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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    The influence of concreteness on emotional nouns valence processing: An ERP study
    LUO Wenbo, QI Zhengyang
    2022, 54 (2):  111-121.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00111
    Abstract ( 431 )   HTML ( 35 )  
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    Concreteness and abstractness are the poles of the same characteristic of the lexicon, and they are important factors that directly affect word processing. In this study, we employed the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm and EEG technology to explore the influence of concreteness on the emotional nouns processing within limited attention resources. The results showed that ERP components in the early and late stages of noun processing were modulated by valence, and emotional nouns elicited larger N170 and LPC amplitudes than neutral nouns. In addition, ERP components in the early and late stages of noun processing were modulated by concreteness, and concrete nouns elicited larger N170 and LPC amplitudes than abstract nouns. Concreteness affected the late stage of emotional noun processing. LPC amplitude distinguished abstract words with different emotional valence, while it only differentiated emotional concrete nouns from non-emotional concrete nouns, which indicated that abstract nouns may carry more emotional information than concrete nouns, reflecting elaborate emotion processing.

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    Effects of emotion on intertemporal decision-making: Explanation from the single dimension priority model
    JIANG Yuan-Ping, JIANG Cheng-Ming, HU Tian-Yi, SUN Hong-Yue
    2022, 54 (2):  122-140.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00122
    Abstract ( 247 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    Studies on intertemporal decision-making show that there are significant differences in intertemporal decision-making behavior between positive emotion and negative emotion. From the perspective of single dimension priority model, this study reveals the process mechanism of the influence of emotion on intertemporal decision-making. In Experiment 1, by inducing positive and negative emotions of the participants, we found that the time discount rate of the participants under positive emotions was lower, and they had a stronger tendency to choose delayed options. In Experiment 2, the “visual analog scale task” was used to measure the comparison of inter-dimensional differences in intertemporal decision-making, and to test the explanatory effect of single dimension priority model on intertemporal decision-making. The results showed that the comparison of differences between dimensions plays a mediating role in the influence of emotion on intertemporal decision-making. Experiments 3a and 3b used time and money priming strategies to manipulate the comparison of inter-dimensional differences, and verified the explanatory effect of the single dimension priority model again. The results showed that the effect of emotion on intertemporal decision-making disappears with the initiation of time and money, which further supports the mediating effect of difference comparison between dimensions. From the perspective of decision-making process, this study reveals the psychological mechanism of emotion affecting intertemporal decision-making, and further adds supporting evidence for the explanation of intertemporal decision-making behavior by single dimension priority model.

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    The interplay of maternal sensitivity and infant temperament and attention in predicting toddlers’ executive function: A two-year longitudinal study
    ZHANG Qing, WANG Zhengyan
    2022, 54 (2):  141-153.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00141
    Abstract ( 320 )   HTML ( 22 )  
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    To explore the early mechanisms behind the development of execution function (EF) in toddlerhood from an intrinsic and environmental perspective, 163 mother-child dyads were invited to the laboratory for assessments. At 6 months, we evaluated maternal sensitivity by observing the free, interactive process between mother and children. Infant temperament was assessed by the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised-Short Form (IBQR-SF) reported by the mother. And infant attention was assessed by a Peak Look Duration task at six months. At 24 months, toddlers' EF was measured by a battery of EF tasks, including Multilocation Search, Shape Stroop, Reverse Categorization, and Delay of Gratification tasks. The results indicated that: (1) Peak look duration could predict working memory task and Delay of Gratification task performance at 24 months. (2) High levels of maternal sensitivity significantly predicted better EF performance among children with low levels of surgency in infancy. However, there was no link between maternal sensitivity and EF among children with medium-to-high levels of surgency in infancy. (3) Maternal sensitivity positively predicted EF performance among children with high levels of peak look duration in infancy. However, maternal sensitivity negatively predicted EF performance among children with low levels of peak look duration in infancy. Overall, our findings indicate the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the development of EF in toddlers and provide key insights into parenting.

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    The relationship between adolescents’ resilience and their malevolent creative behaviors
    WANG Dan, WANG Dianhui, CHEN Wenfeng
    2022, 54 (2):  154-167.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00154
    Abstract ( 433 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    Malevolent creativity is distinguished from general creativity due to its “harmfulness”. Given that positive personality traits (e.g., resilience) may promote general creativity but inhibit malevolence, it is unclear what the dominant role of resilience in malevolent creativity is. To tackle this issue, two studies were conducted with the hypothesis that higher resilience may predict less malevolent creativity via the weakened malevolence. A moderated mediation model was further proposed to investigate the roles of coping styles and stress in the relationship between adolescents’ resilience and their malevolent creative behaviors. The results showed that: 1) The resilience was negatively correlated with their malevolent creativity behavior; 2) Coping styles played a complete mediating role in the relationship between resilience and malevolent creativity; 3) The mediating effect of positive coping was moderated by stress where stressful situations weakened the inhibitory effect of positive coping on malevolent creativity. These results indicate that cultivating the resilience of young people will resist the adverse effects of stressful situations, and it is necessary to guide the development of their creative ability.

