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    “Attraction of the like”: How does coworkers’ proactive behavior stimulate employees’ motivation and job performance?
    ZHANG Ying, DUAN Jinyun, WANG Fuxi, QU Jinzhao, PENG Xiongliang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (5): 516-528.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00516
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    Previous studies on proactivity usually focus on employees themselves, ignoring the important management practice and theoretical perspective that coworkers in teams or organizations will have an impact on employees’ behaviors. Therefore, based on social learning theory, this study explores the influence of coworkers’ proactive behavior on employees’ autonomous motivation and job performance, and the moderating effect of employees’ proactive personality. Through two studies, including a multi-time, leader-subordinate dyads questionnaire (Study 1) and a situational experiment (Study 2), this paper finds that coworkers’ proactive behavior can stimulate employees’ autonomous motivation, and then improve job performance. Moreover, employees’ proactive personality strengthens the positive effect of coworkers’ proactive behavior on employees’ autonomous motivation. This study not only shifts the existing research perspective on proactive behavior to coworkers in theory, but also provides practical guidance on how to better motivate employees.

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    The reciprocal relationship between peer victimization and internalizing problems in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
    LIAO Youguo, CHEN Jianwen, ZHANG Yan, PENG Cong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (7): 828-849.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00828
    Abstract295)   HTML12)    PDF (350KB)(534)      

    The purpose of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between peer victimization and internalizing problems in children and adolescents, and to test the applicability of interpersonal risk model, symptom-driven model and interaction model. A total of 89 articles were included, including 99 independent effects, involving 70,598 subjects. The results of random effects model analysis showed that peer victimization can predict internalizing problems (β = 0.097, 95% CI [0.083, 0.110]), and internalizing problems can also predict peer victimization (β = 0.119, 95% CI [0.104, 0.135]), results support the interaction model of peer victimization and internalizing problems. Among the predictors of internalizing problems, age and type of victimization had moderating effects, measurement interval, type of victimization, assessment method and type of problems played a moderating role in the prediction of internalizing problems to peer victimization, and neither Chinese nor Western culture type played a moderating role in the interaction model, all the moderating factors played similar roles in the bidirectional relationship between peer victimization and its subtypes of overt victimization, relational victimization and internalizing problems.

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    Developmental change and stability of social anxiety from toddlerhood to young adulthood: A three-level meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
    CHEN Bizhong, HUANG Xuan, NIU Gengfeng, SUN Xiaojun, CAI Zhihui
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2023, 55 (10): 1637-1652.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01637
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    An effect of menstrual cycle phase on episodic memory
    LI Jianhua, XIE Jiajia, ZHUANG Jin-Ying
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (5): 466-480.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00466
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    Evolutionary psychology research suggests that sex hormones may influence episodic memory, though the specific mechanisms of such an influence are not clear. In this study, we compared episodic memory performance in a What-Where-When (WWW) test (dependent variables) between the late follicular phase (late-FP) and mid-luteal phase (mid-LP) of the menstrual cycle (independent variable) in Experiment 1. We combined the WWW task with event-related potential (ERP) analysis in Experiment 2 to explore neurological mechanisms of menstrual cycle effects on episodic memory. In Experiment 1, 33 women with a stable menstrual cycle completed the WWW test in the late-FP and mid-LP (balanced order). The test included the O task (memorizing objects), P task (memorizing positions), OO task (memorizing objects and their presentation order), OP task (memorizing objects and their presentation position), and PO task (memorizing presentation order and position). PO task accuracy was significantly better in the mid-LP than in late-FP. In Experiment 2 (total N = 28, 16 with ERP data), frontal-lobe P300 and LPC amplitudes were found to be significantly larger during the mid-LP than in the late-FP. Sensitivity correlated directly with P300 amplitudes in right frontal electrodes. The ERP data suggested that good PO task performance in the mid-LP may benefit from enhanced cognitive control. In conclusion, the present study supports the possibility that the menstrual cycle may influence integration of spatial position and temporal sequence of objects in episodic memory, with memory performance being better during the mid-LP than during the late-FP. This effect on episodic memory may be due to enhanced cognitive control.

