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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    25 January 2022, Volume 54 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    Emotional bias of trait anxiety on pre-attentive processing of facial expressions: ERP investigation
    LI Wanyue, LIU Shen, HAN Shangfeng, ZHANG Lin, XU Qiang
    2022, 54 (1):  1-11.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00001
    Abstract ( 574 )   HTML ( 57 )  
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    In order to explore the processing mode of emotional stimuli in the pre-attentive stage of people with high trait anxiety and clarify their emotional bias characteristics, this study used the deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm to explore the influence of trait anxiety on the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. The results showed that for the low trait anxiety group, the early EMMN induced by sad faces was significantly larger than that induced by happy faces, while for the high trait anxiety group, the early EMMN induced by happy and sad faces was not significantly different from each other. Moreover, the EMMN amplitude of happy faces in high trait anxiety group was significantly larger than that in low trait anxiety group. The results show that personality traits are an important factor affecting the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. Different from ordinary participants, people with high trait anxiety have similar processing patterns for happy and sad faces in the pre-attentive stage, which may make it difficult for them to effectively distinguish happy and sad faces.

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    The recognition of social intentions based on the information of minimizing costs: EEG and behavioral evidences
    LIN Jing, HUANGLIANG Jiecheng, HE Yunfeng, DUAN Jipeng, YIN Jun
    2022, 54 (1):  12-24.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00012
    Abstract ( 178 )   HTML ( 12 )  
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    Different from previous studies which focused on how to identify object-directed intention (actions target physical objects but do not involve others), the current study explores how people identify social intentions (actions target social entities to influence each other’s interaction behavior). Based on the analysis that two interactive agents should follow the utility maximization at the overall level, it is proposed that when the cost required by A to assist B to achieve the target is less than the cost required by B to achieve the target alone (referred to as minimization cost information for short), it can be identified as having social intentions. By setting a fence in front of B, the minimization cost information was manipulated, and the EEG μ suppression degree indicating different intention types and sensitivity (discrimination) to different changes were taken as indicators to test the hypothesis. The results showed that, compared with the control condition of object-directed intention (that is, A placed the target apple in front of the Stone), when A placed the target apple in front of B, which was blocked by the fence, its action can reduce the action cost for B to acquire the apple alone (i.e., when the minimization cost condition was met, the degree of μ suppression was higher (Experiment 1)) and the discrimination against structural changes (exchange of agents acting the same role in two animations) was stronger, but the discrimination against role swap (exchange of roles of two agents in a certain animation) was weaker (Experiment 3a); however, when the fence was absent, although A’s movement path was the same as that of Experiment 1, the cost for A to place the apple in front of B was greater than the cost for B to obtain the apple itself (i.e., it did not meet the minimization cost conditions, the difference in μ suppression between conditions disappeared (Experiment 2), and the discrimination of changes in different movement modes was equivalent (Experiment 3b)). In view of the fact that the μ suppression induced by social intentions is stronger than that induced by object- directed intention and it is easier for people to identify structural changes between two agents with social intentions, but insensitive to role swap, the above results revealed that whether the behaviors of the two individuals satisfy minimization cost affects people’s recognition of action intentions and supports the view that minimization cost information is a clue to social intentions recognition.

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    Relationship between depression and cognitive reappraisal in 8-12 years old children: the mediating role of attention bias toward sad expression
    ZHANG Ni, LIU Wen, LIU Fang, GUO Xin
    2022, 54 (1):  25-39.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00025
    Abstract ( 352 )   HTML ( 37 )  
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    To explore the relationship between depression and cognitive reappraisal emotion regulation strategies of school-age children aged 8-12 years and its mechanism. Study 1: Questionnaire and behavioral experiment were used to investigate the effect of children's depression on the tendency and ability to use cognitive reappraisal. In Study 2, combined with eye movement techniques, the mediating role of attention bias to emotional information in the relationship between children's depression and cognitive reappraisal was investigated. The results showed that: (1) there was a significant negative correlation between depression and children's cognitive reappraisal tendency; (2) depression had a significant impact on the reappraisal effect of children's downward regulation of negative emotions; (3) difficulties in disengaging attention from sad faces mediated the association between depression and cognitive reappraisal tendency.

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    The causal mechanism between envy and subjective well-being: Based on a longitudinal study and a diary method
    XIANG Yanhui, HE Jiali, LI Qingyin
    2022, 54 (1):  40-53.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00040
    Abstract ( 343 )   HTML ( 32 )  
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    The pursuit of happiness is the eternal theme of mankind. Although there are many factors that affect happiness, social comparison is the most common one. Based on the perspective of social comparison theory, this paper explores the causal mechanism of envy and well-being, which are the typical emotions in upward social comparison, and establishes the theoretical model of envy and general SWB (Subjective Well-being) factor for the first time. In Study 1, 290 participants were followed twice (T1 and T2) for one year to explore the relationship between trait envy and the subjective well-being bi-factor model. The results showed that: (1) T1 trait envy significantly positively predicted the Negative Affect (NA) and SWB factor of T2, and negatively predicted the Positive Affect (PA) and Life Satisfaction (LS) of T2; (2) the general SWB factor of T1 negatively predicted the trait envy of T2. In Study 2, a further 14 days diary study of 178 participants found that daily envy was only a positive predictor of NA in subjective well-being. Based on the theory of social comparison, the complex causal mechanism between envy and subjective well-being (PA, NA and LS) is revealed in a multi-methodological perspective for the first time. What’s more, it also puts forward the circulation model of envy and general SWB Factor for the first time, which provides a new way to expand, understand, and reappraise the social foundation of SWB from the perspective of social comparison theory.