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    Effects of vulnerable personality traits of PTSD, working memory abilities and peritraumatic cognitive processing on analogue traumatic flashbacks
    WANG Ming, SUN Qiwu, LIU Jing, REN Zhihong, JIANG Guangrong
    2022, 54 (2):  168-181.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00168
    Abstract ( 267 )   HTML ( 14 )  
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    Based on the paradigm of analogue trauma, this study aimed to examine the effects of vulnerable personality traits of PTSD (trait anxiety, trait dissociation and neuroticism), working memory abilities (attentional control and working memory capacity) and peritraumatic cognitive processing (data-driven processing and conceptual processing) on flashbacks in different periods after analogue trauma. Road traffic accidents films were applied as analogue trauma in 159 healthy college students. Structural equation model (SEM) was used for data analyses. Results showed that: (1) data-driven processing positively predicted the number, vividness, distress level of all three kinds of flashbacks in different periods (i.e., immediate, one-week and triggered) and one-week frequency of intrusion; (2) neuroticism positively predicted distress level of triggered flashback, while attentional control and working memory capacity negatively predicted one-week frequency of intrusion; (3) conceptual processing played a mediating role between attentional control and distress level of immediate flashback. These findings suggest that data-driven processing is the main factor influencing flashbacks in different periods after trauma; conceptual processing mainly affects the early acute stress response, while attentional control functions as a protective factor; neuroticism and working memory ability have long-term effects on flashback, and working memory ability serves as a protective factor.

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    How and when does occupational stigma promote intent to leave? The mediation effect of family implicated stigma and the moderating effect of family involvement
    JI Hao, YAN Jin, GUO Weixiao
    2022, 54 (2):  182-191.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00182
    Abstract ( 233 )   HTML ( 24 )  
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    Occupational stigma exerts an important influence on employees' work attitude and behavior. Previous studies explain the role of occupational stigma from the perspective of individual occupational identity, ignoring the multiple attributes of individual identity. Based on the identity boundary theory, this study proposes that occupational stigma will influence employees' intent to leave through the mechanism of family implicated stigma. Moreover, the strength of this mechanism depends on the degree of family involvement. Through three-wave survey with a sample of 384 employees across various occupations, this study found that family involvement moderated the mediating role of family implicated stigma between occupational stigma and intent to leave. When the level of individuals' family involvement was high, this mediating effect was stronger. When the level of family involvement was low, the mediating effect was weaker. This study extends research on occupational stigma by indicating and testing the new mechanism of the effect of occupational stigma. This study also has several implications for managerial practices.

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    Does male beauty really work: The impact of male endorsements on female consumers’ evaluation of female-gender-imaged product
    WANG Lili, DONG Menglu
    2022, 54 (2):  192-204.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00192
    Abstract ( 389 )   HTML ( 15 )  
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    Nowadays, using male spokespersons to endorse female-gender-imaged products has become an important advertising strategy and has penetrated into many female-gender-imaged products, especially thanks to celebrity influence. Does it really work? This paper aims to explore the relationship between the gender of female-gender-imaged product spokesperson and female consumer’s product evaluation. The results of four experiments show that when male spokespersons endorse female-gender-imaged products, female consumers would significantly downgrade their evaluation of the products compared to female spokespersons, which is mediated by a sense of gender-identity threat. In addition, when the participants are manipulated to increase gender affirmation, the main effect would be strengthened. This paper empirically examines the possible negative effect of male endorsement of female-gender-imaged products, expanding the downstream results of product gender attribute research based on gender-identity congruency theory.

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    Theory and History of Psychology
    Enlightenment values of Erich Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis
    GUO Yong-yu
    2022, 54 (2):  205-218.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00205
    Abstract ( 499 )  
    Erich Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis theory integrated the basic elements of European cultural traditions, including rationalism, humanism, critical attitude, and Messianism. His main work was to analyze the people in his community and the society in which he lived, with the standards of rationalism and humanism and the methods of psychoanalytic psychology, and to explore the ways of achieving the ideal society and realizing human development. The essence of this work is enlightenment. As a humanistic philosopher in the 20th century, Fromm inherited the unfinished business from those enlightenment philosophers in the 17th and 18th centuries and opened up a way to solve the dilemma of existence debated by his contemporaries, which, in turn, helped modern people overcome the inertia of human nature (i.e., regression toward a child state) and move toward rationality and independence. Grounded in the sense of insecurity that modern people experienced, Fromm deeply analyzed the pathological mechanisms of authoritarianism, nationalism, and consumerism, and suggested a social reform program based on the principles of humanism.
    As mentioned, Fromm profoundly analyzed the psychological mechanisms and the consequences that modern people relied on to alleviate or even eliminate their sense of insecurity by embracing authoritarianism, nationalism, and consumerism. Those behaviors and the underlying psychological constructs are seemingly becoming more serious nowadays, which highlights the depth and foresight of Fromm's theory. Inspired by his theory, researchers have conducted empirical studies on the relevant topics in Fromm's psychology. The findings of those works provide new evidence supporting Fromm's theory that the enlightenment values of his humanistic psychoanalysis are still practically significant for the solution to the challenges to human development in the 21st century.
    In his 40-year academic career, Fromm demonstrated how clearly and steadily his social values and personal academic missions were. Given his contributions, Fromm should be considered an enlightenment scholar. According to Immanuel Kant, enlightenment is defined as “man's emergence from his self-incurred immaturity.” It is so convenient to be immature! Enlightenment requires that we know what we don't know, discover what we haven't discovered, exercise the right to criticism without any constraint, endure the loneliness of independence, and then think of ourselves as mature and responsible human beings. Only if the perfectibility of man indicated by philosophers exists and only if we human beings have room to improve will enlightenment continue to play its role in people's self-realization and function as a premise of human development. Whether an independent person or human beings at large, self-growth never ends on one hand, and to overcome the regressive inertia of human nature never ends on the other. As long as this conflict exists, the task of enlightenment will never be completed, and, in this regard, Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis theory will continue to inspire people with its unique values and perspectives.
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