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    The impact of feedback on self-deception: Evidence from ERP
    FAN Wei, REN Mengmeng, ZHANG Wenjie, ZHONG Yiping
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (5): 481-496.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00481
    Abstract372)   HTML19)    PDF (3352KB)(412)      

    This study mainly discusses the influence of feedback type and feedback valence on self-deception. Experiment 1 uses prospective paradigm to explore the influence of different valence of fuzzy feedback on self-deception. The results show that compared with the group without answer prompt, the participant in the group with answer prompt significantly improve the prediction scores in the second stage of test 2 under the condition of positive fuzzy feedback (the degree of self-deception is aggravated). Experiment 2 explored the influence of accurate feedback with different valence on self-deception. The results showed that compared with the group without answer prompt, the participants in the group with answer prompt significantly reduced the prediction scores in the second stage of test 2 under negative accurate feedback conditions. Experiment 3 uses ERP technology to explore the internal mechanism of feedback type and feedback valence affecting self-deception. The results show that self-deception under fuzzy feedback conditions induces larger P2 components and smaller N1 and N400 components. The research found that self-deception has a greater effect in the frontal area. These results show that positive feedback may promote the generation of the self-deception, while negative feedback weakens the generation of the self-deception. Positive fuzzy feedback can further promote the generation of individual self-deception. These findings also indicate that the mechanism behind self-deception may be self-expansion.

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    Dialectical leadership behavior and its impact on firm innovation capability and performance: An exploration based on the Chinese culture
    WANG Hui, WANG Ying, JI Xiaode, JI Ming
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2023, 55 (3): 374-389.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00374
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    Under the framework of exploring the psychological and behavioral characteristics of Chinese people in coping with crises, this paper explores the conceptualization, structure, measurement, and uniqueness of dialectical leadership behavior, as well as discuss its influence on firm innovation capability and performance. This study found that dialectical leadership behavior, which stemmed from the traditional Chinese and Eastern Asia culture, has six dimensions: 1) timely adjusting, 2) individualized mentoring, 3) balancing between kindness and strictness, 4) weighing contradictions, 5) promoting coordination, and 6) holistically managing. Results from multiple studies show that: 1) dialectical leadership behavior is different from other existing leadership behavior concepts; 2) the mean level of Chinese top managers' dialectical leadership behavior is higher than the United States top managers' dialectical leadership behavior; 3) dialectical leadership behavior is positively related to firm innovation capability and performance. Moreover, we also identified firm strategic flexibility as the underlining mechanism in the above relationships. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and practical implications and future research direction.

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    The effects of leader power and status on employees’ voice behavior:The role of psychological safety
    RONG Yan, SUI Yang, JIANG Jing
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (5): 549-565.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00549
    Abstract306)   HTML24)    PDF (291KB)(365)      

    Through two experiments (Studies 1 and 2), and one multi-source, multi-wave field survey (Study 3), we found that leader power has a negative effect on subordinates’ voice behaviors; leader status has a positive effect on subordinates’ voice behaviors; leader status moderates the influence of leader power on subordinates' voice behaviors. When leader status is low, the negative effect of leader power on subordinates' voice behaviors is strengthened; otherwise, it is not significant. The moderating effect of leader status on power is transferred to subordinates' voice behavior through subordinates' psychological safety. Our findings shed light on how organizational hierarchy bases, such as power and status, influence subordinates' voice behavior.

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    Psychological richness increases behavioral intention to protect the environment
    WEI Xinni, YU Feng, PENG Kaiping, ZHONG Nian
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2023, 55 (8): 1330-1343.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01330
    Abstract308)   HTML29)    PDF (369KB)(339)      

    Understanding the relationship between happiness and positive factors and pro-environmental behavior offers important practical implications for sustainable social development. To investigate the positive antecedents of pro-environmental behavior, the current study focused on psychological richness and examined its influence on pro-environmental behavior as well as potential mechanisms and boundary conditions through 10 studies (N = 2979). It is shown that psychological richness facilitates engagement in sustainable activities (Studies 1.1-1.4) through an increased level of self-expansion (Studies 2.1-2.4). Furthermore, the effect of self-expansion on pro-environmental behavior was more significant when individuals viewed nature as smaller than themselves (Studies 3.1-3.2). These findings reveal the positive effect of happiness on pro-environmental behaviors and provide insights to promote people's participation in building a sustainable society.