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    How ritual actions, symbolic meanings, and positive emotions enhance perceived control: A dual path way mechanism
    YIN Keli, LAN Miaosen, LI Hui, ZHAO Ziwen
    2022, 54 (1):  54-65.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00054
    Abstract ( 262 )   HTML ( 11 )  
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    Taking “Guozhuang worship”, a traditional ritual of Pumi people in China, as an example, this study explored the effects of ritual actions, symbolic meanings, and positive emotions on the perceived control of adolescents and adults in Pumi people by using the methods of recall task and creating novel rituals. The results showed that adolescents who were familiar with the actions, symbolism, or more emotional experiences of the Guozhuang worship had a stronger perceived control. The study concluded that there is a dual path way mechanism in the influence of ritual actions and symbolic meaning on peoples’ perceived control. Ritual actions directly enhance perceived control, while symbolic meaning enhances perceived control through the full mediation of positive emotions. The relationship between symbolic meaning and perceived control is also variant in different ritual subjects. Praying for blessing indirectly enhances adolescents' perceived control through positive emotions, while expressing gratitude indirectly enhances adults' perceived control through positive emotions. The results have important implications for exploring the effects of ritual actions, symbolic meanings, and positive emotions on the individual’s perceived control.

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    Rules can maintain harmony? The influence of team pro-social rule breaking climate on team performance from the perspective of harmony management
    CAI Yahua, CHENG Jialin, LI Jinsong
    2022, 54 (1):  66-77.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00066
    Abstract ( 242 )   HTML ( 11 )  
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    In Chinese organizations, it is not uncommon that employees deviate from established rules in order to help others or to enhance work efficiency. Accordingly, such pro-social rule breaking (PSRB) has attracted strong and increasing research attention. However, while scholars have studied the antecedents and outcomes of PSRB at the individual level, no relevant research has explored the notion of team PSRB climate and its effects on team outcomes. By building on harmony management theory, our study proposes and tests a mediated moderation model that explored when and why team PSRB climate influences team performance.
    To test our hypotheses, we conducted a three-wave field study from three major construction companies in China. All the data were collected on-site through paper and pencil surveys. At each time point, three researchers visited the companies and distributed the questionnaires to the team leaders and their subordinates. The participants completed the surveys and placed them in sealed envelopes, which were then collected by the research team. All participants received a small gift in exchange for their participation. We received complete responses from 74 team leaders and their 334 subordinates.
    The results provided support for our theoretical model and showed that (1) the interaction between team PSRB climate and task interdependence significantly predicted team harmony, such that the negative relationship between team PSRB climate and team harmony was stronger when task interdependence was high rather than low; (2) team harmony was significantly positively related to team performance; (3) team harmony mediated the interactive effect of team PSRB climate and task interdependence on team performance, such that the indirect effect was negative when task interdependence was high.
    In summary, our study makes three key contributions. First, we extend the literature by conceptualizing PSRB at the team level and by describing the theoretical foundations for the emergence of team PSRB climate. Specifically, we argue that a team’s PSRB climate develops through processes of social interaction as team members observe, communicate, and share their PSRB experiences. Second, we provide novel insights into the mechanisms through which team PSRB climate influences team performance. Our results suggest that team harmony plays an important role for the effects of team PSRB climate. Third, we identify an important boundary condition for the effects of team PSRB climate. Specifically, our results indicate that it is crucial to consider the moderating effect of task interdependence to yield a more complete and accurate understanding of whether and when teams will experience more or less disharmony as a result of their PSRB climate.

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    The effect of environmental disorderliness on variety seeking behavior and its mechanism
    WANG Yan, JIANG Jing
    2022, 54 (1):  78-90.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00078
    Abstract ( 331 )   HTML ( 23 )  
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    Environmental disorderliness resulting from product abundance and excessiveness has become ubiquitous and cannot be avoided. However, the research on the influence of environmental disorderliness on consumers' product choices is limited, and this paper attempts to fill in this gap. Specifically, this paper innovatively proposes that environmental disorderliness has a positive effect on consumers’ variety-seeking behavior, which is sequentially mediated by self-efficacy threat and perceived preference uncertainty. Through one pilot and four experiments, this paper finds that environmental disorder can enhance variety-seeking behavior in real environment, offline shopping environment, working environment, and online product display situation. Disorderly environment will threaten consumers' self-efficacy, which further increases their perceived uncertainty about future preference, and consequently bolsters their variety-seeking tendencies in the subsequent consumption choices.

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