (e.g., “Jijiangfa”) has suggested that supervisors’ distrust may encourage employees to prove themselves. To address this question, drawing from self-evaluation and psychological reactance theories, we examine the effects of feeling ability-distrusted by supervisors on employees’ self-concept through two field studies and an experiment. Results showed that when perceived supervisor competence was high, feeling ability-distrusted by supervisors was negatively associated with job self-efficacy, which in turn, decreased employee work effort and job performance; when perceived supervisor competence was low, feeling ability-distrusted by supervisors was positively associated with employee’s desire to prove their abilities, which in turn increased employee work effort and job performance.

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    Theory and History of Psychology
    The meaning of the body: Enactive approach to emotion
    YE Haosheng, SU Jiajia, SU Dequan
    2021, 53 (12):  1393-1404.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01393
    Abstract ( 327 )   HTML ( 30 )  
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    The emotion theory of enactivism looks at the dynamic function of emotion from the perspective of “sense-making”, and advocates that emotion and cognition are intertwined and closely related to the bodily activities of organisms adapting to the environment. Emotion is the emotion of the body, and the body is the body in emotional experience. The body plays a constitutive role in emotional experience. According to this view, emotion is a positive action tendency, which is an embodied action based on understanding the meaning of environment. Emotion does not occur in the skull of an organism, but in the interaction and coupling of brain, body and environment. Because cognition and emotion are unified in the activities of organism sense-making from the perspective of enactivism, the 4E attribute of cognition must also be reflected in emotion, which makes emotion and affection also have the characteristics of embodiment, embedding, extension and enaction. The enactive theory of emotion provides a new perspective for understanding emotion and then the essence of consciousness.

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