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    The effect of spouse emotional intelligence on employee work engagement: The mediating role of employee life well-being and the moderating role of gender
    ZHENG Xiaoming, YU Yu, LIU Xin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (6): 646-664.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00646
    Abstract269)   HTML15)    PDF (1767KB)(335)      

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal influence of spouse emotional intelligence on employee work engagement from the family to the work domain. Based on the effort-recovery model and emotional intelligence literature, this paper proposes that spouse emotional intelligence can promote employee work engagement by enhancing employee life well-being. In addition, by integrating the gender role theory, this paper further discusses the moderating role of employee gender. We tested our hypotheses in two field studies and found that: Spouse emotional intelligence was positively related to employee life well-being; Employee life well-being was positively related to employee work engagement; Employee life well-being served as a mediator to transmit the effect of spouse emotional intelligence on employee work engagement; Moreover, employee gender moderated the relationship between spouse emotional intelligence and employee life well-being such that when employees were male, the positive effect of spouse emotional intelligence on employee life well-being was stronger; In addition, employee gender also moderated the indirect effect of spouse emotional intelligence on employee work engagement via employee life well-being. This study is among the first to establish a link between spouse EI and employee work engagement and supports the interpersonal effects of EI from the family to the work domain, which is of great significance in both theory and practice.

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    The influence of emotion regulation flexibility on negative emotions: Evidence from experience sampling
    WANG Xiaoqin, TAN Yafei, MENG Jie, LIU Yuan, WEI Dongtao, YANG Wenjing, QIU Jiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2023, 55 (2): 192-209.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00192
    Abstract602)   HTML31)    PDF (601KB)(335)      

    In our complex social environments, life situations are ever-changing. When dealing with these changes, there is no one-size-fits-all response or regulatory strategy suitable for all situations. Emotion regulation flexibility (ERF)—a framework for understanding individual differences in adaptive responding to ever-changing life contexts—emphasizes that individuals can flexibly deploy and adjust emotion regulation strategies according to specific characteristics of stressful situations in daily life. To achieve regulatory efficacy, it is important that one can utilize a balanced profile of ER strategies and select strategies that fit well with particular stressful situations. Specifically, using multiple ER strategies in daily life, rather than relying on only single-strategies, would indicate higher ERF. Additionally, based on leading models of strategy-situation fit, certain ER strategies are more appropriate for high versus low intensity stressful events. For instance, distraction involves with shielding oneself from negative stimuli and replacing them with irrelevant things, which may have a greater regulatory effect in high-intensity negative situations. Conversely, strategies such as reappraisal, which involves the processing of negative situations through deep cognitive change, may be more effective in lower-intensity negative situations and as a cornerstone of longer-term ER. We used the experience-sampling method (ESM) to quantify individual’s ERF; more specifically we assess participants for 1) having more or less balanced ER strategy profiles and 2) showing greater strategy-situation fit, in regard to the use of distraction versus reappraisal in the regulation of high-intensity versus low-intensity negative life events. To test the adaptive value of ERF on negative emotions and mental health, we investigated the influence of ERF on depressive and anxiety symptoms in two samples. We hypothesized that individuals with a more balanced profile of ER strategy use and a great level of strategy-situation fit would have higher levels of mental health, indicated by low levels of anxiety and depressive feelings.

    In sample 1, two hundred eight college students finished the ESM procedure (2859 beeps). Intensity of negative situations was measured by self-reported negative feelings for the time points where participants reported an adverse event. Simultaneously, we assessed participants’ use of two ER strategies (i.e., distraction and reappraisal). Considering the negative impact of COVID-19 on people’s daily life, we collected another sample (sample 2, 3462 beeps) with one hundred people who lived in Hubei Province, where Wuhan was in lockdown during the severe phase of COVID-19 (March 7-13, 2020). We measured intensity of negative situations (by averaging individuals’ negative feelings), as well as the use of two ER strategies at corresponding time points. After completing the ESM procedure, the participants were asked to fill out a series of emotional health questionnaires, including Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Spielberger State Anxiety Scale. Multilevel models were used to fit the covariation between the use of distraction versus reappraisal ER strategies and the intensity of negative events. Additionally, we used multiple level regression models to test whether high level of strategy-situation fit would result in lower negative feelings. To test whether a single-strategy preference would lead to higher levels of anxiety and depressive feelings compared to a multiple-strategy preference, latent profile analyses (LPA) was used.

