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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    25 March 2022, Volume 54 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    The effects of expectation on attention are dependent on whether expectation is on the target or on the distractor
    ZHOU Zinuan, CHEN Yanzhang, FU Shimin
    2022, 54 (3):  221-235.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00221
    Abstract ( 729 )   HTML ( 47 )  
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    Previous studies have shown that both expectation and attention mechanisms can promote perceptual behavior, but it is still controversial on how they interact together and it is unclear on the role of expected subject in their interaction. This research explores the different influences of target expectation and distractor expectation on spatial attention effect through four experiments, by using a paradigm combined spatial cueing and visual search. The results show that: (1) when a target is expected, expectation and attention influenced performance in an interactive way; (2) when a distractor is expected, expectation and attention influenced performance in an independent way; (3) when a target is expected, the change of task difficulty caused by increasing the number of stimuli doesn’t affect the relationship between expectation and attention. This shows that whether spatial expectation affects spatial attentional effect depends on the expected subject——when a target is expected, expectation and attention affect perceptual behavior interactively; when a distractor is expected, expectation and attention affect perceptual behavior independently. Moreover, the relationship between expectation and attention is not influenced by task difficulty.

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    An eyes region-specific cross-dimension covariation enhancement effect in facial configural and featural information change detection
    WANG Zhe, CHEN Yachun, LIU Wanpeng, SUN Yu-Hao P
    2022, 54 (3):  236-247.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00236
    Abstract ( 197 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    Multi-dimension information integration may occur in face perception on the regional scale. However, there is no specific experimental evidence so far. In this study, the single-dimension configural or featural information in eyes region or mouth region of a face was manipulated. In two experiments, we measured participants’ sensitivity to single-dimension changes or cross-dimension covariation and detected multi-dimension information integration on the face region level. We obtained three findings: (1) detecting the information change in eyes region for upright faces showed a “cross-dimension covariation enhancement effect”, referring to that the sensitivity to cross-dimension information covariation is significantly higher than that to any single-dimension information change; (2) “Cross-dimension covariation enhancement effect” only appears in eyes region in upright faces, not in eyes region in inverted faces, nor in the mouth region in upright or inverted faces, supporting face-region specificity and face-orientation specificity; (3) the sensitivity to single-dimension information changes in eyes region was not damaged by face inversion, but mouth region was. The above effect on the face-region level is not a universal information amount effect but is specific in facial information integration (only occurring in the eye region of an upright face). The results suggest that our understanding of the perceptual integration of multi-dimension information in the whole face could be extended to an eye-centered hierarchical multi-dimension information integration mechanism.

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    The effect of working memory load on feedback processing: Evidence from an event-related potentials (ERP) study
    JIA Shiwei, QI Congcong, CHEN Lele, REN Yanju
    2022, 54 (3):  248-258.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00248
    Abstract ( 356 )   HTML ( 25 )  
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    Processing of post behavioral feedback is of great significance in learning and environmental adaptation. However, it is unclear how working memory load (WM load) affects feedback processing. Using dual-task paradigm, three conditions of baseline, low WM load, and high WM load were set, and ERP technology was used to explore this issue. It was found that RewP (reward positivity) was sensitive to valence, but was not affected by WM load conditions; the difference waves between positive and negative feedback of theta oscillation were smaller under high WM load condition than under low WM load. The results support the view of hierarchical reinforcement learning theory of anterior cingulate cortex (HRL-ACC) on RewP and theta oscillation: RewP reflects feedback valence evaluation function, theta oscillation reflects cognitive control function, and WM load selectively affects ACC's cognitive control function but not the feedback valence evaluation function.

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    Development of discriminatory perception of junior high school students and influence on the cooperative behaviour of internal and external groups
    CUI Liying, BU Weiwei, GAO Quanli, WU Qin, HUANG Yao, HAN Xianguo, LUO Junlong
    2022, 54 (3):  259-269.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00259
    Abstract ( 321 )   HTML ( 28 )  
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    This article reveals the influence of discrimination perception on junior high school students' cooperative tendency and behavior through two studies. Study 1 uses a questionnaire method to conduct a one-year follow-up of 752 junior high school students, and uses latent variable cross-lagged structural equation model to analyze the longitudinal predictive relationship between discrimination perception and cooperative tendency; In study 2, the dynamic public goods dilemma experiment was used to investigate the influence of discrimination perception on cooperative behavior and the moderating effect of group type. The results show that: (1) there is a significant negative correlation between discrimination perception and cooperation tendency of junior high school students; T1 cooperation tendency can negatively predict T2 discrimination perception, and T2 discrimination perception can negatively predict T3 cooperation tendency; (2) In the first three rounds of investment ratio and contribution rate of public goods dilemma, the interaction effect between discrimination perception and group type is significant; In the last three rounds, only the main effect of discrimination perception on investment ratio and contribution rate, and the main effect of group type on contribution rate were found. The above results show that there is a vertical spiral effect between discrimination perception and cooperation tendency; The influence of discrimination perception on early cooperative behavior is regulated by group type, but with the extension of interaction time, the moderating effect disappears.