    Results from the LPA indicated that there were five emotion regulation profiles in sample 1 (AIC = 3597.30, BIC = 3751.48, Entropy = 0.84, BLRT_p = 0.009) and six profiles in sample2 (AIC = 1595.19, BIC = 1754.71, Entropy = 0.95, BLRT_p = 0.001). In sample 1, results from One-way ANOVA showed that there were significant difference between five profiles in both depression (F (4, 206) = 5.44, p < 0.001) and anxiety (F (4, 206) = 5.68, p < 0.001) (See Figure 1 a-b). In sample 2, results from One-way ANOVA also showed that there were significant difference between six profiles in both depression (F (5, 95) = 2.74, p = 0.024) and anxiety (F (5, 95) = 2.98, p = 0.015) (See Figure 1 c-d). Specifically, individuals with preferences for rumination and express suppression reported higher levels depression and anxiety than individuals with a multi-strategy preference in two independent samples. In the multilevel models, results of the two independent samples both suggested that there were significant association between strategy-situation fit and depression and anxiety (Depression: Sample 1 [B = −0.01, p = 0.047, f 2 =0.03]; Sample 2 [B = −0.01, p = 0.017, f 2 = 0.03], see Table 1; Anxiety: Sample 1 [B = −0.00, p = 0.591]; Sample 2 [B = −0.01, p < 0.001, f 2 = 0.05], see Table 3). Furthermore, simple slope tests showed that individuals who were more inclined to use a higher level of distraction in response to high-intensity negative situations (e.g., adverse events or during COVID-19) and of reappraisal during low-intensity situations (i.e., high level of ERF) reported lower levels of depression (Sample 1 [B = 0.14, p = 0.003]; Sample 2 [B = 0.13, p < 0.001], See Table 2, Figure 2 a-b and Figure 3 a-b) and anxiety (Sample 1 [B = 0.04, p = 0.356]; Sample 2 [B = 0.26, p < 0.001] See Table 4, Figure 2 c-d and Figure 3 c-d). On the converse, individuals who tended to use more distraction in low intensity situations and more reappraisal in high intensity situations, (i.e., those showing lower ERF) reported a higher level of negative feelings.

    Together, our findings revealed a negative relationship between ERF and mental health problems in two samples, suggesting that having balanced ER profiles and flexibly deploying strategies in specific life contexts may have adaptive value in facilitating positive mental health. This work deepens our understanding of the interaction between ER strategies and situational demands, paving the way for future intervention research to help alleviate negative emotions associated with affective disorders or the experience of major traumatic events (such as epidemics, earthquakes, etc.).

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    Effects of interruption on work performance and the moderating effects of mental fatigue
    CHEN Yueyuan, FANG Weining, GUO Beiyuan, BAO Haifeng
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2023, 55 (1): 22-35.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00022
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    Task interruptions have an impact on performance after interruption. Exploring the cognitive mechanism of interruption's impact on performance under different fatigue conditions will help improve and develop the cognitive theory of interruption. In this study, combining behavioral data and ERPs results, we analyzed the effect of task interruption on performance and the moderating effect of mental fatigue by performing spatial 2-back tasks with interruption, suspension, and non-interruption under different mental fatigue conditions. The results showed that the amplitudes of P200 and P300 induced by interruption were significantly increased, the attention resources were decreased by interruption, and the irrelevant information of task interruption interfered with the working memory of the primary task. Moreover, the fatigue state further aggravated the negative effects of interruption on attention resources, working memory, and behavior performance. This study reveals the cognitive process of interruption and the mechanism underlying the influence of fatigue on interruption, and supports the memory for goals model.

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    The effects of the parent-child relationship and parental educational involvement on adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation: The roles of defeat and meaning in life
    HU Yiqiu, ZENG Zihao, PENG Liyi, WANG Hongcai, LIU Shuangjin, YANG Qin, FANG Xiaoyi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2023, 55 (1): 129-141.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00129
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    Because of their high incidence as well as high risk, adolescent psychological problems have been a constant pressing topic of governmental, psychological, sociological, and medical interest for research. Adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation not only have serious impacts on an individual social functioning, the burden of disease and economic pressures caused by self-harming incidents also make it vital to explore the factors affecting these behaviors and their developmental mechanisms. Ecosystem theory emphasizes the role and significance of the environment in the process of individual development, believing that individual development is the result of one’s interactions with the surrounding environment. As the innermost structure in the ecosystem, family is the environment that is most relevant for individuals, having the greatest influence. In this study, two important components of the parent-child subsystem parent-child relationship (child) and educational involvement (parent) were introduced to explore their combined effects on adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation from a binary perspective. The roles of defeat and sense of meaning in life were also investigated from an integrated motivational-volitional model perspective.

    The current study built a moderated mediation model exploring the combined effects of the parent-child relationship on adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation. A total of 930 middle school students (501 boys, 429 girls; average age = 15.24 ± 1.66 years) and their parents participated in this investigation. After given their informed consent, both parents and students completed the Short Form of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, the Four-item Depressive Symptom Index − Suicidality Subscale, the Parent-Child Intimacy Questionnaire, Parental Involvement in Primary School Children Education, the Defeat Scale, and the Chinese Meaning in Life Questionnaire. SPSS 26.0, AMOS 23.0, and Mplus 7.0 were used to analyze the data.

    The results indicated that: (1) Compared to individuals with a low parent-child relationship and low educational involvement, adolescents with a high parent-child relationship and high educational involvement had lower levels of defeat (S = −4.37, p< 0.001, 95% CI= [−5.57, −3.32]). Compared to adolescents with a low parent-child relationship and high educational involvement, individuals with a high parent-child relationship and low educational involvement showed lower levels of defeat (S = −3.40, p< 0.001, 95% CI = [−4.53, −2.21]);

    (2) Defeat partially mediated the relationship between the parent-child relationship and educational involvement and adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation (Direct effectsdepression = 0.22, 95% CI = [0.16, 0.27], indirect effectsdepression = 0.19, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.24]; Direct effectsself-injury = 0.14, 95% CI = [0.07, 0.20], indirect effectsself-injury = 0.10, 95% CI = [0.06, 0.14]; Direct effectssuicidal ideation = 0.21, 95% CI = [0.15, 0.28], indirect effectssuicidal ideation = 0.12, 95% CI = [0.08, 0.17]); (3) The second half of the mediation model was moderated by meaning in life, that is, with the increase of meaning in life, the effect of defeat on depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation gradually decreased.

    Based on ecosystem theory and integrated motivational-volitional model, and using innovative polynomial regression and response surface analysis, the current study investigated the influence of the parent-child relationship and parents' educational involvement on adolescent depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation, as well as the mediating and moderating effects of defeat and meaning in life. The results providing additional evidence for the relevant developmental theories of depression, self-injury, and suicidal ideation. This study also offers more insight into potential psychological crisis behavioral interventions.

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    The double-edged sword of employee authenticity in coworker interactions: The moderating role of relationship duration
    TANG Yipeng, JIA Rongwen, LONG Lirong, REN Zhiyu, PU Xiaoping
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (5): 529-548.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00529
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    It is generally believed that employee authenticity in the workplace helps employees to build good relationships with their coworkers. This study suggests that the effect of employee authenticity on coworker relationships is likely to be both positive and negative, and its effect depends on the relationship duration of employees and their coworkers. Based on social penetration theory and the literature of attribution, this study suggests that coworker suspicion and coworker trust are the key mediating mechanisms for employee authenticity to affect coworker relationships. To test the hypotheses of the theoretical model, two studies were conducted using a round-robin survey and an experimental method respectively. The results showed that under the condition of short relationship duration, employee authenticity triggers suspicion of coworkers while reducing coworkers’ trust, thus decreasing interpersonal help and increasing interpersonal exclusion. Under the condition of long relationship duration, employee authenticity helps to clarify coworker suspicion and enhance coworker trust, thus increasing interpersonal help and decreasing interpersonal exclusion. By introducing relationship duration as the moderator, this study found that the effect of employee authenticity on coworker relationships can be transformed from negative to positive after a sufficient period of relationship duration.