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    How does emotion shape aggressive behavior of violent offenders? An explanation based on emotion regulation theory
    LIU Yuping, ZHOU Bingtao, YANG Bo
    2022, 54 (3):  270-280.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00270
    Abstract ( 875 )   HTML ( 39 )  
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    Based on emotion regulation theory, the present study takes violent offenders as participants, and explores the role of emotion in the process of aggression through two studies. Study 1 used the adapted reaction-time competition paradigm to measure aggressive behavior. The results showed that emotion regulation motivation played a complete mediating role between negative affect and aggression, which confirmed that violent offenders would conduct aggressive behavior in order to regulate emotions in negative affectional states. Study 2 further showed that aggression can indeed play a role in regulating emotions. Specifically, in violent offenders, reactive aggression will be accompanied by the improvement of positive affect and the decline of negative affect; after proactive aggression, both positive and negative affect of individuals will increase. The present study confirmed the emotion regulation theory of aggression from two aspects: the expectation of aggression result and the actual effect of aggression, and put forward a new explanation for the role of emotion in the process of aggression. In the future research and practice, individuals should try to avoid adjusting emotions through aggression, and we can guide them to use reasonable ways to adjust emotions to reduce the occurrence of aggressive behavior.

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    Normative misperception in third-party punishment: An explanation from the perspective of belief in a just world
    YANG Shasha, CHEN Sijing
    2022, 54 (3):  281-299.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00281
    Abstract ( 377 )   HTML ( 27 )  
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    Punishment decisions might be guided by the norm of punishment; that is, people will implement their punishment according to the perceived prevalence of punishment in a similar social midst. However, there may be differences between an individual’s perception of norms and actual norms, which is called normative misperception. This article uses four experiments to explore the existence, the direction, and the cause of the normative misperception in third-party punishment, as well as its influence on people’s punitive behaviors.

    In Experiment 1, 449 participants were randomized in a four-group factorial design (punishing before estimating, estimating before punishing, punishing only, and estimating only). Experiment 1 consisted of 6 rounds of dictator game, in which participants made punishment decisions for 6 offers and/or estimated the average punishment level of other participants in each offer. Experiment 2 aimed to establish the causal relationship between the normative misperception and the punishment by directly manipulating the normative misperception. Specifically, 134 participants were randomly divided into the overestimation group and underestimation group. After receiving the feedbacks, participants made a punishment decision for an unfair offer and estimated the level of punishment of others in this offer. The purpose of Experiment 3 was to test the model of belief in a just world (BJW)-normative misperception-punishment, as well as the moderating effect of perceived social distance (PSD), with a within-participants design involving 164 participants. The procedure was similar to that of Experiment 1, except that we measured participants’ BJW and PSD before and after the game, respectively. In Experiment 4, we manipulated participants’ BJW through reading materials to test the causal relationship between BJW and the normative misperception.

    The results of Experiment 1 showed that there is an underestimated normative misperception in third-party punishment, which leads to a lower level of punishment. Experiment 2 proved that there exists a causal relationship between normative misperception and punishment by directly manipulating the independent variables. Experiment 3 demonstrated that BJW might be an underlying cause of the normative misperception, while PSD moderates the effect of BJW on the normative misperception. Finally, Experiment 4 showed the causal relationship between BJW and the normative misperception, providing additional evidence to the results of Experiment 3.

    To sum up, we have found evidence of normative misperception in third-party punishment through 4 experiments. This underestimated misperception might be affected by dual reference points: BJW (internal) and PSD (external). It also shows to a certain extent that third-party punishment is a norm-maintaining behavior rather than a gain-based strategic behavior.

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    Indulge in self-admiration or offer help to others? The influence of employee narcissism on prosocial behavior
    LIU WenXing, ZHU YangHao, BAI Yang, WANG HaiJiang, HAN Yi
    2022, 54 (3):  300-312.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00300
    Abstract ( 514 )   HTML ( 18 )  
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    By integrating the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept and trait activation theory, this study explores the mechanism of narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry on employees? prosocial behavior, and further analyzes the mediating role of employee relational approach motivation and relational avoidance motivation, and the moderating role of task interdependence. Through the analysis of 235 data from two-stage of paired employees and colleagues, the results show that: narcissistic admiration has a significant positive impact on employees? prosocial behavior, while narcissistic rivalry has a significant negative impact on employees? prosocial behavior. Relational approach motivation plays a mediating role between narcissism admiration and employees’ prosocial behavior, while relational avoidance motivation does not play a mediating role between narcissistic rivalry and employees’ prosocial behavior. Task interdependence not only positively moderates the direct effect of narcissism admiration on employees’ relational approach motivation, but also positively moderates the indirect effect of narcissism admiration on prosocial behavior through relational approach motivation.

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    Kawai vs. Whimsical: The influence of cuteness types of luxury brands on consumers' preferences
    FENG Wenting, XU Yuanping, HUANG Hai, WANG Tao
    2022, 54 (3):  313-330.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00313
    Abstract ( 675 )   HTML ( 44 )  
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    Luxury brands are keen to use cuteness styles to interact with consumers. Based on the theory of ideal self, this paper explores the mechanism and boundary conditions of cuteness style types’ influence on consumers’ preferences for luxury brands through four experiments. Experiment 1 showed that the cuteness styles of luxury brands (kindchenschema/whimsicality) could significantly affect consumers’ brand preferences, and verified the causal chain model of the main effect. Experiment 2 further clarified the boundary of the main effect, and the results showed that the influence of brand cuteness styles on consumers’ preferences only existed in the context of luxury brands. Experiment 3 explored the moderating effect of self-monitoring level on the main effect and found that for individuals with a low level of self-monitoring, the cuteness styles of luxury brands could hardly affect brand preferences in an effective way. Experiment 4 analyzed the moderating effect of individual development stages on the main effect. The results showed that for individuals in adulthood, the whimsical cuteness style could improve the individual’s preferences for luxury brands more than the kindchenschema cuteness style, and for individuals in childhood, the kindchenschema cuteness style was more likely to be favored than the whimsical cuteness style.

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