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    The impact of individualism on the efficiency of epidemic control and the underlying computational and psychological mechanisms
    HUANG Liqin, SUN Yin, LUO Siyang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (5): 497-515.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00497
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    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health crisis, and some countries experience difficulties in controlling the infection and mortality of COVID-19. Based on previous findings, we argue that individualistic cultural values are not conducive to the control of the epidemic. The results of the cross-cultural analysis showed that the individualistic cultural values positively predicted the number of deaths, deaths per million, and mortality of COVID-19, and the independent self-construct negatively predicted the efficiency of epidemic control in the early phase. The evolutionary game model and cross-cultural experiment further suggested that individualistic culture reduced the efficiency of overall epidemic control by enhancing individuals' fear of death in the context of the epidemic and increased individuals' tendency to violate epidemic control. Our results support the natural-behavioral-cultural co-evolution model, suggesting the impact of culture on the control of virus transmission and deaths during COVID-19, and provide an important scientific reference for countries to respond to global public health crises.

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    The influence of positive co-experience on teacher-student relationship: The mediating role of emotional bonding
    DING Yuting, ZHANG Chang, LI Ranran, DING Wenyu, ZHU Jing, LIU Wei, CHEN Ning
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2023, 55 (5): 726-739.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00726
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    Based on questionnaire survey, field experiment and laboratory experiment, this paper investigates the influence and mechanism of positive co-experience on adolescent teacher-student relationship. The results show that: (1) positive co-experiences positively affect teacher-student relationship, and different types of experiences (recall, imagination, example) are prominent promoting effect; (2) Positive emotional bonding plays a stable mediating role in the influence of positive co-experiences on teacher-student relationship. This study preliminarily proposed the “co-experience relationship effect model”, which promotes the research on the influence mechanism of teacher-student relationship, and has good ecological validity and practical educational value.

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    The effect of task relevance on serial dependence in numerosity
    LIU Yujie, LIU Chenmiao, ZHOU Liqin, ZHOU Ke
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2024, 56 (3): 255-267.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00255
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    Accept or change your fate: Exploring the Golem effect and underdog effect of underdog expectations
    MA Jun, ZHU Mengting
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2023, 55 (6): 1029-1048.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01029
    Abstract345)   HTML12)    PDF (617KB)(283)      

    In organizations, some employees are heralded as rising stars, whilst others are considered underdogs with no prospects. Scholars define individuals’ perceptions that others view them as unlikely to succeed as underdog expectation. The traditional view indicates that when individuals experience underdog expectations from others, they will reduce their subsequent performance through a sense of self-efficacy. This phenomenon, in which one’s performance is manipulated by someone else’s negative assessment, is also known as the Golem effect. Indeed, some studies have suggested that underdog expectations can enhance their desire to prove others wrong to improve performance. However, such studies have only focused on the influence of underdog expectations on employee behavior as social-situation cues but have disregarded its interaction with individuals’ traits. By integrating the preceding arguments, we proposed a comprehensive model based on trait activation theory, which examines the Golem and underdog effects. Specifically, under the moderating effect of underdog expectations, employees with fixed mindsets have a negative impact on subsequent task performance through feedback- avoiding behavior. Meanwhile, employees with growth mindsets have a positive impact on subsequent task performance by proving others wrong. The task context (task focus vs. future focus) plays a role in inhibiting and amplifying the two interactions.

    This study aimed to explore the reasons why employees who are trapped in underdog expectations become a Golem manipulated by fate and how to counter strike and become an underdog in the workplace. This study constructed a three-term interaction model of nested moderated mediation model. Three studies were designed to explore the internal and intervention mechanisms of the Golem and underdog effects activated by underdog expectations. In the first study, the existence of three interactions was initially examined through a multi-source, multi-point questionnaire of 341 employees. To test the stability of the three interactions and the extensibility of the research conclusions in different groups, a second multi-source and multi-time questionnaire survey involving 650 employees and a field study based on a quasi-experiment were designed for retesting. Regression analysis, bootstrap method and Johnson?Neyman (J?N) technology were used to analyse the questionnaire data to examine the moderated mediation effects of the three-term interaction. T-tests were used to analyse data from the field study.

    The analyses of the study showed the following results. (1) The interaction between underdog expectations and fixed mindsets positively affects subsequent task performance through feedback-avoiding behavior. (2) The interaction between underdog expectations and growth mindsets positively affects subsequent task performance through the desire to prove others wrong. (3) Lastly, task focus reduces the positive moderating effect of underdog expectations on fixed mindsets, and future focus strengthens the positive moderating effect of underdog expectations on growth mindsets.

    Findings of our research have several theoretical and practical implications. This study revealed the causes of the Golem and underdog effects, thereby enriching and expanding the research on implicit theory. It showed that fixed and growth mindsets have different paths in processing negative information, which is helpful in integrating the research on underdog and topdog employees. It also provided a theoretical explanation and transformation idea for the emergence and popularity of the depressed culture represented by the lie down and Buddha-like mindsets.

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    The influence of language and context on sensorimotor simulation of concrete concepts
    SHI Rubin, XIE Jiushu, YANG Mengqing, WANG Ruiming
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (6): 583-594.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00583
    Abstract471)   HTML53)    PDF (229KB)(280)      

    Sensorimotor simulation in concrete concept processing is the core process of concept representation. In our study, the influence of linguistic factors (language type: first language and second language) and situational factors (perceptual situation: spatial perceptual situation and semantic perceptual situation) on sensorimotor simulation in concrete concept processing were investigated.
    In Experiment 1, the semantic relevance judgment paradigm is used to test whether sensorimotor simulation is involved in the second language processing and whether there is any difference between the first language and second language processing. The results of Experiment 1 show that sensorimotor simulation has participated in the second language processing. However, there is an accuracy advantage in the sensorimotor simulation in the first language. In Experiment 2, two experiments are conducted to test the influence of the perceptual situation on sensorimotor simulation. Experiment 2a tests the influence of perceptual situations on sensorimotor simulation by changing the intensity of individual perception in the vertical spatial axis. The results show that the sensorimotor simulation was found in both strong and weak spatial perception. The effect of semantic processing level on perceptual motion simulation is tested in Experiment 2b. The experiment manipulates the level of semantic processing by using the semantic relevance judgment task and true-and-false word judgment task. The results show that sensorimotor simulation participates in the processing of concepts, while semantic situations did not modulate this effect. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual processing.
    The present study conducted two experiments to test the role of sensorimotor simulation in conceptual processing. Results found that sensorimotor simulation participates in the conceptual representation, supporting the perceptual symbol theory. Furthermore, sensorimotor simulation takes place in both Chinese and English. This finding extends the perceptual symbol theory. Finally, results found that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual representation and is not affected by spatial information and semantic processing.

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    The effects of marital quality on coparenting: A cross-level mediation analysis based on the common fate model
    LIU Yiting, FAN Jieqiong, CHEN Bin-Bin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (10): 1216-1233.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.01216
    Abstract180)   HTML27)    PDF (327KB)(267)      
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    Toddlers' anxiety predicts their creativity at the age of five: The chain mediation effects of general cognition and mastery motivation
    CHENG Tong, CHENG Nanhua, WANG Meifang, WANG Zhengyan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (7): 799-812.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00799
    Abstract387)   HTML18)    PDF (254KB)(260)      

    Early childhood anxiety is a common mental health problem that affects the development of the individual central executive function, which reflects the process of creative problem-solving. In this study, a longitudinal study was designed to explore the long-term effect of preschool children's anxiety on their creativity as well as the potential mechanism. Ninety-six families (42 boys and 54 Girls) from BEIJING participated in the study. At the age of 1 and 2, the mother filled in the Social Assessment Scale for children aged 12-36 months of Chinese version and the family Basic Information Questionnaire. The Bayley Scale for Infant and Child Development was used to assess children's general cognitive abilities at age 2; at age 3, mothers reported their children's mastery of motivation; and at age 5, the Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement was used to assess children's creativity. The results show that: (1) toddlers' anxiety (general anxiety and separation anxiety) can negatively predict their creativity at the age of 5; (2) general cognition and mastery motivation play an important role in linking toddlers' anxiety (general anxiety and separation anxiety) and preschoolers' creativity; (3) toddlers' general anxiety in early childhood can also have a negative effect on their creativity at 5 years old indirectly through their motivation.

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